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A large outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease occurred at a California state prison in August 2015. We conducted environmental and epidemiological investigations to identify the most likely source of exposure and characterise morbidity. Sixty-four inmates had probable Legionnaires’ disease; 14 had laboratory-confirmed legionellosis. Thirteen (17%) inmates were hospitalised; there were no deaths. Ill inmates were more likely to be ⩾65 years old (P < 0.01), have the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P < 0.01), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.02), hepatitis C infection (P < 0.01), or end-stage liver disease (P < 0.01). The case-patients were in ten housing units throughout the prison grounds. All either resided in or were near the central clinical building (for appointments or yard time) during their incubation periods. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was cultured from three cooling towers on top of the central medical clinic (range, 880–1200 cfu/ml). An inadequate water management program, dense biofilm within the cooling towers, and high ambient temperatures preceding the outbreak created an ideal environment for Legionella sp. proliferation. All state prisons were directed to develop local operating procedures for maintaining their cooling towers and the state health department added a review of the maintenance plans to their environmental inspection protocol.
To determine the impact of total household decolonization with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine gluconate body wash on recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection among subjects with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection.
Three-arm nonmasked randomized controlled trial.
Five academic medical centers in Southeastern Pennsylvania.
Adults and children presenting to ambulatory care settings with community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection (ie, index cases) and their household members.
Enrolled households were randomized to 1 of 3 intervention groups: (1) education on routine hygiene measures, (2) education plus decolonization without reminders (intranasal mupirocin ointment twice daily for 7 days and chlorhexidine gluconate on the first and last day), or (3) education plus decolonization with reminders, where subjects received daily telephone call or text message reminders.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Owing to small numbers of recurrent infections, this analysis focused on time to clearance of colonization in the index case.
Of 223 households, 73 were randomized to education-only, 76 to decolonization without reminders, 74 to decolonization with reminders. There was no significant difference in time to clearance of colonization between the education-only and decolonization groups (log-rank P=.768). In secondary analyses, compliance with decolonization was associated with decreased time to clearance (P=.018).
Total household decolonization did not result in decreased time to clearance of MRSA colonization among adults and children with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection. However, subjects who were compliant with the protocol had more rapid clearance
To identify risk factors for recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization.
Prospective cohort study conducted from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012.
Five adult and pediatric academic medical centers.
Subjects (ie, index cases) who presented with acute community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection.
Index cases and all household members performed self-sampling for MRSA colonization every 2 weeks for 6 months. Clearance of colonization was defined as 2 consecutive sampling periods with negative surveillance cultures. Recurrent colonization was defined as any positive MRSA surveillance culture after clearance. Index cases with recurrent MRSA colonization were compared with those without recurrence on the basis of antibiotic exposure, household demographic characteristics, and presence of MRSA colonization in household members.
The study cohort comprised 195 index cases; recurrent MRSA colonization occurred in 85 (43.6%). Median time to recurrence was 53 days (interquartile range, 36–84 days). Treatment with clindamycin was associated with lower risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29–0.93). Higher percentage of household members younger than 18 was associated with increased risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00–1.02). The association between MRSA colonization in household members and recurrent colonization in index cases did not reach statistical significance in primary analyses.
A large proportion of patients initially presenting with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection will have recurrent colonization after clearance. The reduced rate of recurrent colonization associated with clindamycin may indicate a unique role for this antibiotic in the treatment of such infection.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(7):786–793
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Conditions at Dome C are known to be exceptional for astronomy. The seeing (above ∼30 m height), coherence time, and isoplanatic angle are all twice as good as at typical mid-latitude sites, while the water-vapour column, and the atmosphere and telescope thermal emission are all an order of magnitude better. These conditions enable a unique scientific capability for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents an overview of the optical and instrumentation suite for PILOT and its expected performance, a summary of the key science goals and observational approach for the facility, a discussion of the synergies between the science goals for PILOT and other telescopes, and a discussion of the future of Antarctic astronomy. Paper II and Paper III present details of the science projects divided, respectively, between the distant Universe (i.e. studies of first light, and the assembly and evolution of structure) and the nearby Universe (i.e. studies of Local Group galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Solar System).
We report on mid-infrared (600 – 4000 cm-1), refection-type optical-Hall effect measurements on epitaxial graphene grown on C-face silicon carbide and present Landau-level transition features detected at 1.5 K as a function of magnetic field up to 8 Tesla. The Landau-level transitions are detected in reflection configuration at oblique incidence for wavenumbers below, across and above the silicon carbide reststrahlen range. Small Landau-level transition features are enhanced across the silicon carbide reststrahlen range due to surface-guided wave coupling with the electronic Landau-level transitions in the graphene layer. We analyze the spectral and magnetic-field dependencies of the coupled resonances, and compare our findings with previously reported Landau-level transitions measured in transmission configuration [4,5,6]. Additional features resemble transitions previously assigned to bilayer inclusion , as well as graphite . We discuss a model description to account for the electromagnetic polarizability of the graphene layers, and which is sufficient for quantitative model calculation of the optical-Hall effect data.
Milk is a source of bioactive molecules with wide-ranging functions. Among these, the immune properties have been the best characterised. In recent years, it has become apparent that besides the immunoglobulins, milk also contains a range of minor immune-related proteins that collectively form a significant first line of defence against pathogens, acting both within the mammary gland itself as well as in the digestive tract of the suckling neonate. We have used proteomics technologies to characterise the repertoire of host-defence-related milk proteins in detail, revealing more than 100 distinct gene products in milk, of which at least 15 are known host-defence-related proteins. Those having intrinsic antimicrobial activity likely function as effector proteins of the local mucosal immune defence (e.g. defensins, cathelicidins and the calgranulins). Here, we focus on the activities and biological roles of the cathelicidins and mammary serum amyloid A. The function of the immune-related milk proteins that do not have intrinsic antimicrobial activity is also discussed, notably lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, RNase4, RNase5/angiogenin and cartilage-glycoprotein 39 kDa. Evidence is shown that at least some of these facilitate recognition of microbes, resulting in the activation of innate immune signalling pathways in cells associated with the mammary and/or gut mucosal surface. Finally, the contribution of the bacteria in milk to its functionality is discussed. These investigations are elucidating how an effective first line of defence is achieved in the bovine mammary gland and how milk contributes to optimal digestive function in the suckling calf. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the health benefits of milk, as well as to the development of high-value ingredients from milk.
Early work established that carcasses of deer, compared with other species, were leaner, yielded a greater proportion of ‘first class meat’, that venison had a beneficial fatty acid composition and was dark in colour (Blaxter et al., 1974). More recently, Fisher et al. (1998) and Stevenson-Barry (2000) have reviewed and identified potential important ‘quality’ parameters for venison. From these, the UK deer industry needs to identify a suite of measurements to define ‘quality’, to improve on the current subjective assessments of carcasses in commercial abattoirs and to help guide future production systems. The aim of this study was to identify suitable quality measurements to characterize UK venison.
On exposure to oxygen, venison discolours at a faster rate than lamb, beef or pork (Trout and Gutzke, 1995) and a short shelf life is a problem for meat retailers. Increasing antioxidants in meat through the diet, and the type of packaging system used, can substantially improve shelf life. This study determined the effects of supplemental vitamin E and packaging system on colour stability and fat rancidity in venison from red deer finished off grass or concentrates.
Consumer purchasing decisions are, to a large part, governed by the level and consistency of meat quality and there is a need to identify systems of production that deliver consistent lamb eating quality through the winter months that will restore retailer confidence in British lamb outside the main grazing season.. The Vipond et al. (2005) report on lamb eating quality highlighted the deterioration in lamb flavour post-Christmas and recommended that dietary effects be investigated with a specifically designed experiment.
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of several stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae (SNe) are presented. NIR spectra of these objects are quite rich, exhibiting a large number of emission features. Particularly important are strong lines of He I and C I, which probe the outermost ejecta and constrain the pre-collapse mass-loss. Interestingly, the SN 1998bw-like broad-line Type Ic SN 2002ap does not exhibit the strong C I features seen in other Type Ic SNe. NIR spectra also exhibit strong, relatively isolated lines of Mg I, Si I, Ca II, and O I that provide clues into the kinematics and mixing in the ejecta. Finally, late-time NIR spectra of two Type Ic events: SN 2000ew and SN 2002ap show strong first-overtone carbon monoxide (CO) emission, providing the first observational evidence that molecule formation may not only be common in Type II SNe, but perhaps in all core-collapse events.
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the study of supernovae (SNe), offering new insights into the kinematic, chemical, and evolutionary properties of these events. Here we present applications of NIR spectroscopy for the study of three stripped-envelope supernovae, the Type Ib SN 2001B, the Type Ic SN 2000ew and the broad-line Type Ic SN 2002ap. All of the data presented here were obtained using TIFKAM on the 2.4 m Hiltner telescope at MDM Observatory, except for the SN 2002ap data set which also includes spectra obtained at Lick Observatory, IRTF, and Subaru. The reduced spectra are presented in Figures 6.1–6.3.
Feeding lowland sheep on straw-based systems during pregnancy is practised on many livestock/arable farms. Simple mixes of molassed sugar beet feed and distillers dark grains have been cost effective supplements for March-lambing ewes fed straw and produced satisfactory ewe and lamb performance (Chapple et al., 1998 and 2001). An ensiled mix of pressed sugar beet pulp and dried maize distillers grains (Praize, Trident Feeds) has been fed as the sole diet for finishing lambs (Pattinson et al., 2001) but there is little information on feeding Praize to pregnant ewes. The objective of this study was to compare ewe and lamb performance when March-lambing ewes were fed on a straw-based system and supplemented with either a cereal/protein home-mix, Praize or one of two dried sugar beet pulp/protein mixes.
Electron microprobe analyses of prehnites from the Way Linggo low-sulphidation epithermal Au-Ag deposit of southern Sumatra, show that the mole fraction of octahedral Fe3+, expressed as Fe3+/(Fe3++AlVI), ranges from 0.0 to ~0.6, the higher values being among the most iron-rich reported for prehnite in a hydrothermal environment. Prehnites from a diabase sill in the Heber geothermal field of California have mole fractions of octahedral Fe3+ ranging from 0.03 to 0.3. The Way Linggo prehnites formed below 220°C, some 20–30°C lower than those at the Heber field; the lower crystallization temperatures perhaps enhanced the opportunity for Fe3+ to substitute in octahedral sites. In both occurrences, prehnite predates late-stage calcite, consistent with the need for waters depositing prehnite to have aCO2 <0.01 moles. At higher CO2 activities the stability field of calcite would swamp the range of aCa2+/aH+ values appropriate for crystallizing prehnite. Consequently, the presence of prehnite in a hydrothermal environment primarily indicates that degassing of the hydrothermal fluid in CO2 occurred prior to deposition.
Feeding of lowland sheep on straw-based systems during pregnancy and in early lactation has shown that ewe and lamb performance can be satisfactory, providing adequate compound supplementation is fed (Davies and Chapple, 1995). Whole barley and soya bean meal has been the standard ration. However, soya bean meal is imported and may not be fully traceable. Maize or barley distillers fed with beans could provide traceable protein to replace soya bean meal in sheep diets. Experiments with housed early-lambing ewes and ewes suckling twin lambs at grass have shown that traceable feeds, based on molassed sugar beet and either maize or barley distillers grains, can replace a barley/soya supplement when fed with straw based diets in late pregnancy or at grass (Chapple et al., 1999 and 2000). The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects on ewe and lamb performance of feeding sugar beet feeds with distillers grains and beans to March-lambing ewes on a straw-based system.
Feeding of lowland sheep on straw-based systems during pregnancy and in early lactation has shown that ewe and lamb performance can be satisfactory, providing adequate compound supplementation is fed (Davies and Chapple, 1995). Whole barley and soya bean meal has been the standard ration. However, soya bean meal is imported and not fully traceable. Experiments with January- and March-lambing ewes have shown that traceable, homeproduced feeds based on equal quantities of molassed sugar beet feed and either maize or barley distillers grains can replace a barley/soya supplement when fed with straw or silage-based diets in late pregnancy (Chapple et al., 1998 and 1999). The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects on ewe and lamb performance of feeding sugar beet feeds with distillers grains to March-lambing ewes rearing twin lambs at pasture.
The degree of processing of protein-rich feeds affects their physical properties. Seeds which are less comminuted, whether cracked or rolled, may have properties which make their behaviour, in the rumen and postruminally, distinct from fine ground material and which may therefore alter their performance as feed proteins. The use of lupin seeds as a replacement for soya in ruminant diets has been demonstrated (Moss et al, 1997). This project aimed to assess whether the processing of lupin seeds, either hammer milling or rolling, affected the performance of young cattle fed the seed as their principal source of protein.
Feeding lowland sheep on straw-based systems during pregnancy (Davies and Chapple 1995) has shown that ewe and lamb performance can be satisfactory, providing adequate compound supplementation was fed. Whole barley and soya bean meal has been the standard ration. Experiments with March-lambing ewes (Chapple et al., 1997) has shown that feeds based on molassed sugar beet feed and maize distillers dark grains can replace a barley/soya supplement. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects on ewe and lamb performance of feeding sugar beet feeds with higher levels of distillers grains to January-lambing ewes on straw-based and big-bale silage systems during pregnancy and early lactation.