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Gut cell losses contribute to overall feed efficiency due to the energy requirement for cell replenishment. Intestinal epithelial cells are sloughed into the intestinal lumen as digesta passes through the gastrointestinal tract, where cells are degraded by endonucleases. This leads to fragmented DNA being present in faeces, which may be an indicator of gut cell loss. Therefore, measuring host faecal DNA content could have potential as a non-invasive marker of gut cell loss and result in a novel technique for the assessment of how different feed ingredients impact upon gut health. Faecal calprotectin (CALP) is a marker of intestinal inflammation. This was a pilot study designed to test a methodology for extracting and quantifying DNA from pig faeces, and to assess whether any differences in host faecal DNA and CALP could be detected. An additional aim was to determine whether any differences in the above measures were related to the pig performance response to dietary yeast-enriched protein concentrate (YPC). Newly weaned (∼26.5 days of age) Large White × Landrace × Pietrain piglets (8.37 kg ±1.10, n = 180) were assigned to one of four treatment groups (nine replicates of five pigs), differing in dietary YPC content: 0% (control), 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% (w/w). Pooled faecal samples were collected on days 14 and 28 of the 36-day trial. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted and quantitative PCR was used to assess DNA composition. Pig genomic DNA was detected using primers specific for the pig cytochrome b (CYTB) gene, and bacterial DNA was detected using universal 16S primers. A pig CALP ELISA was used to assess gut inflammation. Dietary YPC significantly reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR) from weaning to day 14 (P<0.001), but not from day 14 to day 28 (P = 0.220). Pig faecal CYTB DNA content was significantly (P = 0.008) reduced in YPC-treated pigs, with no effect of time, whereas total faecal bacterial DNA content was unaffected by diet or time (P>0.05). Faecal CALP levels were significantly higher at day 14 compared with day 28, but there was no effect of YPC inclusion and no relationship with FCR. In conclusion, YPC reduced faecal CYTB DNA content and this correlated positively with FCR, but was unrelated to gut inflammation, suggesting that it could be a non-invasive marker of gut cell loss. However, further validation experiments by an independent method are required to verify the origin of pig faecal CYTB DNA as being from sloughed intestinal epithelial cells.
Introduction: Run to Quit is a national community-based program that combines smoking cessation support with physical activity through learn to run group-based curriculum, self-help and smoking cessation materials. The program is currently in a three-year scaling up phase.
Aims: The aim of the current study is to explore participant experiences of the Run to Quit program after its first year, and identify potential areas of improvement for future iterations of the program.
Methods: Participants (n = 55) were interviewed over the phone at the end of the 10-week program. Participant interviews were recorded and transcribed. A thematic analysis was conducted.
Results/Findings: Participants were satisfied with the program. Strengths of the program were the group aspect, supervised participation and the running. Weaknesses were seen as the variability in walking and running abilities and inadequate engagement by the Smokers Helpline. Many people who successfully quit smoking reported using additional quit aids. Non-completers of the program gave mostly logistical and personal reasons for dropout.
Conclusions: Overall, Run to Quit was well received by participants. Multiple health behaviour interventions at a scalable level appear feasible. Based on participant feedback, key recommendations to improve the program in the future include greater tailoring to walking or running preference, and increasing engagement with the Smokers Helpline.
Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) course finds a substantial proportion of cases remit within 6 months, a majority within 2 years, and a substantial minority persists for many years. Results are inconsistent about pre-trauma predictors.
The WHO World Mental Health surveys assessed lifetime DSM-IV PTSD presence-course after one randomly-selected trauma, allowing retrospective estimates of PTSD duration. Prior traumas, childhood adversities (CAs), and other lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were examined as predictors using discrete-time person-month survival analysis among the 1575 respondents with lifetime PTSD.
20%, 27%, and 50% of cases recovered within 3, 6, and 24 months and 77% within 10 years (the longest duration allowing stable estimates). Time-related recall bias was found largely for recoveries after 24 months. Recovery was weakly related to most trauma types other than very low [odds-ratio (OR) 0.2–0.3] early-recovery (within 24 months) associated with purposefully injuring/torturing/killing and witnessing atrocities and very low later-recovery (25+ months) associated with being kidnapped. The significant ORs for prior traumas, CAs, and mental disorders were generally inconsistent between early- and later-recovery models. Cross-validated versions of final models nonetheless discriminated significantly between the 50% of respondents with highest and lowest predicted probabilities of both early-recovery (66–55% v. 43%) and later-recovery (75–68% v. 39%).
We found PTSD recovery trajectories similar to those in previous studies. The weak associations of pre-trauma factors with recovery, also consistent with previous studies, presumably are due to stronger influences of post-trauma factors.
Thermal convection is observed in snow and in a compact of water-saturated glass beads. While uncertainty in the permeability of the snow limits our ability to compare the observed and calculated onset of convection, agreement between the observed and calculated effects of convection on heat transfer in snow is good. Experimental results with glass beads agree with both the calculated onset of and heat transfer by convection. Attempts are made to assess the effects of convection on snow metamorphism. While much is still uncertain about the significance of thermal convection in snow, it is clear that the phenomenon does occur.
Although mental disorders are significant predictors of educational attainment throughout the entire educational career, most research on mental disorders among students has focused on the primary and secondary school years.
The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were used to examine the associations of mental disorders with college entry and attrition by comparing college students (n = 1572) and non-students in the same age range (18–22 years; n = 4178), including non-students who recently left college without graduating (n = 702) based on surveys in 21 countries (four low/lower-middle income, five upper-middle-income, one lower-middle or upper-middle at the times of two different surveys, and 11 high income). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and age-of-onset of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavioral and substance disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
One-fifth (20.3%) of college students had 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI disorders; 83.1% of these cases had pre-matriculation onsets. Disorders with pre-matriculation onsets were more important than those with post-matriculation onsets in predicting subsequent college attrition, with substance disorders and, among women, major depression the most important such disorders. Only 16.4% of students with 12-month disorders received any 12-month healthcare treatment for their mental disorders.
Mental disorders are common among college students, have onsets that mostly occur prior to college entry, in the case of pre-matriculation disorders are associated with college attrition, and are typically untreated. Detection and effective treatment of these disorders early in the college career might reduce attrition and improve educational and psychosocial functioning.
A candidate Tidal Dwarf Galaxy, ce-61, was identified in the merger system IC 1182 in the Hercules supercluster. The multi-wavelength data we obtained so far do not prove, however, that it is kinematically detached from the IC 1182 system and gravitationally bound.
Following implementation of automatic end dates for antimicrobial orders to facilitate antimicrobial stewardship at a large, academic children’s hospital, no differences were observed in patient mortality, length of stay, or readmission rates, even among patients with documented bacteremia.
Direct solar flare neutrons are a valuable diagnostic of high-energy ion acceleration in these events, and COMPTEL improves over all previous cosmic neutron detectors in its capacity for neutron energy measurement. Previous studies of COMPTEL neutron data have worked with an incomplete model of the instrumental response, applying energy-by-energy detection efficiencies. Here we employ statistical regularisation techniques with the full (Monte Carlo simulation derived) response matrix to produce improved estimates of neutron numbers and energy distribution. These techniques are applied to data from the well-observed 15 June 1991 flare. Our improved treatment of the instrumental response results in a reduction of 73% in total neutron numbers, compared with previously deduced values. Implications for the picture of primary ion acceleration in this flare are briefly discussed.
Bergman and Jean (2016) skillfully summarize how the industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology literature generally overrepresents salaried, core, managerial, professional, and executive employees. We concur that that the underrepresentation of traditional workers (i.e., wage earners, laborers, first-line personnel, freelancers, contract workers, and other workers outside managerial, professional, and executive positions) can negatively affect our science. In our commentary we extend the arguments of Bergman and Jean by (a) discussing the appropriate use of samples, which are determined by study goals and hypotheses, and (b) further examining samples in occupational health psychology (OHP) and related journals, which generally require worker samples.
Parotid gland tumours are complex neoplasms with a broad histological range. The parotid gland is also a common site of face and scalp skin cancer metastases.
Parotidectomies performed by ENT department in the Gold Coast health district from 2006 to 2013.
A total of 158 specimens were examined. Of these, 53.80 per cent were benign and 46.20 per cent were malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumour (29.11 per cent), followed by cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (23.42 per cent) and Warthin's tumour (12.03 per cent).
Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma accounted for a large proportion of parotid masses in our case series, reflecting the high prevalence of non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia. Primary parotid neoplasms had similar incidence rates to other studies.
Understanding crystal orientation at the ferroelectric domain level, using a non destructive technique, is crucial for the design and characterization of nano-scale devices. In this study, piezoresponse force spectroscopy (PFS) is used to identify ferroelectric domain orientation. The impact of crystal orientation on the switching field of ferroelectric BaTiO3 is also investigated at the domain level. The preferential domain orientations for BaTiO3 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in this study are ,  and . They have been mapped onto PFS spectra to show three corresponding switching fields of 460, 330 and 120 kV/cm respectively. In addition, the electric field at which the enhanced piezoresponse occurs was found to vary, due to a phase change. The polarization reversal occurs via a 2-step process (rotation and switching) for  and  orientations. The piezoresponse enhancement is absent for the  (pure switching) domains. The results demonstrate that an electric field induced phase change causes the  and  domains to reverse polarization at a lower field than the  domain.
Field emission (FE) measurements are reported from carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers and laser-patterned free standing films fabricated by direct online condensation from a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition reactor. Fiber and film cathodes showed stable emission in the 1–2 mA current (I) range at maximum cathode temperatures less than 1000 °C; film cathodes show localized heating at the triangular tips and higher maximum temperatures than the fibers. Fowler–Nordheim (FN) analysis indicated a change in the morphology of the emitters with increasing external electrical field (Eext). Fiber cathode I–Eext data are interpreted as FN emission from the fiber tip which is eventually limited by space-charge effects. At higher Eext, FN emission from the fiber sidewall occurs. The single fiber cathode stopped emitting abruptly when field induced self-heating effects became significant. For CNT films, self-heating effects can destroy a portion of the film, but FE can still occur from other areas.
Analysis of data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellite's All Sky Monitor (ASM) instrument for several X-ray binary sources has identified a recurrent ∼24 h period. This period is sometimes highly significant, giving rise to the possibility of it being identified as an orbital or super-orbital period. Further analysis has revealed the same period in a number of other X-ray sources. As a result this period has been discounted as spurious, described variously as arising from daily variations in background levels, the scheduling of ASM observations and beating between the sampling period and long-term secular trends in the light curves. We present here an analysis of the spurious periods and show that the dominant mechanism is in fact spectral leakage of low-frequency power present in the light curves.