Salmonella Braenderup is an uncommon serotype in the United States. In July 2004, a multistate outbreak of Salmonella Braenderup diarrhoeal infections occurred, with 125 clinical isolates identified. To investigate, we conducted a case-control study, enrolling 32 cases and 63 matched controls. Cheese, lettuce and tomato eaten at restaurants all appeared to be associated with illness. To further define specific exposures, we conducted a second study and asked managers of restaurants patronized by patients and controls about cheese, lettuce and tomato varieties used in dishes their patrons reported consuming. This information was obtained for 27 cases and 29 controls. Roma tomatoes were the only exposure significantly associated with illness (odds ratio 4·3, 95% confidence interval 1·2–15·9). Roma tomatoes from two restaurants were traced back to a single tomato packing house. The methods used in this field investigation to define specific exposures may be useful for other foodborne outbreaks.