To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
The effects of TiCl4 post-treatment on the physicochemical properties of porous TiO2 (pTiO2) layers fabricated at 300 °C and 400 °C (denoted as pTiO2(300) and pTiO2(400), respectively) in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite photovoltaic cells were investigated. Water contents (physisorbed water and water derived from surface hydroxyl groups) of pTiO2(300) and pTiO2(400) before and after TiCl4 post-treatment were measured by using temperature desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Moreover, structural analysis of the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite part was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In the case of pTiO2(300), the content of water was increased by the TiCl4 post-treatment due to the removal of residual organic compounds that existed before the treatment. It then caused a change in the surface activity of pTiO2(300) and enhancement of solar cell performance and photocurrent density, though suppression of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite formation occurred. In comparison, contents of water were decreased for pTiO2(400), leading to enhancement of the conversion of PbI2 to CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. As a result, there were significant increases in short circuit current density (Jscs) and PCEs. The results showed that TiCl4 post-treatment is an effective approach to prepare high-performance CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells without heat treatment at a very high temperature.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
Corynebacterium ulcerans (toxigenic C. ulcerans) produces the diphtheria toxin, which causes pharyngeal and cutaneous diphtheria-like disease in people, and this bacterium is commonly detected in dogs and cats that are reared at home. It is considered dangerous when a carrier animal becomes the source of infection in people. To investigate the carrier situation of toxigenic C. ulcerans of cats bred in Japan, bacteria were isolated from 37 cats with a primary complaint of rhinitis in 16 veterinary hospitals in Osaka. Toxigenic C. ulcerans was detected in two of the cats. By drug sensitivity testing, the detected bacterium was sensitive to all investigated drugs, except clindamycin. It appears necessary to create awareness regarding toxigenic C. ulcerans infection in pet owners because this bacterium is believed to be the causative organism for rhinitis in cats.
Δ14C values of leaves of deciduous trees provide a means to map the regional-scale fossil fuel ratio in the atmosphere. We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus, a deciduous tree) leaf samples from across Korea in the month of July in both 2010 and 2011 to obtain the regional distribution of Δ14C. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). The average of the Δ14C values from clean air sites in Korea in 2011 measured slightly lower than the average of Δ14C values in 2010. Distribution maps of Δ14C of 2011 and 2010 in Korea were made based on a series of Δ14C values of ginkgo leaf samples from Korea using the Geostatistical and Spatial analyst tools in ESRI's ArcMap software. The distribution maps of Δ14C showed that Δ14C values in the western part of Korea are lower than those in the eastern part of Korea. This is because the western part of Korea is densely populated and contains many industrial complexes, and also because westerly winds from China, containing CO2 from fossil fuel use, blow into Korea. We compared the distribution maps of 2010 and 2011 and tried to find traces of the Fukushima power plant accident in Japan.
We present the results of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) M 33 All Disk (30′ × 30′,
or 7.3 kpc × 7.3 kpc) Survey of Giant Molecular Clouds (NRO MAGiC) based on
12CO(J = 1–0) observations using the NRO 45-m telescope and
12CO(J = 3–2) observations using the ASTE 10-m telescope.
The spatial resolution of the resultant 12CO(J = 1–0) map is
193, corresponding to 81 pc, which is sufficient to identify each Giant Molecular Cloud
(GMC) in the disk. We found clumpy structures with a typical spatial scale of
~100 pc, corresponding to GMCs, and no diffuse, smoothly distributed component
of molecular gas at this sensitivity.
We obtained a map of the molecular fraction,
fmol = ΣH2/(ΣHi + ΣH2),
at a 100-pc resolution. This is the first fmol map covering an
entire galaxy with a GMC-scale resolution. The correlation between
fmol and gas surface density shows two distinct sequences.
The presence of two correlation sequences can be explained by differences in metallicity,
i.e., higher (~2-fold) metallicity in the central region
(r < 1.5 kpc) than in the outer parts. Alternatively,
differences in scale height can also account for the two sequences, i.e.,
increased scale height toward the outer disk.
We have conducted all disk imaging of M33 in 12CO(1-0) using the 45-m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. We present preliminary results of this project. The spatial resolution of ~ 80 pc is comparable to the size of GMCs. The identified GMCs show wide variety in star forming activity. The variety can be regarded as the difference of their evolutionary stage. We found that Kennicutt-Schmidt law breaks in GMC scale (~ 80 pc), although it is still valid in 1 kpc scale. The correlation between molecular gas fraction, fmol = Σ(H2)/Σ(HI+H2) and gas surface density shows two distinct sequences and shows that fmol tends to be higher near the center. We also made partial mapping 12CO(3-2) with ASTE telescope. These data show that the variation of physical properties of molecular gas are correlated with the GMC evolution and mass. That is, GMCs with more active star formation and more mass tend to have higher fraction of dense gas.
As the Nobeyama Radio Observatory Legacy Project: Survey of Giant Molecular Clouds in M33, we have been mapping M33 in CO(1-0) with the multi-beam receiver BEARS equipped on the 45-m telescope using the OTF mapping technique since 2007. The purpose of this project is to investigate the physical properties of GMCs and understand the evolutionary process from GMC formation to star formation in GMCs by comparing with various data such as CO(3-2), 1.1 mm continuum obtained with ASTE10m telescope at Atacama and the optical data obtained with SUBARU. We identified 87 GMCs using the first year data of CO(1-0) and observed 28 GMCs among them in CO(3-2) with ASTE (Onodera 2009, PhD thesis, University of Tokyo). From the comparison of these lines, it was shown that the CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio increases with star forming activity in the GMCs. Furthermore, we found that more massive GMCs tend to have higher CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio. Since the ratio is thought to be an indicator of the fraction of warm and dense molecular gas, our results imply that the fraction of warm and dense gas increases with GMC mass. Especially, since the ratio in the GMCs with low star forming activity is in the range where the ratio depends mainly on the density, we speculate that dense gas fraction increases with GMC mass.
We have proposed and fabricated a hybrid nanodots floating gate (FG), in which Si quantum dots (QDs) as charge injection/emission nodes and NiSi nanodots as charge storage nodes are stacked with an ultrathin SiO2 interlayer, to satisfy both large memory window and multivalued capability. In this study, Si-QDs with an areal density of ˜3×1011cm-2 were formed on ultrathin SiO2 layer by controlling SiH4 chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and NiSi nanodots were prepared by full-silicidation of Si-QDs promoted with remote H2-plasma exposure after Ni evaporation. From capacitance-voltage(C-V) characteristics of MOS capacitors with a NiSi nanodots/Si-QDs hybrid FG, stable storage of many charges in the deep potential well of each NiSi nanodot was confirmed. Also, by applying pulsed gate biases, stepwise charge injection to and emission from NiSi nanodots through discrete energy states in Si-QDs were demonstrated. In addition, by 1310nm (˜0.95eV) light irradiation, a distinct optical response in C-V characteristics was detected, which can be interpreted in terms of the shift of charge centroid in the hybrid FG stack due to transfer of photoexcited electrons from NiSi-nanodots to the Si-QDs.
Wepresent 12CO(J = 3–2) and 12CO(J = 1–0) observations
of the supergiant Hii region NGC 604 in the nearest face-on
spiral galaxy M 33 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope
Experiment (ASTE) 10-m and the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) 45-m
telescopes. We found high 12CO(J = 3–2)/12CO(J = 1–0)
ratio gas with an arc-like distribution (“high-ratio gas arc”)
surrounding the central star cluster of NGC 604. Our results
suggest that dense gas formation and second-generation star
formation occur in the surrounding gas compressed by the stellar
wind and/or supernova of the first-generation stars of NGC 604,
i.e., the central star cluster of NGC 604. Thus, NGC 604 is an
example of large-scale sequential star formation.
We report our recent progress on extragalactic spectroscopic and continuum observations,
including HCN(J=1–0), HCO+(J=1–0), and CN(N=1–0) imaging surveys
of local Seyfert and starburst galaxies
using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array,
high-J CO observations (J=3–2 observations
using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE)
and J=2–1 observations with the Submillimeter Array) of galaxies,
and λ 1.1 mm continuum observations of high-z violent starburst galaxies
using the bolometer camera AzTEC mounted on ASTE.
In order to investigate how the growth of galactic bulges is accompanied with the growth of central black holes (BHs), we observed molecular gas (fuel for the coming star formation) in possibly young active galaxies, narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s). We present the results of pilot observations of 12CO (1→0) line using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array for two FIR-bright NLS1s, ending in the first detection of their CO emission. Corresponding molecular-gas masses M(H2) of (1−3)×109M⊙ are the 2nd and 4th largest ones among NLS1s. Together with CO data for other NLS1s (including our sub-kpc observations) and for broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (BLS1s), we found that NLS1s and BLS1s contain a similar amount of molecular–gas. We do not see a significant difference in M(H2)/MBH ratios and in M(H2)/Mbulge ratios between NLS1s and BLS1s. The lack of a clear difference in M(H2) between them indicates either that bulge and BH growth phases are not overlapped or that the duration of star formation is much longer than that of active galaxies.
By inducing phase separation parallel to the sol-gel transition of alkoxy-derived silica systems, silica monoliths with well-defined co-continuous macropores were obtained from the systems containing anionic surfactants. We adopted three kinds of anionic surfactants which differ from each other in the length of alkyl chain (CH3(CH2)17SO3Na, CH3(CH2)15SO3Na, CH3(CH2)13SO3Na). Mesopores were also found in the silica skeletons presumably by the supramolecular templating. Characterization of the dried or heat-treated samples was carried out by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption measurements. Experimental results showed that due to the moderate interaction between silica oligomers and surfactants, most of the surfactants are distributed to the solvent phase which determines the macropore volume. The median size and volume of the macropores could be controlled independently by the starting composition. In the absence of any additive to enhance templating by the surfactant, the samples exhibited only amorphous mesopores.
Thermoporometry was employed to monitor the mesopore evolution in wet, drying and heat-treatment stages of monolithic macro/mesoporous silica with SBA-15 like structure. Direct comparison of mesopores in wet state was only possible with the samples extracted with sulfuric acid. In good agreement with the preceding study, the sulfuric acid not only removed the surfactant but also modified the silica gel network into that with reduced amount of micropores and increased stability against the drying stress. Thermoporometry revealed that the structural evolution takes place completely in the wet condition, which accompanies a decrease in the thickness of non-freezable water.
We made a CO(1 – 0) mapping survey of 40 nearby spiral galaxies with the Nobeyama 45-m telescope to provide useful data for detailed and systematic studies of molecular gas in the galaxies (Kuno et al. 2006). Using these data we have compared the distribution of molecular gas in barred and non-barred spirals and investigated the influence of the bar. We confirmed that the degree of the central concentration of molecular gas within the radial distances of the order of a bar length in barred spirals is significantly higher than that in non-barred spirals as shown by Sakamoto et al. (1999) and Sheth et al. (2005). This is contrast with the degree of the concentration of the total molecular gas mass within the radial distances of the order of the bar, which is similar for both barred and non-barred spirals. This implies that the bars appear to be efficient in driving gas that lies within their radial scales toward the center of the host galaxies, but that they play quite a smaller role at larger spatial scales on the disks. Thus the characteristic feature of the radial distribution of molecular gas seen in barred spirals, i.e. the strong intensity peaks at their centers, the shallow gradients within the bar regions or/and the secondary peaks at the radius of the bar-ends, can be explained by the accumulation of molecular gas within the bar regions. The accumulated gas by bars accounts for about half of molecular gas mass within the central region. We also found a correlation between the degree of central concentration of molecular gas and the bar strength. Galaxies with stronger bars tend to have higher central concentrations. The result indicates that stronger bar accumulate molecular gas toward the center more efficiently. The correlation between the degree of central concentration of molecular gas and the strength seems to be consistent with long-lived bars rather than short-lived ones which are destroyed by the gas accumulation toward the center many times in the Hubble time.
We have performed CO(J=3−2) emission observations with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) toward the 5′ × 5′ (or 6.6 × 6.6 kpc at the distance D = 4.5 Mpc) region of the nearby barred spiral galaxy M 83. We successfully resolved the major structures, i.e., the nuclear starburst region, bar, and inner spiral arms in CO(J=3−2) emission at a resolution of 22'' (or 480 pc), showing a good spatial coincidence between CO(J=3−2) and 6 cm continuum emissions.
From a comparison of CO(J=3−2) data with CO(J=1−0) intensities measured with Nobeyama 45-m telescope, we found that the radial profile of CO(J=3−2)/CO(J=1−0) integrated intensity ratio R3−2/1−0 is almost unity in the central region (r<0.25 kpc), whereas it drops to a constant value, 0.6–0.7, in the disk region. The radial profile of star formation efficiencies (SFEs), determined from 6 cm radio continuum and CO(J=1−0) emission, shows the same trend as that of R3−2/1−0. At the bar-end (r ~ 2.4 kpc), the amounts of molecular gas and the massive stars are enhanced when compared with other disk regions, whereas there is no excess of R3−2/1−0 and SFE in that region. This means that a simple summation of the star forming regions at the bar-end and the disk cannot reproduce the nuclear starburst of M 83, implying that the spatial variation of the dense gas fraction traced by R3−2/1−0 governs the spatial variation of SFE in M 83.
We present the high-resolution 12CO(J = 1 − 0), 13CO(J = 1 − 0) and 12CO(J = 3 − 2) maps toward a GMA located on the southern arm region of M31 using Nobeyama 45 m and ASTE 10 m telescopes. The GMA consists of two velocity-components, i.e., red and blue. The blue component shows a strong and narrow peak, whereas the red one shows a weak and broad profile. The red component has a lower 12CO(J = 1 − 0)/13CO(J = 1 − 0) ratio (~ 5) than that of the blue one (~ 16), indicating that the red component is denser than the blue one. The red component could be the decelerated gas if we consider the galactic rotational velocity in this region. We suggest that the red component is “post shock” dense gas decelerated due to a spiral density wave. This could be observational evidence of dense molecular gas formation due to galactic shock by spiral density waves.
We also present results from on-going observations toward NGC 604, which is the supergiant HII region of M33, using Nobeyama 45 m and ASTE 10 m telescopes. The ratio of 12CO(J = 3 − 2) to 12CO(J = 1 − 0) ranges from 0.3 to 1.2 in NGC 604. The 12CO(J = 1 − 0) map shows the clumpy structure while 12CO(J = 3 − 2) shows a strong peak near to the central star cluster of NGC 604. The high ratio gas is distributed on the arc-like or shell-like structure along with Hα emission and HII region detected by radio continuum. These suggest that the dense gas formation and second generation star formation occur in the surrounding gas compressed by the stellar wind and/or supernova in central star cluster.
Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) is a joint project between Japan and Chile for installing and operating a 10 m high precision telescope in the Atacama Desert in order to explore the southern sky through the submillimeter wavelength. We have achieved an accuracy of 19 μm (rms) for the main reflector surface and a stable radio pointing accuracy of about 2 arcsec (rms). A 350 GHz cartridge type SIS mixer receiver achieves good performance with a typical system noise temperature of 150 ~ 250 K in DSB and a main beam efficiency of 0.6 ~ 0.7 during winter nights.
A large scale CO(3-2) imaging survey of nearby galaxies using ASTE is now in progress. One of our goals is to compare our wide area CO(3-2) images with existing CO(1-0) data as well as distributions of massive star formation tracers (i.e., Hα and radio continuum emission) in order to understand the physical mechanism which controls the global star formation properties such as star formation efficiency. Initial CO(3-2) maps of some sample galaxies (M 83, NGC 604 in M 33, NGC 1672, & NGC 7130) are reported.