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Amorphous TiO2 and SnO2 electron transport layers (ETLs) were deposited by low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD). Surface morphology and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate uniform and pinhole free coverage of these ALD hole blocking layers. Both mesoporous and planar perovskite solar cells were fabricated based on these thin films with aperture areas of 1.04 cm2 for TiO2 and 0.09 cm2 and 0.70 cm2 for SnO2. The resulting cell performance of 18.3 % power conversion efficiency (PCE) using planar SnO2 on 0.09 cm2 and 15.3 % PCE using mesoporous TiO2 on 1.04 cm2 active areas are discussed in conjunction with the significance of growth parameters and ETL composition.
The rapid spread of glyphosate-resistant sourgrass populations generates concern in the agricultural production sector in Brazil. Nonetheless, there is not much information related to the frequency and dispersion of sourgrass throughout recent years. We investigated the frequency and dispersion of glyphosate-resistant sourgrass populations in Brazilian agricultural regions as part of a larger-scale weed resistance monitoring study. A discriminatory rate of 960 g ae ha−1 of glyphosate was used on plants at the 2- to 3-tiller stage, originating from 2,593 populations of sourgrass sampled in 329 counties in 14 Brazilian states between 2012 and 2015. The dispersion of sourgrass populations originated in western Paraná State, next to the Paraguay border, where the first resistance case was reported. Its dispersion to the central region of Brazil, mainly in soybean-producing areas, is most likely a consequence of agricultural equipment movement and wind-mediated dispersal. Glyphosate-resistant sourgrass populations were found in every geographical region across all Brazilian states tested. These data highlight the importance of an appropriate weed resistance monitoring program to track the evolution and dispersion of resistance to mitigate these issues by focusing efforts regionally and raising awareness among stakeholders in each region.
Experimental evidence supporting the theory of hot tail runaway electron (RE) generation has been identified in TEXTOR disruptions. With higher temperature, more REs are generated during the thermal quench. Increasing the RE generation by increasing the temperature, an obvious RE plateau is observed even with low toroidal magnetic field (1.7 T). These results explain the previously found electron density threshold for RE generation.
A self resonating bimorph cantilever structure for fast temperature cycling in a pyroelectric energy harvester has been modeled using finite element method. Effect of constituting material properties and system parameters on the frequency and magnitude of temperature cycling and the efficiency of energy recycling using the proposed structure has been investigated. Results show that thermal contact conductance and heat source temperature play a key role in dominating the cycling frequency and efficiency of energy recycling. Studying the performance trend with various parameters such as thermal contact conductance, heat source temperature, device aspect ratio and constituent material of varying thermal conductivity and expansion coefficient, an optimal solution for most efficient energy scavenging process has been sought.
Spatially resolved concentration profiles of ground-state chlorine atoms were measured in CF3 Cl/Ar RF plasmas using two-photon laser induced fluorescence. A significant Cl gradient was found between the two electrodes under conditions typical for plasma etching. This experimental observation is consistent with previous model predictions which assumed the primary loss of Cl was a second-order surface recombination on the upper electrode which is partially limited by gaseous diffusion.
Difficulty in inhibition or cognitive control is a common and significant sequela of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study used functional MRI to examine one specific inhibitory function, interference control, in 11 adolescents, aged 12–16 years, (mean age, 15.7 years) with TBI who were at least 1 year postinjury and 11 age-matched typically developing control participants (TC) (mean age, 15.2 years). Participants completed a Counting Stroop task with 2 main conditions: (1) a neutral condition requiring the counting of animal words and (2) an interference condition in which mismatched number words were counted. Both TBI and TC adolescents activated similar networks of brain regions relevant to interference control, but the TBI group showed higher levels of activation relative to the TC group in multiple brain areas within this network, including predominantly right frontal and parietal regions. Findings of greater activation of the relevant neural network in the TBI group are consistent with recent fMRI findings using other interference control paradigms with individuals with a history of TBI. (JINS, 2011, 17, 000–000.)
Interactions of laser driven plasma jets with He and Ar gas puffs was investigated experimentally by means of three-frame interferometric/shadowgraphic system and three-frame X-ray pinhole camera. A defocused iodine laser beam using the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) interacting with massive planar Cu targets generated high-speed well-collimated plasma jets. The PALS third harmonic (0.438 µm), with pulse duration of 250 ps (full width at half maximum), and energy of 100 J was employed in two irradiation geometries: with an incidence normal to the target surface and with an oblique one (30° with respect to the target normal), in order to minimize the heating of the ambient gas by the laser beam. The results of these interaction experiments, in particular, those obtained in case of the oblique incidence geometry, are presented and discussed. They show the effect of the double shock formation in ambient gases: starting by the ablative plasma action, followed by that of the jet.
Attentional deficits are common and significant sequelae of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how the underlying neural processes that support different components of attention are affected. The present study examined brain activation patterns using fMRI in a group of young children who sustained a TBI in early childhood (n = 5; mean age = 9.4), and a group of age-matched control children with orthopedic injuries (OI) (n = 8) during a continuous performance task (CPT). Four children in the TBI group had moderate injuries, and one had a severe injury. Performance on the CPT task did not differ between groups. Both TBI and OI children activated similar networks of brain regions relevant to sustained attention processing, but the TBI group demonstrated several areas of significantly greater activation relative to controls, including frontal and parietal regions. These findings of over-activation of the relevant attention network in the TBI group contrast with those obtained in imaging studies of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder where under-activation of the attention network has been documented. This study provides evidence that young children's brains function differently following a traumatic brain injury, and that these differences persist for years after the injury. (JINS, 2008, 14, 424–435.)
Low concentration of toxic radioactive metals in environmental samples often
limits the interpretation of results of infrared studies investigating the
interaction processes between the metal ions and environmental compartments.
For the first time, we could show that photothermal infrared spectroscopy
performed with a pulsed free electron laser can provide reliable infrared
spectra throughout a distinct spectral range of interest. In this model
investigation, we provide vibrational absorption spectra of a rare earth
metal salt dissolved in a KBr matrix and a natural calcite sample obtained
by photothermal beam deflection (PTBD) technique and FT-IR spectroscopy,
respectively. General agreement was found between all spectra of the
different recording techniques. Spectral deviations were observed with
samples containing low concentration of the rare earth metal salt indicating
a lower detection limit of the photothermal method as compared to
conventional FT-IR spectroscopy.
In numerical simulations of skeletal muscle contractions, geometric
information is of major importance. The
aim of the present study was to determine whether the diffusion tensor
imaging (DTI) technique is suitable
to obtain valid input with regard to skeletal muscle fibre direction. The
accuracy of the DTI method was
therefore studied by comparison of DTI fibre directions in the rat tibialis
anterior muscle with fascicle
striation patterns visible on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) and with fibre directions in
an actual longitudinal section (ALS) through the same muscle. The results
showed an excellent qualitative
agreement between high-resolution MRI and DTI. Despite less accurate quantitative
comparison with ALS,
it was concluded that DTI does indeed measure skeletal muscle fibre direction.
After the experiment, it was
possible to determine an appropriate voxel size (0.9 mm3) that
provided enough resolution and acceptable
accuracy (5°) to use DTI fibre directions in biomechanical analyses.
Muscle deformation during contraction,
resulting from a finite element simulation with a mesh that was directly
generated from the experimental
data, has been presented.
This article describes the use of non-invasive magnetic resonance (MR) methods for the characterization and monitoring of the pathophysiology of experimental brain injury in laboratory animals as a function of time and treatment. The impact of MR in brain research is primarily due to its non-invasive nature, thereby enabling repeated measurements in long-term studies, and due to the type of information that it provides. MR imaging (MRI) enables the measurement of the morphology/anatomy as well as the functional status of tissues under in vivo conditions. Compared to other in vivo imaging modalities, MRI has a high spatial resolution and allows for a remarkable soft tissue differentiation. MR spectroscopy (MRS) provides information on the biochemical/metabolic status of tissues. MR methods which have proven valuable in animal studies, can be readily translated to the clinical situation where MR-based diagnosis and treatment planning play a rapidly increasing role.
After a short introduction into the principles of MR, we will illustrate the remarkable versatility of MR in research on brain injury from recent animal studies. Examples will be mainly drawn from experiments on early injury in focal cerebral ischemia and from research on mechanical brain trauma and excitotoxic lesions. The article ends with a brief description of the perspectives of MR in neuropsychiatry.
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