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A legionellosis outbreak at an industrial site was investigated to identify and control the source. Cases were identified from disease notifications, workplace illness records, and from clinicians. Cases were interviewed for symptoms and risk factors and tested for legionellosis. Implicated environmental sources were sampled and tested for legionella. We identified six cases with Legionnaires’ disease and seven with Pontiac fever; all had been exposed to aerosols from the cooling towers on the site. Nine cases had evidence of infection with either Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 or Legionella longbeachae sg1; these organisms were also isolated from the cooling towers. There was 100% DNA sequence homology between cooling tower and clinical isolates of L. pneumophila sg1 using sequence-based typing analysis; no clinical L. longbeachae isolates were available to compare with environmental isolates. Routine monitoring of the towers prior to the outbreak failed to detect any legionella. Data from this outbreak indicate that L. pneumophila sg1 transmission occurred from the cooling towers; in addition, L. longbeachae transmission was suggested but remains unproven. L. longbeachae detection in cooling towers has not been previously reported in association with legionellosis outbreaks. Waterborne transmission should not be discounted in investigations for the source of L. longbeachae infection.
Hubble Space Telescope images of the nucleus of M31 show a double-peaked structure with the primary peak being offset from the center by approximately 0.5″. We observed the central 13″ of M31 in the J, H, and Ks passbands to determine the nuclear structure in the near-infrared. Observations were taken at the MMT Observatory, using a low-order adaptive optics system, FASTTRAC II (Gray et. al. 1995). The diffraction limit for the system is 0.25″ in K band. PSF images showed correction to 0.5″ FWHM. Uncorrected images showed the seeing to be about 1″. The images were deconvolved using several methods to check for consistency. We used Iterative-Blind Deconvolution, Richardson-Lucy, and Wiener filter algorithms, getting similar results for each. Measurements suggest the PSF in the deconvolved images is approximately 0.35″ FWHM.
Little is known about the relative extent of crime against people with
severe mental illness (SMI).
To assess the prevalence and impact of crime among people with SMI
compared with the general population.
A total of 361 psychiatric patients were interviewed using the national
crime survey questionnaire, and findings compared with those from 3138
general population controls participating in the contemporaneous national
Past-year crime was experienced by 40% of patients v.
14% of controls (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, 95% CI 2.0–3.8); and
violent assaults by 19% of patients v. 3% of controls
(adjusted OR = 5.3, 95% CI 3.1–8.8). Women with SMI had four-, ten- and
four-fold increases in the odds of experiencing domestic, community and
sexual violence, respectively. Victims with SMI were more likely to
report psychosocial morbidity following violence than victims from the
People with SMI are at greatly increased risk of crime and associated
morbidity. Violence prevention policies should be particularly focused on
people with SMI.
Domestic and sexual violence are significant public health problems but little is known about the extent to which men and women with severe mental illness (SMI) are at risk compared with the general population. We aimed to compare the prevalence and impact of violence against SMI patients and the general population.
Three hundred and three randomly recruited psychiatric patients, in contact with community services for ⩾1 year, were interviewed using the British Crime Survey domestic/sexual violence questionnaire. Prevalence and correlates of violence in this sample were compared with those from 22 606 general population controls participating in the contemporaneous 2011/12 national crime survey.
Past-year domestic violence was reported by 27% v. 9% of SMI and control women, respectively [odds ratio (OR) adjusted for socio-demographics, aOR 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7–4.0], and by 13% v. 5% of SMI and control men, respectively (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0–2.8). Past-year sexual violence was reported by 10% v. 2.0% of SMI and control women respectively (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.8). Family (non-partner) violence comprised a greater proportion of overall domestic violence among SMI than control victims (63% v. 35%, p < 0.01). Adulthood serious sexual assault led to attempted suicide more often among SMI than control female victims (53% v. 3.4%, p < 0.001).
Compared to the general population, patients with SMI are at substantially increased risk of domestic and sexual violence, with a relative excess of family violence and adverse health impact following victimization. Psychiatric services, and public health and criminal justice policies, need to address domestic and sexual violence in this at-risk group.
Three wt% each of Cs and Tc were mixed with the standard Synroc precursor
and the ceramic was formed by hot-pressing. Attempts were made to
incorporate the Tc as either metal or Tc 4+, using different
redox conditions in processing. Volatile losses of Tc during calcination
were < 0.1% in all cases. Short-term Tc leach rates when the Tc was
present as a metal alloy were in the order of 10−4 g/m /d at 90°C
with frequently changed water, and decreased with increasing leaching time.
The valence of the Tc was monitored by X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the
drying and calcination stages of the production. The general viability of
Synroc/glass composites for immobilising the Hanford HLW sludges is further
demonstrated by using further refinements of additive schemes for the
inactive “All-blend” formulation and initial studies using the U-containing
“All-blend” waste formulation.
Gas-filled capillary discharge waveguides are a commonly employed medium in laser–plasma interaction applications, such as the laser wakefield accelerator, because they can simultaneously guide high-power laser pulses while acting as the medium for acceleration. In this paper, the production of both straight and linearly tapered capillaries using a femtosecond laser micromachining technique is presented. A tapered capillary is shown to possess a smooth variation in diameter (from 305 μm to 183 μm) along its entire 40 mm length, which would lead to a longitudinal plasma density gradient, thereby dramatically improving the laser–plasma interaction efficiency in applications. Efficient guiding with up to 82% energy transmission of the fundamental Gaussian mode of a low intensity, 50 fs duration laser pulse is shown for both types of capillary waveguide.
The GMT experiment (Figure 1) was initiated in the summer of 1997 under the auspices of RWMC (Radioactive Waste Management Center, Japan). It is part of the experiments conducted within Phase V (1997-2002) of Nagra's Underground Rock Laboratory at Grimsel, in the Swiss Alps . The currents status and results from the site characterization activities and laboratory studies are presented. Future plans are also outlined.
Radioelement migration within a rock matrix under natural long-term conditions is a complex process controlled by various parameters. Pure physical parameters such as porosity, hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity are usually sufficient to describe transport in well-defined laboratory systems. In natural rock matrices transport is influenced by physical pore properties such as pore size distribution, connectivity, tortuosity, constrictivity and petrological and chemical nature and charge on the fluid-rock interface. The overall characterization of heterogeneous rock structures is needed for the accurate heterogeneous diffusion modeling.
Here we describe a method for the detection of μ-particles from uranium in cm-scale rock samples based on the analysis of the tracks formed in organic polymer, CR-39. On the other hand the uranium tracks were compared with the migration pathways and porosity distribution produced with the 14C-polymethylmethacrylate impregnation method (14C-PMMA). For analyzing mineral specific uranium occurrence and porosities the staining methods were used to produce the mineral map of the rock sample. Digital image analysis techniques were applied to the different cm-scale pictures of rock samples. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDS) were performed in order both to study the pore apertures of grain boundaries and fissures in greater detail and to detect the uranium phases.
The high uranium content was found to be congruent with the porous mineral phases; altered plagioclase and biotite grains, and the intra- and intergranular fissures detected with the 14C-PMMA technique. Plenty of microfractures transsecting potassium feldspar and quartz grains were filled with calcite together with precipitated uranium.
The effect of γ-radiation on the dissolution of candidate high-level waste glasses was investigated in potential disposal environments at 90°C. The media consisted of mixtures of Boom Clay, bentonite clay and cement with clay water. During the experiments the pH of Boom Clay decreased, probably mainly by radiolytical oxidation of pyrite. The addition of bentonite, cement and glass buffered the pH decrease. Under radiation the glass mass losses decreased, whereas the leach rate of soluble elements was not influenced or appeared to increase. This is explained through the radiolytical acidification, and possibly by bubble formation in the glass.