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This study determines the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes consumed by long-term care (LTC) residents. This cross-sectional study was completed in thirty-two LTC homes in four Canadian provinces. Weighed and estimated food and beverage intake were collected over 3 non-consecutive days from 632 randomly selected residents. Nutrient intakes were adjusted for intra-individual variation and compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Proportion of participants, stratified by sex and use of modified (MTF) or regular texture foods, with intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI), were identified. Numbers of participants that met these adequacy values with use of micronutrient supplements was determined. Mean age of males (n 197) was 85·2 (sd 7·6) years and females (n 435) was 87·4 (sd 7·8) years. In all, 33 % consumed MTF; 78·2 % (males) and 76·1 % (females) took at least one micronutrient pill. Participants on a MTF had lower intake for some nutrients (males=4; females=8), but also consumed a few nutrients in larger amounts than regular texture consumers (males=4; females =1). More than 50 % of participants in both sexes and texture groups consumed inadequate amounts of folate, vitamins B6, Ca, Mg and Zn (males only), with >90 % consuming amounts below the EAR/AI for vitamin D, E, K, Mg (males only) and K. Vitamin D supplements resolved inadequate intakes for 50–70 % of participants. High proportions of LTC residents have intakes for nine of twenty nutrients examined below the EAR or AI. Strategies to improve intake specific to these nutrients are needed.
Boron was incorporated into GaN in order to determine its limits of solubility, its ability of reducing the lattice constant mismatch with 6H-SiC, as well as its effects on the structural and optical properties of GaN epilayers. BxGa1−xN films were deposited on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates at 950 °C by low pressure MOVPE using diborane, trimethylgallium, and ammonia as precursors. A single phase alloy with x=0.015 was successfully produced at a gas reactant B/Ga ratio of 0.005. Phase separation into pure GaN and BxGa1−xN alloy with x=0.30 was deposited for a B/Ga reactant ratio of 0.01. This is the highest B fraction of the wurtzite structure alloy ever reported. For B/Ga ratio ≥ 0.02, no BxGa1−xN was formed, and the solid solution contained two phases: wurtzite GaN and BN based on the results of Auger and x-ray diffraction. The band edge emission of BxGa1−xN varied from 3.451 eV for x=0 with FWHM of 39.2 meV to 3.465 eV for x=0.015 with FWHM of 35.1 meV. The narrower FWHM indicated that the quality of GaN epilayer was improved with small amount of boron incorporation.
Boron was incorporated into GaN in order to determine its limits of solubility, its ability of reducing the lattice constant mismatch with 6H-SiC, as well as its effects on the structural and optical properties of GaN epilayers. BxGal-xN films were deposited on 6H-SiC (0001) substrates at 950 °C by low pressure MOVPE using diborane, trimethylgallium, and ammonia as precursors. A single phase alloy with x=0.015 was successfully produced at a gas reactant B/Ga ratio of 0.005. Phase separation into pure GaN and BxGal-xN alloy with x=0.30 was deposited for a B/Ga reactant ratio of 0.01. This is the highest B fraction of the wurtzite structure alloy ever reported. For B/Ga ratio ≥ 0.02, no BxGal-xN was formed, and the solid solution contained two phases: wurtzite GaN and BN based on the results of Auger and x-ray diffraction. The band edge emission of BxGal-xN varied from 3.451 eV for x=0 with FWHM of 39.2 meV to 3.465 eV for x=0.015 with FWHM of 35.1 meV. The narrower FWHM indicated that the quality of GaN epilayer was improved with small amount of boron incorporation.
We have studied the structural evolution in amorphous and microcrystalline silicon deposited from silane-argon mixture by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) method. Sharp increase in small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) intensity, in accordance with tilt measurements, indicates columnar morphology in the sample deposited in the amorphous-microcrystalline transition region. The variation of SAXS measured heterogeneity and a gradual shift of Si-H stretching vibrational frequency at 2000 cm-1 towards higher wave number with increase of power density indicate structural modifications in the films. Observation of sharp increase in the ratio of the intensity of Ar* to SiH* in the transition region may explain the surface modification assisted by Ar* and hence the structural changes in the material.
A survey of ABO blood groups, secretor status and smoking habits among 389 students and staff of a school in which there was an outbreak of meningococcal disease found no difference in the distribution of the ABO blood groups but a significantly higher proportion of non-secretors (37·6%) in the population examined compared with that reported for previous surveys of the neighbouring population in Glasgow (26·2%) (P < 0·0005). There was also a significantly higher proportion of non-secretors among carriers of meningococci (47%) compared with non-carriers (32%). Increased carriage of meningococci among non-secretors might contribute to the increased susceptibility of individuals with this genetic characteristic to meningococcal disease observed in previous studies. Although passive exposure to cigarette smoke has been associated with meningococcal disease, there was no association between passive smoking and carriage. There was, however, a significant association between active smoking and carriage.
A new genus, Coffmania in the tribe Pentaneurini of the subfamily Tanypodinae with two new species from Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalayas in India is described and illustrated with male and female imagines, pupa and larva. Systematics of the genus and ecology of the species have also been discussed.
The immatures (larva and pupa) of Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus) valgus Chaudhuri & Sinharay are described for the first
time. The species belongs to chalybeatus group. The larva is opportunistic, present in the fast-flowing streams to slow-flowing
organically enriched sewage drains. It lives in tunnels made of various particles glued together by silky secretions. There are two
generations a year with peak emergence in April-May and September-November. The sex ratio of females to males is 2:1.
The discovery of large quantities of gold and silver in the New World following the voyage of Christopher Columbus had a major impact on the subsequent history of the world economy. These two precious metals together with copper were regarded as the standard and measure of value in all societies throughout history. The sudden increase in the supply of gold and silver greatly increased the capacity of individual countries such as Spain and Portugal to finance wars and imports of consumer goods. The new Spanish coin, the real of eight, became an international currency for settling trade balances, and large quantities of these coins were exported to the Middle East, India, Southeast Asia, and China to purchase oriental commodities such as silk piece goods, cotton textiles, industrial raw material such as indigo, and various kinds of spices, later followed by tea, coffee, and porcelain. The trade in New World gold and silver depended on the development of new and adequate mining techniques in Mexico and Peru to extract the ore and refine the metal. South German mining engineers greatly contributed to the transplantation of European technology to the Americas, and the Spanish-American silver mines utilised the new mercury amalgamation method to extract refined silver from the raw ores. Although the techniques used in Mexico and Peru were not particularly advanced by contemporary European standards, the American mine owners remained in business for more than three hundred years, and the supply of American silver came to be the foundation of the newly rising Indian Ocean world economy in the 17th and 18th centuries.
In the history of human civilization, there are a number of recurrent events and activities that have played a profound and fundamental role. Warfare and trade, so different from one another in their psychological origins, nevertheless are the two indivisible symbols of man's basic desire to look beyond his inner self and of the urge to master the constraints of his immediate natural environment. The demarcation of state frontiers through military and political means breaks up the unity of economic space that long-distance trade subsequently attempts to restore. As a result, the function of trade in social institutions and in the rhythm of economic life is possessed of a dynamic complexity, a variegated richness, that is more easily sensed than it is capable of a single unified analysis. Like the perennial glaciers that sometimes come forward into the valleys and at other times retreat up the mountain sides in long slow movements, the spatial and qualitative dimensions of trade have also expanded and shrunk in response to a wider climate of social, political, and economic frontiers. The sources of energy vitalizing the exchange of objects and movements of long-distance trade can be easily traced to an aggregate composed of many different strands of motivations. The differential rate of technological progress obviously created uneven gradients of material civilizations in which the very inequality of production itself was an incentive to trade. Similarly, division of labor, urbanization, artistic expressions, and acquisitive urges can be listed as some of the organizing principles of commercial exchange.
The Ming maritime expeditions organized by Cheng Ho during the reign of Emperor Yung-lo have been studied intensively by Sinologists and the historians of the eastern Indian Ocean. The scattered references in the Islamic sources to the arrival of Chinese ships at the Middle Eastern ports on the other hand have not been properly collated with the evidence from Chinese historical sources. While working on Ibn Taghrī Birdī's history of Mamlūk Egypt, I accidentally came across a passage which graphically describes the possible economic impact of the Ming voyages on the revenue of local rulers. The historian was referring to the last expedition and the arrival of ships during the reign of al-Malik al-Ashraf Barsbay.