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We study the effect of corporate cultural similarity on merger decisions and outcomes. Using the similarity in firms’ corporate social responsibility characteristics to proxy for cultural similarity, we find that culturally similar firms are more likely to merge. Moreover, these mergers are associated with greater synergies, superior long-run operating performance, and fewer write-offs of goodwill. Our evidence is consistent with the notion that cultural similarity eases post-deal integration. Our results contribute to the literature on the determinants of merger success, provide new evidence on the impact of corporate culture, and offer a new approach to defining firms’ cultural similarity.
Theory predicts that capping brokers’ compensation exacerbates the exploitation of retail investors. We show that regulated caps on mutual fund 12b-1 fees, effectively sales commissions, are associated with negative equity fund performance, but only after a structural shift toward maximum permitted levels of the fees around 2000. Past this break point, flow–performance sensitivity shifts from the middle- to the highest-performing funds, suggesting that the fee cap increases performance-chasing behavior by constraining brokers’ incentives to learn about lower-ranked funds. The policy implication is that regulators must reevaluate the efficacy of caps on brokerage fees.
Hearing loss can impair effective communication between caregivers and individuals with cognitive impairment. However, hearing loss is not often measured or addressed in care plans for these individuals. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of hearing loss and the utilization of hearing aids in a sample of individuals with cognitive impairment in a tertiary care memory clinic.
A retrospective review of 133 charts of individuals >50 years who underwent hearing assessment at a tertiary care memory clinic over a 12-month period (June 2014–June 2015) was undertaken. Using descriptive statistics, the prevalence of hearing loss was determined and associations with demographic variables, relevant medical history, cognitive status, and hearing aid utilization were investigated.
Results indicate that hearing loss is highly prevalent among this sample of cognitively impaired older adults. Sixty percent of the sample had at least a mild hearing loss in the better hearing ear. Among variables examined, age, MMSE, and medical history of diabetes were strongly associated with hearing impairment. Hearing aid utilization increased in concordance with severity of hearing loss, from 9% to 54% of individuals with a mild or moderate/severe hearing loss, respectively.
Hearing loss is highly prevalent among older adults with cognitive impairment. Despite high prevalence of hearing loss, hearing aid utilization remains low. Our study highlights the importance of hearing evaluation and rehabilitation as part of the cognitive assessment and care management plan in this vulnerable population.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
We show how estimates of parameters characterizing inflation-based theories of structure formation localized over the past year when large scale structure (LSS) information from galaxy and cluster surveys was combined with the rapidly developing cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, especially from the recent Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probability on the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to little mean curvature (Ωtot = 1.08±0.06) and nearly scale invariant initial fluctuations (ns = 1.03±0.08), both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. We emphasize the role that degeneracy among parameters in the Lpk = 212 ± 7 position of the (first acoustic) peak plays in defining the Ωtot range upon marginalization over other variables. Though the CDM density is in the expected range (Ωcdmh2 = 0.17 ± 0.02), the baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.030 ± 0.005 is somewhat above the independent 0.019 ± 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates. CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy (ΩΛ = 0.66 ± 0.06) at the same level as from supernova (SN1) observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of state limited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < −0.7 cf. the wQ=−1 cosmological constant case.
First we show that any complex Lie group is complete Kähler. Moreover we obtain a plurisubharmonic exhaustion function on a complex Lie group as follows. Let the real Lie algebra of a maximal compact real Lie subgroup K of a complex Lie group G. Put q := dimC
Then we obtain that there exists a plurisubharmonic, strongly (q + 1)-pseudoconvex in the sense of Andreotti-Grauert and K-invariant exhaustion function on G.
Alcohol consumption is a possible co-factor of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) persistence, a major step in cervical carcinogenesis, but the association between alcohol and continuous HPV infection remains unclear. This prospective study identified the association between alcohol consumption and HR-HPV persistence. Overall, 9230 women who underwent screening during 2002–2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea were analysed in multivariate logistic regression. Current drinkers [odds ratio (OR) 2·49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·32–4·71] and drinkers for ⩾5 years (OR 2·33, 95% CI 1·17–4·63) had a higher risk of 2-year HR-HPV persistence (HPV positivity for 3 consecutive years) than non-drinkers and drinkers for <5 years, respectively (vs. HPV negativity for 3 consecutive years). A high drinking frequency (⩾twice/week) and a high beer intake (⩾3 glasses/occasion) had higher risks of 1-year (OR 1·80, 95% CI 1·01–3·36) HPV positivity for 2 consecutive years) and 2-year HR-HPV persistence (OR 3·62, 95% CI 1·35–9·75) than non-drinkers. Of the HPV-positive subjects enrolled, drinking habit (OR 2·68, 95% CI 1·10–6·51) and high consumption of beer or soju (⩾2 glasses/occasion; OR 2·90, 95% CI 1·06–7·98) increased the risk of 2-year consecutive or alternate HR-HPV positivity (vs. consecutive HPV negativity). These findings suggest that alcohol consumption might increase the risk of cervical HR-HPV persistence in Korean women.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is now recognized as a common cause of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to describe the first ETEC O169 outbreak identified in Korea. In this outbreak, we identified 1642 cases from seven schools. Retrospective cohort studies were performed in two schools; and case-control studies were conducted in five schools. In two schools, radish kimchi was associated with illness; and in five other schools, radish or cabbage kimchi was found to have a higher risk among food items. Adjusted relative risk of kimchi was 5·87–7·21 in schools that underwent cohort studies; and adjusted odds ratio was 4·52–12·37 in schools that underwent case-control studies. ETEC O169 was isolated from 230 affected students, and was indistinguishable from the isolates detected from the kimchi product distributed by company X, a food company that produced and distributed kimchi to all seven schools. In this outbreak, we found that the risk of a kimchi-borne outbreak of ETEC O169 infection is present in Korea. We recommend continued monitoring regarding food safety in Korea, and strengthening surveillance regarding ETEC O169 infection through implementation of active laboratory surveillance to confirm its infection.
We report the effects of electron irradiation on graphene Field Effect Transistor (FET) devices. We irradiated the graphene devices with 30keV electrons and measured the electrical transport properties in high vacuum in-situ. Upon electron irradiation, a Raman ‘D’ band appears. In addition, we observed that the doping behavior of the graphene devices changed from P to N type as a result of the irradiation. We also observed a shift of the Dirac point while the graphene FET device stays in vacuum and after it interacted with environmental molecules under ambient conditions.
An experimental technique has been developed and applied to the problem of determining effective diffusion coefficients and partition coefficients of Sr in low permeability geological materials. This technique, the micro-reactor simulated channel method (MRSC), allows rapid determination of contaminant transport parameters with resulting values comparable to those determined by more traditional methods and also creates product surfaces that are amenable for direct chemical analysis. An attempt to further constrain mass flux was completed by detailed ion beam analysis of polished tuff surfaces (tuff is a polycrystalline polyminerallic aggregate dominated by silicate phases) that had been reacted with Sr solutions at concentrations of 10−5, 10−3 and 10−1 mol l−1. Ion beam analysis was carried out using beams of both protons (using particle induced X-ray emission and elastic backscattering spectrometry or EBS) and alpha-particles (using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry). The ion beam analyses showed that increased solution concentrations resulted in increased surface concentrations and that in the highest concentration experiment, Sr penetrated to at least 4 μm below the primary interface. The Sr surface concentrations determined by EBS were 0.06 (±0.05), 0.87 (±0.30) and 2.40 (±1.0) atomic weight % in the experiments with starting solution concentrations of 10−5, 10−3, and 10−1 mol l−1, respectively.
The clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance on the outcome of pneumococcal bacteraemia has remained unclear. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors for mortality and determine the impact of antimicrobial resistance on clinical outcomes. A total of 150 adult patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia were identified over a period of 11 years at Seoul National University Hospital. Of the 150 patients, 122 (81·3%) had penicillin-susceptible (Pen-S) strains and 28 (18·7%) penicillin-non-susceptible (Pen-NS) strains; 43 (28·7%) had erythromycin-susceptible (EM-S) strains and 107 (71·3%) erythromycin-non-susceptible (EM-NS) strains. On multivariate analysis, elevated APACHE II score [odds ratio (OR) 1·24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·14–1·34, P<0·001) and presence of solid organ tumour (OR 2·99, 95% CI 1·15–7·80, P=0·025) were independent risk factors for mortality. Neither erythromycin resistance nor penicillin resistance had a significant effect on clinical outcomes. However, for the 76 patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, the time required for defervescence was significantly longer in the EM-NS group than in the EM-S group (5·45±4·39 vs. 2·93±2·56, P=0·03 by log rank test). In conclusion, antimicrobial resistance does not have an effect on mortality in adult patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia.
We present a new database of absorption and emission-line measurements based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 7th data release of galaxies within a redshift of 0.2. Using the publicly available penalized pixel-fitting (pPXF) and gas and absorption line fitting (gandalf) codes, our work improve the existing measurements for stellar kinematics, the strength of various absorption line features, and the flux and width of the emissions from different species of ionised gas. Most notable of our work is that, we provide quality of the fit to assess reliability of the measurements. The quality assessment can be highly effective for finding new classes of objects. For example, based on the quality assessment around the Ha and [NII] nebular lines, we found approximately 1% of the SDSS spectra which classified as galaxies by the SDSS pipeline are in fact type I Seyfert AGN. This paper presents a summary of the recent paper, Oh et al.(2011). The database is publicly available at http://gem.yonsei.ac.kr/ossy/.
i-ZnO layers were deposited as diffusion barriers fabricated by RF sputtering on stainless-steel substrates (SUS430, matches with AISI SUS24). It was found that the addition of ZnO layer between stainless-steel substrate and Mo back contact film deplete diffusion of metal ions from substrate and reduce recombination at CIGS layer, as identified by an SIMS depth profile, QE and C-V measurements. With such diffusion barriers, the efficiency, open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current and fill factor of CIGS solar cells all increased, compared to reference cells without diffusion barrier. For the better device performance, Na was supplied during Mo back-contact layer deposition by co-sputtering of the target, including Na-source. Efficiencies of cells were increased with increasing the quantity of Na source. Unlike barrier thickness effect, short circuit current was reduced and open circuit voltage, fill factor were increased with increasing Na-source, and achieved 12.6% efficiency without AR(anti-reflection) coating. The relationship and causality between these results and the Na-doping were analyzed using C-V measurements.