To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This paper compares two pioneering design educational approaches: the historic Bauhaus school founded in 1919 in Germany, and contemporary design thinking education, based on the example of the “HPI School of Design Thinking”. We compare both approaches according to six emerging categories: (1) curriculum, (2) multi-disciplinarity, (3) mind-set and culture, (4) study environment, (5) conditions for innovation, and (6) socio-economic context. We outline differences and similarities and discuss the possible impact for future design education.
It is important to be able to compare and evaluate different solutions early in development. This paper proposes a method for structuring historical data into a data model that can support the evaluation of new design concepts. The data is contextualized by linking it to a hierarchical decomposition of existing products. Two case studies were conducted to evaluate the value of using historical data when evaluating new concepts. The cases confirm that the proposed method is useful for evaluation of new concepts.
This paper looks at the positive effects of partial status anonymity in face-to-face co-creation workshops. Results suggest that especially during the early phases of co-creation, i.e. idea generation, participants experience more freedom to express themselves without self-imposed barriers. We observed positive effects in terms of (1) lowering or even suspending the perceived status among team members, (2) increased motivation, (3) freedom to speak and positive disposition to listen, (4) willingness to consider perspectives from other team members.
Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) has been used for many years to treat age-related cognitive disorders. Recent studies also indicate a therapeutic potential of EGb761 in Alzheimer disease (AD). Bolstered evidence indicates that mitochondrial abnormalities might be part of the spectrum of chronic oxidative stress occurring in aging and AD finally contributing to synaptic failure and neuronal degeneration.
We investigated the protective effects of EGb761 on mitochondrial function and ATP production.
As cellular models, PC12 cells and acutely dissociated brain cells from young and aged mice were investigated under a variety of conditions, e.g. oxidative and nitrosative stress, associated with impaired mitochondrial function and decreased membrane potential.
EGb761 alleviated mitochondrial functions in vitro at concentrations as low as 0.01mg/ml. The effect of EGb761 was specific, since protective effects were mainly seen after specifically impairing respiratory chain complexes II, IV, and V. Comparable findings were made with dissociated brain cells from young and aged mice where usually aged brain cells were more sensitive for the protective effects of EGb761. In addition, PC12 cells bearing an AD-related mutation in the amyloid precursor protein, that leads to enhanced beta-amyloid production, showed a greater benefit from treatment with EGb761 than control cells.
Taking together, our finding clearly show stabilization and protection of mitochondrial function as a specific and very sensitive property of EGb761 at rather low concentrations. This mechanism can explain many of the until now rather unrelated observations of EGb761 in brain aging and neurodegeneration.
The triazines are one of the most widely used herbicide classes ever developed and are critical for managing weed populations that have developed herbicide resistance. These herbicides are traditionally valued for their residual weed control in more than 50 crops. Scientific literature suggests that atrazine, and perhaps other s-triazines, may no longer remain persistent in soils due to enhanced microbial degradation. Experiments examined the rate of degradation of atrazine and two other triazine herbicides, simazine and metribuzin, in both atrazine-adapted and non-history Corn Belt soils, with similar soils being used from each state as a comparison of potential triazine degradation. In three soils with no history of atrazine use, the t1/2 of atrazine was at least four times greater than in three soils with a history of atrazine use. Simazine degradation in the same three sets of soils was 2.4 to 15 times more rapid in history soils than non-history soils. Metribuzin in history soils degraded at 0.6, 0.9, and 1.9 times the rate seen in the same three non-history soils. These results indicate enhanced degradation of the symmetrical triazine simazine, but not of the asymmetrical triazine metribuzin.
Knowledge of the effects of burial depth and burial duration on seed viability and, consequently, seedbank persistence of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) and waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] ecotypes can be used for the development of efficient weed management programs. This is of particular interest, given the great fecundity of both species and, consequently, their high seedbank replenishment potential. Seeds of both species collected from five different locations across the United States were investigated in seven states (sites) with different soil and climatic conditions. Seeds were placed at two depths (0 and 15 cm) for 3 yr. Each year, seeds were retrieved, and seed damage (shrunken, malformed, or broken) plus losses (deteriorated and futile germination) and viability were evaluated. Greater seed damage plus loss averaged across seed origin, burial depth, and year was recorded for lots tested at Illinois (51.3% and 51.8%) followed by Tennessee (40.5% and 45.1%) and Missouri (39.2% and 42%) for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. The site differences for seed persistence were probably due to higher volumetric water content at these sites. Rates of seed demise were directly proportional to burial depth (α=0.001), whereas the percentage of viable seeds recovered after 36 mo on the soil surface ranged from 4.1% to 4.3% compared with 5% to 5.3% at the 15-cm depth for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. Seed viability loss was greater in the seeds placed on the soil surface compared with the buried seeds. The greatest influences on seed viability were burial conditions and time and site-specific soil conditions, more so than geographical location. Thus, management of these weed species should focus on reducing seed shattering, enhancing seed removal from the soil surface, or adjusting tillage systems.
Magnetocaloric heat pumps (MHPs) use the solid-state magnetocaloric effect (MCE) to move heat from cold to hot using an intermediate heat-transfer fluid. Work input is required to drive the MCE via a change in a magnetic field. Work input is also required to drive the heat-transfer fluid flow. Thus design of a MHP involves the coupling of materials, magnetics, heat transfer, and fluid flow. We discuss design principles and operational devices that have brought this technology toward technical feasibility, and the approaches to overcome remaining hurdles to commercial feasibility.
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder associated with disrupted connectivity within the thalamic-cortico-cerebellar network. Resting-state functional connectivity studies have reported thalamic hypoconnectivity with the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex as well as thalamic hyperconnectivity with sensory cortical regions in SZ patients compared with healthy comparison participants (HCs). However, fundamental questions remain regarding the clinical significance of these connectivity abnormalities.
Resting state seed-based functional connectivity was used to investigate thalamus to whole brain connectivity using multi-site data including 183 SZ patients and 178 matched HCs. Statistical significance was based on a voxel-level FWE-corrected height threshold of p < 0.001. The relationships between positive and negative symptoms of SZ and regions of the brain demonstrating group differences in thalamic connectivity were examined.
HC and SZ participants both demonstrated widespread positive connectivity between the thalamus and cortical regions. Compared with HCs, SZ patients had reduced thalamic connectivity with bilateral cerebellum and anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, SZ patients had greater thalamic connectivity with multiple sensory-motor regions, including bilateral pre- and post-central gyrus, middle/inferior occipital gyrus, and middle/superior temporal gyrus. Thalamus to middle temporal gyrus connectivity was positively correlated with hallucinations and delusions, while thalamus to cerebellar connectivity was negatively correlated with delusions and bizarre behavior.
Thalamic hyperconnectivity with sensory regions and hypoconnectivity with cerebellar regions in combination with their relationship to clinical features of SZ suggest that thalamic dysconnectivity may be a core neurobiological feature of SZ that underpins positive symptoms.
In this retrospective study, we describe and analyse Salmonella data from four livestock species in Great Britain between 1983 and 2014, focusing on Salmonella Typhimurium. A total of 96 044 Salmonella isolates were obtained during the study period. S. Typhimurium was the predominant serovar isolated from cattle and pigs and represented 40.7% (18 455/45 336) and 58.3% (4495/7709) of isolates from these species respectively, while it only accounted for 6.7% (2114/31 492) of chicken isolates and 8.1% (926/11 507) of turkey isolates. Over the study period, DT104 was the most common phage type in all four species; however, DT104 peaked in occurrence between 1995 and 1999, but is currently rare.
Monophasic strains of S. Typhimurium represented less than 3% of all Salmonella isolates in cattle and chickens in 2014, but accounted for 10.4% of all turkey isolates and 39.0% of all pig isolates in the same year.
Salmonella isolates were tested for their in vitro susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials. Antimicrobial resistance of S. Typhimurium isolates is largely influenced by the dominance of specific phage types at a certain time, which are commonly associated with particular resistance patterns. Changes in resistance patterns over time were analysed and compared between species.
Poor annual bluegrass control was reported in golf course roughs following treatment with prodiamine (1120 gaiha−1) and glyphosate (840 gaeha−1) during hybrid bermudagrass dormancy. Research was conducted to determine if this annual bluegrass phenotype was resistant to both prodiamine and glyphosate and to determine the efficacy of herbicide mixtures for controlling this phenotype in the field. In PRE or POST dose-response experiments, 9 to 31 times more prodiamine or glyphosate was needed to control (or reduce dry biomass of) this resistant phenotype by 50% compared to an herbicide-susceptible phenotype. Moreover, glyphosate-susceptible plants accumulated 50% more shikimic acid (898 mgkg−1) 6 d after treatment than those resistant to glyphosate (394 mgkg−1). October (fall) applications of herbicide mixtures containing trifloxysulfuron, simazine, S-metolachlor, or mesotrione controlled this resistant annual bluegrass phenotype 84 to 98% in April (spring), with no differences detected among treatments. Our findings document the second instance of annual bluegrass evolving multiple resistance in a managed turfgrass system. However, several herbicide mixtures can be used to effectively manage this resistant phenotype.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), yet existing diagnostic tools remain inadequate. We aimed to evaluate laboratory and radiological methods for detecting pneumococcal aetiology in CAP patients and to estimate Spn prevalence in this group. All-aged patients hospitalized with clinically defined CAP in northern Togo were enrolled during 2010–2013. Latent class analysis pooled results of semi-automated blood culture (SABC), whole blood lytA real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and chest radiography (CXR) and categorized patients as likely pneumococcal or non-pneumococcal CAP. We enrolled 1684 patients; 1501 had results for all tests. CXR, SABC, lytA rt-PCR and CRP >71·2 mg/l had sensitivities of 94% [95% confidence interval (CI) 87–100], 13% (95% CI 10–16), 17% (95% CI 14–21) and 78% (95% CI 75–80), and specificities of 88% (95% CI 84–93), 100% (95% CI 99–100), 97% (95% CI 96–99) and 77% (95% CI 75–79), respectively. Pneumococcal attributable proportion was 34% (95% CI 32–37), increasing with age and in men. We estimated that Spn caused one third of CAP. Whole blood lytA rt-PCR was more sensitive than SABC; both had low sensitivity and high specificity. Conversely CXR was highly sensitive and reasonably specific; it could be a useful tool for epidemiological studies aiming to define Spn pneumonia incidence across all ages.
Interfacial dislocations (IDs) and half-loop arrays (HLAs) present in the
epilayers of 4H-SiC crystal are known to have a deleterious effect on device
performance. Synchrotron X-ray Topography studies carried out on n-type 4H-SiC
offcut wafers before and after epitaxial growth show that in many cases BPD
segments in the substrate are responsible for creating IDs and HLAs during CVD
growth. This paper reviews the behaviors of BPDs in the substrate during the
epitaxial growth in different cases: (1) screw-oriented BPD segments
intersecting the surface replicate directly through the interface during the
epitaxial growth and take part in stress relaxation process by creating IDs and
HLAs (Matthews-Blakeslee model  ); (2) non-screw oriented BPD half loop
intersecting the surface glides towards and replicates through the interface,
while the intersection points convert to threading edge dislocations (TEDs) and
pin the half loop, leaving straight screw segments in the epilayer and then
create IDs and HLAs; (3) edge oriented short BPD segments well below the surface
get dragged towards the interface during epitaxial growth, leaving two long
screw segments in their wake, some of which replicate through the interface and
create IDs and HLAs. The driving force for the BPDs to glide toward the
interface is thermal stress and driving force for the relaxation process to
occur is the lattice parameter difference at growth temperature which results
from the doping concentration difference between the substrate and epilayer.
Scaling of grid turbulence with a constant mean cross-stream temperature gradient is investigated using a combination of theoretical predictions and experimental data. A novel nanoscale temperature probe (T-NSTAP) was used to acquire temperature data. Conditions for self-similarity of the governing equations and the scalar spectrum are investigated, which reveals necessary conditions for the existence of a self-similar solution. These conditions provide a theoretical framework for scaling of the temperature spectrum as well as the temperature flux spectrum. One necessary condition, predicted by the theory, is that the characteristic length scale describing the scalar spectrum must vary as
in the case of a zero virtual origin for a self-similar solution to exist. As predicted by the similarity analysis, the data show the variance growing as a power law with streamwise position. When scaled with the similarity variable, as found through the theoretical analysis, the temperature spectra show a good collapse over all wavenumbers. A new method to determine the quality of the scaling was developed, comparing the coefficient of variation. The minimum coefficient of variation, and thus the best scaling, for the measured spectra agrees well with the similarity requirements. The theoretical work also reveals an additional requirement related to the scaling of the scalar flux spectrum.
Gravitational waves are a consequence of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, first presented in 1915 and published in 1916 . Einstein himself linearized his theory and derived wave equations and calculated the gravitational radiation produced by sources in the weak-field, slow-motion limit . As described in the following Chapter, this initial insight has been greatly expanded so that, in general, it is possible to calculate either numerically or analytically the details of the gravitational radiation for a broad range of potential astronomical sources. Much later, in the 1970s, the discovery of the binary neutron star system PSR1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor  demonstrated through this natural experiment that gravitational waves carry away energy and angular momentum, causing the neutron star orbit to decay at precisely the predicted rate. Early cosmological gravitational waves imprint a polarization signature in the electromagnetic microwave background that several sensitive instruments may detect. See  but also  and references therein for further discussion.
These brief remarks gloss over a more complex history where it was unclear whether gravitational waves were real or just gauge artifacts. The theory was finally settled on the side of reality . The standard next step in physics – to build a receiver to directly detect gravitational waves – proved to be extremely challenging. The analog of the Hertz experiment where artificially generated waves are detected within the wave zone will fail because of the undetectably small amplitude (see for example ). Astrophysical sources are much stronger but are, of course, more distant. Yet their detection may be possible because gravitational wave receivers respond to amplitude and not to intensity. Nonetheless, the numbers are daunting.
In the early 1960s, J. Weber followed through on a bold vision – that gravitational waves were detectable – by measuring the resonant excitation of acoustic modes in heavy metallic bars, as would be caused by a passing gravitational wave from relatively nearby astrophysical sources .