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We study the performance and limitations of the morphological classification method based on luminosity concentration and mean surface brightness. In particular, the effects of the different colour bands and of a finite seeing are investigated.
We have obtained B-band photographic surface photometry of ∼ 2000 galaxies in the Pisces-Perseus region. Combining these photometry data with redshift and HI 21 cm line-width data for spiral galaxies in the region, we have studied the Hubble constant and large-scale peculiar motions. Taking biases into account quantitatively we obtain H0 = 80 ±9+17−22 km/s−1Mpc−1. The prevalent infalling motion in the region is found to be still controversial if the biases are carefully considered.
We have compiled a data base of V-band two-dimensional luminosity distribution for 261 galaxies in the Virgo and the Ursa Major regions (Watanabe 1983) using the 105-cm Schmidt telescope at the Kiso Observatory, Tokyo Astronomical Observatory. This is one of the largest collections of homogeneous surface photometry available to date, though the sample is biased for bright and large galaxies with m(V)≤14mag and/or D2 6≥2′. Among the sample galaxies we have selected some 200 certain members (V0<3500km/s) of the Virgo cluster and the Ursa Major clouds and performed various analyses on them to investigate systematic properties of galaxies. The two clusterings lie at nearly equal distance of (m-M)∼31.1 (Aaronson and Mould 1983). In the present paper we discuss the result of spheroid (bulge)/disk decomposition and velocity-luminosity relation for galaxies.
An elongated ERO with R - K′ = 7.5 behind the cluster A851 at z=0.4 was found to lie at z = 1.5 both by the photometric redshift and by a cross correlation method of its H-band SED with local E/SO spectra. the luminosity profile is well represented by a seeing convolved exponential disk, and the lack of redshifted H-alpha emission indicates that it has a dynamically relaxed disk with an old stellar population. Gravitational lensing of the cluster is not strong enough to stretch the image and cannot convert the de Vaucouleurs law into an exponential law.
We report here the results of deep optical spectroscopy of the very extended emission-line region (VEELR) found serendipitously around the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4388 in the Virgo cluster. The Hα recession velocities of most of the filaments of the region observed are highly blue-shifted with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The velocity field is complicated, and there seem to be several streams of filaments ranging from ~ −100 km s−1 to ~ −700 km s−1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The emission-line ratios of the VEELR filaments are well explained by power-law photoionization models with solar abundances. In addition to photoionization, shock heating probably contributes to the ionization of the gas. We conclude that the VEELR was formerly the disk gas of NGC 4388, which has been stripped by ram pressure due to the interaction between the hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) and the galaxy.
We have observed a 0.7×1.2deg2 field in the SGP region with the UT / NAOJ Mosaic CCD Camera attached to the 40-inch Swope Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and constructed a sample of 1150 galaxies in the region down to R=20.5. Then we applied to the sample a new, objective cluster-finding technique, which is an improved variant of the so-called “matched-filter technique” pioneered by Postman et al. (1996). Using projected positions and apparent magnitudes of galaxies simultaneously, this technique can, not only find cluster candidates, but also estimate their redshifts and richnesses. A number of Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated enough accuracies of the estimations and much lower spurious detection rate than that by conventional cluster-finding methods which use only surface density of galaxies.
At present, the photometric data for clusters at z ≲ 0.2 mainly come from photographic photometry. The lack of CCD data for such clusters is simply due to the fact that no CCD camera had been available until recently that covers the wide extension of clusters within a reasonable amount of observing time. We have developed a large mosaic CCD camera and conducted multicolor imaging observations of z ≲ 0.2 clusters using the 40-inch Swope telescope at Las Campanas Observatory.
We observed three 0.44 square degree fields centered on the Coma cluster center (Coma-1), about 1 degree SW of the Coma center (Coma-3), and on a control field in SA57 with the mosaic CCD camera at the prime focus of the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. We detected 5628, 5020, and 4323 galaxies down to R = 22 mag in Coma-1, Coma-3, and SA57 fields, respectively. We measure the magnitude and color within the variable aperture r90 in which about 90% of the total flux is included. The histograms of (B–R) colors of galaxies are made for four magnitude bins of width ΔR = 2 mag covering 13 < R < 21 mag for each of the three fields. The mean colors and the 1σ scatters of the Coma galaxies are obtained by a histogram subtraction technique (Coma-1/3 minus SA57). We find a very shallow slope of the color-magnitude relation (CMR), Δ(B–R)/ΔR=−0.0037, which indicates nearly a constant (B–R) color over 6 magnitude in 15 < R < 21 mag (−19.5 < MR < −13.5 at Coma cluster). Dwarf galaxies are dominant in this magnitude range, and we conclude that the mean color of dwarf galaxies in the Coma clusters is nearly constant at (B–R) ∼ 1.6–1.7, which is similar to the color of the faint end of giant elliptical galaxies.
We study the total luminosity function (LF) and the type-specific LF of 7 nearby clusters of galaxies (A1060, S805, A2063, A1736, A1644, A1631, and A754) using the R-band image (1.0 × 0.5 deg2) taken with our mosaic CCD camera mounted on 1-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory.
We report on the status of the CCD cameras for the Kiso 105-cm Schmidt telescope. We have two types of cameras – single-chip and mosaic. The single-chip camera is available for common use. At present about 90 % of the telescope time is allocated to observations with CCD cameras.
We have been carrying out digital surface photometry of galaxies using the plates taken with the 105-cm Schmidt telescope at the Kiso Observatory, a branch of the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory. Two dimensional V-band luminosity distributions of 26l galaxies in the Virgo and the Ursa Major regions have been compiled so far (Watanabe et al. 1982, Watanabe 1983). They form one of the largest samples of homogeneous surface photometric data. This discourse is to draw attention to some new results, which are summarized below, on the structure of galaxies derived from the analysis of the homogeneous sample. Detailed discussion will be given elsewhere (Kodaira et al. 1983, Okamura et al. 1983, Watanabe et al. 1983). Most of the sample galaxies are members of either the Virgo or the Ursa Major Clusters, both lying at nearly equal distance (Aaronson and Mould 1983). Their morphological types range from elliptical (T=-5) to Magellanic irregulars (T=10).
There is limited information available regarding the benefits and outcomes of resection of pulmonary metastases arising from head and neck cancers.
A retrospective review was performed of 21 patients who underwent resection of pulmonary metastases of primary head and neck malignancies at Hamamatsu University Hospital. Clinical staging, treatment methods, pathological subtype (particularly squamous cell carcinoma), disease-free interval and overall survival were evaluated.
The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates of the study participants were 67.0 per cent and 55.0 per cent, respectively, as determined by the Kaplan–Meier method. The prognosis for patients with a disease-free interval of less than 24 months was poor compared to those with a disease-free interval of greater than 24 months (p = 0.0234).
Patients with short disease-free intervals, and possibly those who are older than 60 years, should be categorised as having severe disease. However, pulmonary metastases from head and neck malignancies are potentially curable by surgical resection.
Four microseconds long Ar3+ beam with injection energy of 15 keV/u has been injected into the Digital Accelerator of the High-Energy Accelerator Research Organization. Beam production, transportation, and injection are described as well as machine properties. Results of a free running experiment under static magnetic field and longitudinal confinement and acceleration under a fast ramping magnetic field are presented in detail with a brief discussion on the beam lifetime.
In the current research, we have utilized sol-gel electrophoresis technique to grow PbTiO3 nanotube arrays in porous anodic alumina template channels. By using this method high quality and more condense nanotubes are obtained compared with other usual sol-gel methods. Also, the effect of the anodizing parameters on the diameter of the template pores, and effect of electrophoresis voltage on wall thickness were investigated.
Pentacene-based ferroelectric gate transistors with croconic acid (CrA) thin film was fabricated for the first time. The memory window (MW) of 1.9 V was obtained from the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of Al/CrA(50 nm)/SiO2/Si(100) metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) diode, where the deposition temperature of CrA was room temperature (RT). Butterfly type C-V characteristics was observed for Al/CrA(50 nm)/Al/SiO2/ Si(100) metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) diode. Furthermore, a pentacene-based p-type organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with CrA gate insulator was fabricated, and clockwise hysteresis loop was observed in ID-VG characteristic, which is attributed to the ferroelectric properties of CrA gate insulator.
In this paper, we explore the interfacial effects appearing in highly strained La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO) ultra-thin films (10-12nm) grown on BaTiO3 (BTO) ferroelectric substrates. The strong tendency to phase separation of this optimally doped manganite contributes to the exotic phenomena observed in magnetism and transport experiments: the so-called Matteucci magnetic loops, magnetic granularity and a second metal insulator transition are observed between 50K and the LCMO Curie temperature, 180K. All these properties define the multiferroic character of these heterostructures, which in LCMO//BTO system is strongly linked to magnetoelastic coupling.
Limited information is available on mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas arising in the head and neck.
A retrospective analysis was conducted of 20 patients who were histologically diagnosed with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and treated at our institution between January 1990 and December 2009.
Treatment consisted of surgical resection alone in two patients (10 per cent), surgical resection with consecutive radiotherapy in one (5 per cent), and radiotherapy alone in eight (40 per cent). Three patients (15 per cent) were treated with systemic chemotherapy, and three (15 per cent) received chemoradiotherapy. Three patients (15 per cent) were informed of the diagnosis but not treated for their condition.
All of the 20 patients were still alive after a mean follow-up period of 50.8 months. Local treatment for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the head and neck should be the first choice in early-stage disease. However, prolonged follow up is important to determine these patients' long-term response to treatment.
Adhesion strength in sputter-deposited Cu thin films on various types of barrier layers was investigated by scratch test. The barrier layers were Ta1-xNx with varied nitrogen concentration of 0, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5. Microstructure observation by TEM indicated that each layer consists of mixed phases of β;-Ta, bcc-TaN0.1, hexagonal-TaN, and fcc-TaN, depending on the nitrogen concentration. A sulfur- containing amorphous phase was also present discontinuously at the Cu/barrier interfaces in all samples. Scratch test showed that delamination occurred at the Cu/barrier interface and that the overall adhesion strength increased with increasing the nitrogen concentration. A good correlation was found between the measured adhesion strength and the composing phases in the barrier layer.
Experiments are performed on the flow past a sphere moving vertically at constant speeds in a salt-stratified fluid. Shadowgraph method and fluorescent dye are used for the flow visualization, and particle image velocimetry is used for the velocity measurement in the vertical plane. Vertical ‘jets’ or columnar structures are observed in the shadowgraph for all the Froude numbers Fr(0.2 ≲ Fr ≲ 70) investigated, and the wake structures in the whole parameter space of Fr and the Reynolds number Re(30 ≲ Re ≲ 4000) are classified into seven types, five of which are newly found. Those include two types of thin jets, one of which is short with its top disturbed by internal waves to have a peculiar ‘bell-shaped’ structure, while the other has an indefinitely long length. There are two other new types of jet with periodically generated ‘knots’, one of which is straight, while the other has a spiral structure. A simply meandering jet has also been found. These wake structures are significantly different from those in homogeneous fluids except under very weak stratification, showing that the stratification effects on vertical motion are much more significant than those on horizontal motion.