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This study aimed to determine the predictors of disease progression after functional endoscopic sinus surgery in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.
A total of 281 adult chronic rhinosinusitis patients who underwent primary bilateral functional endoscopic sinus surgery between 2007 and 2017 and had at least 12 months of follow-up endoscopic evaluation were examined. Patients were divided into eosinophilic (n = 205) and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis groups (n = 76). In order to determine adverse factors, post-operative endoscopic appearance scores were analysed in relation to the pre- and intra-operative findings using multiple regression analyses.
The post-operative course of eosinophilic cases deteriorated over time, like the early period for non-eosinophilic cases. Frontal sinus polyps recurred early in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. Multivariate analyses indicated young adulthood, asthma, high computed tomography score and frontal sinus polyps as significant adverse predictors.
Early, appropriate estimation of sinonasal conditions appears to be crucial for successful surgical management of chronic rhinosinusitis.
The density stratification effects on the thermal convection in a rotating spherical shell, which is the representative of the solar convection zone, are investigated by three dimensional numerical simulations. It is found that, the convection structure in the strongly stratified system is switched from parallel cells aligned to the rotation axis to zonal rolles dominated by the longitudinally averaged mode, as the Rayleigh number increases much larger than the stability threshold. Corresponding to this structural transition, the averaged kinetic helicity reverses the sign in each hemisphere (from negative to positive in the northern hemisphere). The results indicate that the density stratification is much important for the nonlinear convection process in the rotating spherical shell.
The projects LIGHT and MIRA are the space-borne and ground-based optical/Infrared-interferometer projects of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The contents of each project are gradually developing, and the descriptions given below are the preliminary ones studied at the present time.
LIGHT (Light Interferometer satellite for the studies of Galactic Halo Tracers) is a scanning astrometric satellite for stellar and galactic astronomy planned to be launched between 2007 and 2010 by a M-V launcher of ISAS, Japan. Two sets of Fizeau-type 40cm-pupil interferometers with 1 m baseline are the basic structure of the satellite optics. The multi-color (U, B, V, R, I, and K) CCD arrays are planned to be used in the focal plane of the interferometer, optimized for detecting the precise locations of fringe patterns. LIGHT is expected to observe the parallaxes and proper motions of nearly a hundred million stars up to 18th visual (15thK-band) magnitude with the precision better than 0.1 milli-arcsecond (about 50 microarcsecond in V-band and 90 micro-arcsecond in K-band) in parallaxes and better than 0.1 milli-arcsecond per year in proper motions, as well as the precise photometric characteristics of the observed stars. Almost all of the giant and supergiant stars belonging to the disk and halo components of our Galaxy within 10 to 15 kpc from the sun will be observed by LIGHT to study the most fundamental structure and evolution of the Galaxy. LIGHT will become a precursor of a more sophisticated future astrometric interferometer satellite like GAIA (Lindegren and Perryman, 1996).
The correlation of stress in Silicon Carbide (SiC) crystal and frequency shift in micro- Raman spectroscopy was determined by an experimental method. We applied uniaxial stress to 4H- and 6H-SiC single crystal square bar specimen shaped with (0001) and (11-20) faces by four point bending test, under measuring the frequency shift in micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results revealed that the linearity coefficients between stress and Raman shift were -1.96 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (0001) face, -2.08 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (11-20) face and -2.70 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/6)E2 on 6H-SiC (0001) face. Determination of these coefficients has made it possible to evaluate the residual stress in SiC crystal quantitatively by micro-Raman spectroscopy. We evaluated the residual stress in SiC substrate that was grown in our laboratory by utilizing the results obtained in this study. The result of estimation indicated that the SiC substrate with a diameter of 6 inch remained residual stress as low as ±15 MPa.
We investigated particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized
relativistic jet propagating into an unmagnetized plasma. Strong magnetic fields generated
in the trailing shock contribute to the electrons transverse deflection and acceleration.
We have calculated, self-consistently, the radiation from electrons accelerated in these
turbulent magnetic fields. We found that the synthetic spectra depend on the bulk Lorentz
factor of the jet, its temperature and strength of the generated magnetic fields. We have
also investigated accelerated electrons in strong magnetic fields generated by kinetic
shear (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instabilities. The calculated properties of the emerging
radiation will guide our understanding of the complex time evolution and/or spectral
structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants.
We perform two-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a mildly
relativistic shock propagating through an inhomogeneous medium. Simulation results show
that the postshock region becomes turbulent owing to preshock density inhomogeneity, and
the magnetic field is strongly amplified due to the stretching and folding of field lines
in the turbulent velocity field. The amplified magnetic field evolves into a filamentary
structure in two-dimensional simulations. The magnetic energy spectrum is flatter than the
Kolmogorov spectrum and indicates that the so-called small-scale dynamo is occurring in
the postshock region.
To increase X-ray photon number generated by laser-cluster interaction, it is important to understand the dependence of X-ray generation on cluster size. We carried out Xe K-shell X-ray generation using a conical nozzle with Xe clusters, the radius of which was controllable by adjusting the backing pressure. The experiment clarifies the result that the Xe K-shell X-ray photon number increases with increasing cluster radius from 8 to 12 nm, and saturates at the radius between 12 and 17 nm. We also investigated the Xe K-shell X-ray photon number dependence on laser intensity, and found that the threshold laser intensity of the Xe K-shell X-ray generation exists between 2 × 1017 and 5 × 1018 W/cm2.
The mechanism of improvement in gate oxide integrity (GOI) characteristics by H2 annealing in CZ-grown Silicon wafers was investigated. Grown-in defects that are considered to degrade GOI and which can be detected correlatively as 0.1 μm level size pits appearing after SC-1 cleaning, decrease drastically by H2 annealing, while other inert gases, i.e., N2 and Ar, do not exhibit such effect. Besides, H2 annealing shrinks or extinguishes oxygen precipitates significantly, while other gases do not. On the other hand, oxygen outdiffusion is exactly the same among H2, N2 and Ar annealing. From these results, it was concluded that the dominant mechanism for GOI characteristics improvement by H2 annealing is due to decomposition of the grown-in defects having Si-O bonding by the reduction reaction between Si-O bonding and hydrogen, and not due to a mere thermal decomposition enhanced by oxygen outdiffusion.
X-ray-excited luminescence of GaN doped with Eu ions as a luminescent center was observed in the wavelength range from 350 nm to 650 nm. Three peaks at 375 nm, 550 nm and 622 nm were found. To survey the mechanism of the photoluminescence due to non-resonance excitation, photoluminescence X-ray excitation spectra are also measured. The mechanism of the luminescence occurrence was briefly discussed based on the model developed by Emura et al.
Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-positron (electron-ion) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs in the shocked regions. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields and for particle acceleration. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. The “jitter” radiation from deflected electrons in turbulent magnetic fields has properties different from synchrotron radiation calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important for understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure of gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants. In order to calculate radiation from first principles and go beyond the standard synchrotron model, we have used PIC simulations. We present synthetic spectra to compare with the spectra obtained from Fermi observations.
The effects of characteristics of the blocking layers in multilayered a-Si:H photoreceptors on electrophotographic properties are reported. The structure of the photoreceptor is Al/a-Si:H(p)/a-Si:H(i)/a-Si1−xCx. The thickness and boron doping ratio of the bottom p-type layer and the thickness and compositional fraction x of the surface a-Si1−xCx layer are varied. It is shown that the dark decay time is particularly sensitive to the thickness and doping ratio of the p-type layer. These dependences are discussed assuming a space charge layer in the p-type layer. It is also shown that the thickness and x of the a-Si1−xCx layer greatly influence the residual voltage and effective quantum efficiency of photocarrier generation.
A new type of Pb(Mgl1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) based thin film decoupling capacitor for high speed digital circuits is presented. The thin film capacitor fabricated on a ceramic Al2O3 substrate with Ball Grid Array (BGA) terminations showed low impedance and low inductance characteristics in the 100MHz – 1GHz range. The sol-gel derived Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3(PMN-PT) thin film showed a high dielectric constant (k=3000) with broad temperature dependence. The capacitor consists of a PMN-PT thin film (0.8 µm thickness), Au electrodes, and solder balls mounted on the upper electrode as terminals. Numerical simulations based on the Partial Element Equivalent Circuit (PEEC) model were conducted for the design of electrodes, which gives low inductance of the capacitor. It was shown that the thin film 1.2mm × 1.2mm capacitor mounted on a board exhibits high capacitance of 20 nF, low ESR of 100 mΩ, and low inductance of 135 pH. These values are in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.
From the view point of materials sciences, one of the central issues in organic thin film transistors (TFTs) is the interface between different materials inherent in the device structure. For example, the interface between organic semiconductors and electrodes controls the carrier injection, while the interface between organic semiconductors and gate insulators governs the trap and carrier densities. Here, we show that interface modification with self-assembeld monolayers (SAMs) using polar organosilane molecules offers novel functions in organic TFTs. SAMs on SiO2 gate dielectrics was found to the carrier density at the conduction channel, while the adsorbed SAMs molecules on metal electrodes causes an ambipolar operation in fullerene TFTs. These interface modification techniques, since they are low temperature processes, provide novel opportunities for improving device manufacturing processes.
Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-positron (electron-ion) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs in the shocked regions. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields and for particle acceleration. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. The “jitter” radiation from deflected electrons in turbulent magnetic fields has different properties from synchrotron radiation calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important for understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure of gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants. In order to calculate radiation from first principles and go beyond the standard synchrotron model, we have used PIC simulations. We will present detailed spectra for conditions relevant to various astrophysical sites of collisionless shock formation. In particular we will discuss application to GRBs and SNRs.
We report an extremely rare case of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region, presenting as acute mastoiditis. We also review the 16 previously reported cases of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region.
A 65-year-old man presented with left-sided, post-auricular swelling and pain. Acute mastoiditis was diagnosed, with computed tomography demonstrating destruction of the bony plates of the posterior cranial fossa and sigmoid sinus. Initial surgery revealed a cholesteatoma in the mastoid, with no extension into the aditus ad antrum or attic. These findings were confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the surgical specimen, the latter using involucrin. The cholesteatoma matrix was completely removed in a second operation.
Including this case, only four of the 17 reported cases of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region showed post-auricular pain or swelling, indicating acute mastoiditis. Clinicians should bear in mind that congenital cholesteatoma may be present in patients presenting with mastoiditis, particularly adults.
Three cDNAs encoding rhoptry-associated protein 1 (RAP-1) homologues were found in the Babesia gibsoni EST database. Based on similarities to BgRAP-1a, which was identified previously by serological screening of a cDNA merozoite library, the two new genes were designated BgRAP-1b (33·7%) and BgRAP-1c (57%). Mice antiserum raised against each recombinant protein reacted specifically with B. gibsoni parasites as determined by Western blotting, which showed native molecular sizes of the BgRAP-1a (51 kDa), BgRAP-1b (53 kDa) and BgRAP-1c (47 kDa) consistent with predictable molecular weights. Immunofluoresence using these antibodies revealed localization of all BgRAP-1s within the matrix of merozoites; however, BgRAP-1a appeared to diverge from the other two when it was found secreted into the cytoplasm of infected erythrocytes. Apical localization of all 3 BgRAP-1s during the extracellular stage of the parasite combined with their ability to bind a canine erythrocyte membrane fraction was suggestive of a role for these proteins in erythrocyte attachment. Lastly, the ability of these recombinant proteins to be used as diagnostic reagents was tested by ELISA and the sensitivities of BgRAP-1a and BgRAP-1c were found increased through N-terminal truncation. Taken together, our data suggest divergent roles for the 3 BgRAP-1s in the merozoite stage of B. gibsoni.
Peptidases of parasitic protozoa are currently under intense investigation in order to identify novel virulence factors, drug targets, and vaccine candidates, except in Babesia. Leucine aminopeptidases in protozoa, such as Plasmodium and Leishmania, have been identified to be involved in free amino acid regulation. We report here the molecular and enzymatic characterization, as well as the localization of a leucine aminopeptidase, a member of the M17 cytosolic aminopeptidase family, from B. gibsoni (BgLAP). A functional recombinant BgLAP (rBgLAP) expressed in Escherichia coli efficiently hydrolysed synthetic substrates for aminopeptidase, a leucine substrate. Enzyme activity of the rBgLAP was found to be optimum at pH 8·0 and at 37°C. The substrate profile was slightly different from its homologue in P. falciprum. The activity was also strongly dependent on metal divalent cations, and was inhibited by bestatin, which is a specific inhibitor for metalloprotease. These results indicated that BgLAP played an important role in free amino acid regulation.
From January 1985 to May 1991, herald strains of influenza B virus were isolated in 1987 and 1989 in Japan. In both cases, influenza epidemics caused by the same type followed in the next winter season. The HA gene sequences of the influenza B viruses isolated in Japan from 1987–91, which covers two herald waves of influenza B viruses, were analysed and located on the phylogenetic tree for influenza B viruses after the B/Singapore/64 strain. Co-circulation of at least two evolutionary lineages of the HA genes existed for influenza B viruses in Japan during the period of this study. The herald viruses in one wave (1987) were genetically close to the winter isolates and were considered to be the parental viruses for the following influenza season, while in the other wave (1989) winter isolates belonged to another lineage on which one of the herald viruses was located, but they were genetically and antigenically different from the herald viruses.
Influenza B virus reinfection in Japanese children was studied epidemi-ologically during 1979–91 and virologically during 1985–91. During this investigation, there were four epidemics caused by influenza B viruses, each of which accompanied antigenic drift. Between the epidemics in 1987/88 and 1989/90, the viruses changed drastically, both genetically and antigenically. The minimum rate of reinfection with influenza B virus during the whole period was 3–25% depending on the influenza seasons. The antigens of primary and reinfection strains of influenza B virus isolated from 18 children during 1985–90, which covered three epidemic periods, were studied by haemagglutination inhibition tests. The results showed that the viruses isolated in the 1984/85 and 1987/88 influenza seasons, which belonged to the same lineage, were antigenically close, and reinfection occurred with these viruses. The results of amino-acid analysis of the HA1 polypeptide of these viruses corresponded with those of antigenic analysis. There were no specific amino-acid changes shared by the primary infection and reinfection influenza B viruses; the patients were infected with the viruses epidemic at that time.
The epidemiology of influenza A in Japan was studied during 1979–91 and viruses isolated from reinfections during 1983–91 were analysed, Of 2963 influenza viruses isolated during this period, 922 and 1006 were influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) viruses respectively; the others were influenza B viruses. Influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) caused 5 and 6 epidemics respectively, most accompanied by antigenic drift. Seventeen reinfections with H1N1 and 17 with H3N2 were detected during our study. The primary and reinfection strains isolated from 7 H1N1 and 10 H3N2 cases were studied by haemagglutination-inhibition, and amino acid and nucleotide sequences of the HA1 region of the haemagglutinin. Most of the primary and reinfection strains were antigenically and genetically similar to the epidemic viruses circulating at that time. However, in 4 out of 10 cases of reinfection with influenza H3N2 virus, reinfection strains were genetically different from the epidemic viruses.