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Pneumococcal serotype replacement is an important issue after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in children. After the introduction of 13-valent PCV, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F (Sp12F) have increased in some countries; however, an outbreak of Sp12F has not reported in the post-13-valent PCV era. We experienced a local outbreak of Sp12F during March through May 2016 in Tsuruoka city, Japan after the introduction of 13-valent PCV in 2013. The IPD patients were two children and seven adults, three of whom died with a rapid disease progress. Although the clear transmission route was not determined, eight of the nine patients (89%) had close contact with children, which suggests that transmitted colonisation of Sp12F among children and adults might be the source of transmission. Continuous monitoring of IPDs, along with the determination of pneumococcal serotypes, is warranted in the post–13-valent PCV era. New IPD control strategies may be needed if this fatal outbreak continues to occur.
We present here the fundamental idea of the conversion method between old and new reference frameworks. Some practical applications are made for the optical observations for Tokyo PZT. The method can be also applied to the conversion of radio sources where we have met a great difficulty in performing the conversion because of no citation of observation epochs in general. We discuss their necessity in order to establish a concrete compilation of the position of the radio sources.
We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.
Four working groups and three task groups of IAU Commission 5 deal specifically with information handling, technical aspects of collection, archiving, storage and dissemination of data, with designations and classification of astronomical objects, with library services, editorial policies, computer communications, ad hoc methodologies, and with various standards, reference frames etc. Information about Commission 5 working and task groups and their activities may be found in http://nut.inasan.rssi.ru/IAU/.
Large-field radio interferometer at 10.65GHz have been developed to search for transient radio objects such as radio supernovae and radio bursts in stellar systems (Daishido et al. 1984). This is a spatial fast-fourier transform (FFT) type radio interferometer, being an equally-spaced, maximum redundant, two-dimensional (2D) array in an 8 × 8 configuration. Sixty-four identically-designed frontend elements are comprised of 2.4 m diameter cassegrain antennas and 200K HEMT receivers. These are steerable in elevetion and are fixed in azimuth. Although it is only partially operating, the completed system having 64 beams in the northern hemisphere is expected to provide maps having 0.1° angular resolution and a sensitivity of 50 mJy. The beams are formed by a newly-developed “Digital Lens” (complex amplitude equalizer + 2D FFT pipelined processor), with the array’s overall size being 20 × 20m.
A high time- and spatial-resolution radio interferometer for solar observations has been constructed at Nobeyama (Figure I.; Nakajima et al. 1994). The Nobeyama Radioheliograph consists of 84 antennas, 0.8m in diameter, arranged on a T-shape lines of 500m in the EW and 220m in the NS directions. The time resolution is 50 ms and the spatial resolution is 10”. The field of view is 40’ at the observing frequency 17GHz, which enables us to watch the whole sun. The radioheliograph has observed hundreds of flares during the few months since the beginning of regular observations in July ‘92, and such powerful performance has never before been demonstrated in the history of solar radio observations.
Recently, the issue of sustainable resource management has been increasingly recognized.
Economic growth of human activity is associated with a rapid rise in the use of resources
in our economy, and society has a potential environmental impact. The UNEP International
Resource Panel (IRP) pointed out the importance of decoupling resource use and negative
environmental impacts from economic activity (UNEP IRP 2011). In order to
optimize the material cycles and increase resource efficiency, material flow analysis
(MFA) is a powerful tool to understand the resource consumption and material cycle in the
national economy. In this study, we present the results of global material flow analysis
of nickel, which is one of the important resources for reducing energy use and
CO2 emission in
our society, and discuss the importance and possibility of controlling its resource
logistics. This study also introduces the challenge of identifying the land-use changes in
nickel mining sites by a remote-sensing technique, and knowledge to increase the resource
efficiency in metal recycling based on the metallurgical thermodynamic approach. The
results indicated the importance of recovery of nickel in recycling policies for
end-of-life (EoL) vehicles and constructions. Improvement in EoL sorting technologies and
implementation of designs for recycling/disassembly at the manufacturing phase are needed.
Possible solutions include development of sorting processes for steel scrap and
introduction of easier methods for identifying the composition of secondary resources.
Recovery of steel scrap with a high alloy content will reduce primary inputs of alloying
elements and contribute to more efficient resource use.
The operation of an economy is supported by the stock of materials in the form of durables and infrastructure such as machinery, equipment, buildings, and structures. The amount of durables and infrastructure or “capital stock” in the economy is of great interest in the literature of economics, and is usually measured in monetary terms based on the data on capital expenditure. In spite of its wide use by economists, this measure of “capital stock” is of very limited use for sustainable management of material stock because of its neglect of physical properties such as the mass and material composition. This paper proposes a new method of measuring the stock of long-lived durables and infrastructure in terms of the mass of its materials. This method is based on the WIO-MFA method [S. Nakamura et al. J. Ind. Ecol. 11 (2007) 50-63] and the capital formation matrix that is one of the supplementary tables of the input-output table. The method is applied to the Japanese input-output data with 400 sectors, with 9 types of metals (iron, ferroalloy, copper, zinc, lead, tin, aluminum, silver, and gold) and 8 types of plastics (thermo-setting resins, PE (low), PE (high), PS, PP, PVC, high-performance resins, and other resins) occurring as materials. It was found that substantial variations exist among sectors while fixed capital formation in the year 2000 weighs 518 kg per million Japanese yen on average in metals and plastics.
In performance assessment of geological disposal systems for High Level
Radioactive Waste (HLW), the change of environment over the long-term must
be considered. Therefore, it is necessary to consider a wide range of
parameters concerned with radionuclides migration, especially the dependence
of solubility on geochemical environment. In this study, assuming that the
release rate of the nuclides from buffer material is limited by inventory
ultimately, the relationship between the initial inventory and the
solubility that produces a solubility-invariant maximum release rate from
the buffer is examined by using a simple steady-state analytical solution
without decay. As the result, the threshold of “effective” solubility in the
performance assessment of the geological disposal systems for HLW is
obtained as a function of initial inventory, distribution coefficient (Kd),
diffusion coefficient, and thickness, porosity and density of the buffer.
Also, the threshold of “effective” steady dissolution rate corresponding to
the threshold of “effective” solubility is obtained.
We report drain-current (Id) deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) spectra and liquid-encapsulated-Czochralski-technique (LEC) GaAs crystal effect on low-frequency-oscillation (LFO) of wide gate (400-μm) Si-implanted GaAs metal- semiconductor field- effect- transistors (MESFETs). In the range of this experiment we could not find distinguishing DLTS peaks surely to be linked with Id-LFO of the MESFETs. Stoichiometric-melt growth LEC-boules showed relatively large Id-LFO phenomena. As-rich-melt growth LEC-boules showed tolerance to Id-LFO. We conclude that Id-LFO is not directly linked to deep centers themselves but interaction between deep centers and potential profiles and electrons. Stability of potential profile or band profile depends on “pinning’ center, which affects Fermi-level or quasi-Fermi-level stability. ‘Pinning’ center such as EL2s of ‘LEC GaAs crystals” is essential.
Exposure to environmental toxicants or exogenous oestrogen increases the risk of cancer. Some toxicants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) undergo biotransformation to become genotoxic agents. Cytochrome p450 (CYP) 1B1 is an enzyme catalysing this transformation. Consumption of fruit and vegetables is considered to be protective against carcinogenesis, and naringenin can be found abundantly in citrus fruits. In the present study, the effect of naringenin on the regulation of CYP1B1 was investigated in MCF-7 cells. Enzyme inhibition assays revealed that naringenin inhibited CYP1B1 at or above 5 μm but not CYP1A1 activity. Quantitative PCR analysis also demonstrated that 1 μm-naringenin reduced CYP1B1 mRNA expression induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA). Further study illustrated that the suppression was at the transcriptional level. Since previous studies have shown that oestrogen response element (ERE) and xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE) are functional binding sequences in the promoter region of CYP1B1, interference of DNA binding on these two elements was pursued. Employing reporter gene assays as well as the electromobility shift assay, we verified that naringenin counteracted DMBA-induced XRE binding at − 1675. These results supported the notion that fruit consumption could be a protective measure against PAH biotransformation.
Preparation of the CaTiO3:Pr (CTO:Pr) phosphor thin film on PET substrate was investigated by using the excimer laser-assisted metal organic decomposition(ELAMOD) and photo reaction of nano-particles (PRNP) process. The effects of the substrate material, starting materials, and UV sources on photoluminescence (PL) were investigated. By using the BaTiO3(BTO) nano-particles buffer layer and the CTO: Pr nano-particles as a starting material, CTO: Pr thin film on the PET substrate was successfully obtained by using the KrF laser and excimer lamp irradiation at 25°C. It was found that excimer lamp irradiation is effective for improving the PL of the films.
Hexagonal ZnO was grown on hexagonal (001) sapphire substrate, then cubic La(Sr)MnO3(LSMO) was grown on ZnO underlayer by ion beam sputtering at substrate temperatures of 550-750°C to obtain double-layer of LSMO/ZnO. Out-of-plane (001) oriented ZnO was grown with in-plane orientation of [10-10](0001)ZnO//[11-20](0001)sapphire. Mixed phase of LSMO with out-of-plane (001), (110) and (111) orientations was grown on (001) ZnO usually. However each single phase of LSMO could be grown by controlling deposition conditions. The LSMO grains have their in-plane orientations of (110)LSMO //[10-10](0001)ZnO and (111)LSMO//[11-20](0001)ZnO.
It is demonstrated that luminescent porous silicon (PS) exhibits an efficient thermoacoustic effect owing to its extremely low thermal conductivity. The experimental device is composed of a patterned thin Al film electrode (30 nm thick), a microporous PS layer (10–50 μm thick), and a single-crystalline Si (c-Si) wafer. The PS layer was formed by a conventional anodization technique. When an electrical input is provided to the Al electrode as a sinusoidal current followed by Joule's heating, a significant acoustic pressure is produced in front of the device as a result of an efficient heat exchange between PS and air. The output amplitude is in inverse proportion to the square root of the input frequency (0.1-100 kHz) as predicted by a theoretical analysis. The observed effect is a novel useful function of PS as a completely depleted nanocrystalline system.
The material properties of two ultra low-k organic polymers are characterized for copper interconnect integration. The k-values are 2.2-2.3 for both. Compared to OSG materials of similar k-values, these polymers have lower porosity and smaller pore size, achieved using selfassembled chemistry. Both materials demonstrate excellent resistance to plasma damage: no water uptake was detected after exposure to selected etching plasmas. This characteristic, combined with the small pore size and low porosity, results in the successful integration of the organic low-ks in 80 nm spacing with no significant increase in the integrated k-values.
It is found that higher open porosity in polymer A is accompanied by higher leakage current, which is not however linked to lower dielectric breakdown lifetimes.
The stability of elongated single- and multi-layered graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are investigated by molecular-dynamics simulation. In order that GNRs are to be modeled as nanobridges connecting two terminals of electronic devices, the short edges of the GNRs are constrained. The distances between the two constrained edges are gradually increased, and the GNRs are uniaxially strained. The energies and out-of-plane deformations of such uniaxially strained GNRs are examined. The energies of multi-layered GNRs will be lower than those of isolated GNRs because the surface areas of multi-layered GNRs are smaller than the total area of the isolated GNRs. Understanding the relationship between the out-of-plane deformations and strain will lead to the control of the ripple structures of GNRs.