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Because of a lack of gold standard diagnostics, a combination of multiple diagnostic tests, or composite diagnostic standard, has been used to measure pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) in pneumococcal vaccine trials. We estimated the accuracy of composite diagnostic standards for PP used in previous randomised controlled trials by simple formulas. A systematic literature review identified five eligible trials and all trials had used different combinations of diagnostic tests for PP. The estimated values of sensitivity and minimum specificity of composite diagnostic standards varied substantially between trials: 48.4% to 98.1% and 71.0% to 97.3%, respectively. Without standardizing the outcome measurements, pneumococcal vaccine efficacy estimates against PP are not comparable between trials and their pooled estimates are biased.
This paper presents schematic review for the smart agricultural model in Japan using data-on-demand information exchange based on smart agricultural machinery systems (SAMS). Four machines were developed in this study, namely Smart rice trans-planter with on-the-go soil sensor; Smart 2nd fertilizer applicator based on CropSpecTM; Yield monitor combine harvester with on-the-go lodging analysis system; and Farm Activity Record Management System (FARMS). The study obtained 450,000 datasets of topsoil accompanied by 65,000 datasets of crop status and 1 million images of lodging information from 50 ha of rice fields, taken in 2016. The results conclude that the field mapping using FARMS was available not only for manager’s decision on fertilizer application, but also for information sharing between employees. A two year feasibility study showed improvement of 20% fertilizer reduction and 30% harvest efficiency than conventional management. The study suggests that SAMS would play an important role for technology succession in the near future.
During the last solar cycle a number of observations of solar radio emissions were made in a wide frequency range from which an enormous amount of information has been obtained. However the results obtained so far are limited by rather poor angular resolution. Observations with much higher resolution (of the order of 1′ arc) have been required for further studies of solar radio emissions. At the present stage such observations have proceeded in the microwave range; also the radioheliograph at 80 MHz has just started at the Culgoora Observatory. At the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory a high-resolution study of radio bursts in the metre-wave range has been planned since 1960, and the construction of a new compound interferometer operating at 160.3 MHz was started in April 1967 at a new site, Nobeyama. This site, located about 150 km north-west of Tokyo, is surrounded by mountains and quite free from man-made interference. We shall give a brief description of this equipment; details will be published later.
Recent studies have shown that it is important to understand the brain mechanism specifically by focusing on the common and unique functional connectivity in each disorder including depression.
To specify the biomarker of major depressive disorder (MDD), we applied the sparse machine learning algorithm to classify several types of affective disorders using the resting state fMRI data collected in multiple sites, and this study shows the results of depression as a part of those results.
The aim of this study is to understand some specific pattern of functional connectivity in MDD, which would support diagnosis of depression and development of focused and personalized treatments in the future.
The neuroimaging data from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 100) and healthy control adults (HC: n = 100) from multiple sites were used for the training dataset. A completely separate dataset (n = 16) was kept aside for testing. After all preprocessing of fMRI data, based on one hundred and forty anatomical region of interests (ROIs), 9730 functional connectivities during resting states were prepared as the input of the sparse machine-learning algorithm.
As results, 20 functional connectivities were selected with the classification performance of Accuracy: 83.0% (Sensitivity: 81.0%, Specificity: 85.0%). The test data, which was completely separate from the training data, showed the performance accuracy of 83.3%.
The selected functional connectivities based on the sparse machine learning algorithm included the brain regions which have been associated with depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Given the high intake levels of soya and low incidence rates of breast cancer in Asian countries, isoflavones, substances with an oestrogen-like structure occurring principally in soyabeans, are postulated to be cancer protective. In the present study, we examined the association of dietary isoflavone intake with breast cancer risk in 84 450 women (896 in situ and 3873 invasive cases) who were part of the Multiethnic Cohort (Japanese Americans, whites, Latinos, African Americans and Native Hawaiians) with a wide range of soya intake levels. The absolute levels of dietary isoflavone intake estimated from a baseline FFQ were categorised into quartiles, with the highest quartile being further subdivided to assess high dietary intake. The respective intake values for the quartiles (Q1, Q2, Q3, and lower and upper Q4) were 0– < 3·2, 3·2– < 6·7, 6·7– < 12·9, 12·9– < 20·3, and 20·3–178·7 mg/d. After a mean follow-up period of 13 years, hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI were calculated using Cox regression models stratified by age and adjusted for known confounders. Linear trends were tested by modelling continuous variables of interest assigned the median value within the corresponding quartile. No statistically significant association was observed between dietary isoflavone intake and overall breast cancer risk (HR for upper Q4 v. Q1: 0·96 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·08); P trend = 0·40). While the test for interaction was not significant (P= 0·14), stratified analyses suggested possible ethnic/racial differences in risk estimates, indicating that higher isoflavone intakes may be protective in Latina, African American and Japanese American women. These results are in agreement with those of previous meta-analyses showing no protection of isoflavones at low intake levels, but suggesting inverse associations in populations consuming high amounts of soya.
We propose the new process for fabricating Al-rich Al2O3 thin film, which is used as a charge storage layer for non-volatile Al2O3 memory. Nanoscale Al-rich thin film is deposited using RF magnetron co-sputtering by setting an Al metal plate on an Al2O3 target. Al-rich Al2O3 shows a larger conduction current in I-V characteristics and larger optical absorption than stoichiometric Al2O3 due to the increased electron trap sites. The C-V characteristics of the Al-rich Al2O3 thin film show a large hysteresis window due to the charge trapping effect in the Al-rich structure.
Unusual non-human parasitic nematodes and eggs were detected in the faeces of an 8-year-old Japanese female suffering from Henoch-Schönlein purpura. The worms were adult female rhabditiform nematodes measuring 325.6–441.2 μm in length and 18.3–26.5 μm in width. One pair of the labia oris was notched with many spiny projections, while the other pair was strongly curved outwards. The worms were identified using light and scanning electron microscopy as the free-living nematode Diploscapter coronata (Cobb) based on their characteristic morphology. The patient's faeces containing worms and eggs were cultured using a filter-paper culture technique and after 7 days of culture, male as well as female worms were recovered. Worm survival time and hatchability of the eggs were examined in vitro after treatment with an artificial gastric or intestinal fluid. Although adult worms survived for less than one minute, eggs hatched after treatment with artificial gastric fluid. This suggests that eggs accidentally ingested or produced by adult D. coronata could develop in the human gastro-intestinal tract. Some morphological features of male D. coronata are also described.
The crystal-field potential at the Er3+ ion surrounded by six oxygen ions is expanded in terms of polynomials. After converting it into equivalent angular momentum operators, the Stark-splitting of the 4I15/2 ground state of the Er3+ ion is calculated. Influence of the change in the environment of the Er3+ ion on the shift of the energy levels is investigated and compared with the observed Er photoluminescence spectrum in a-Si:H. The scattering of the calculated energy levels by the structural fluctuation around the Er3+ ion is also compared with the linewidth of the component photoluminescence lines.
We report U–Pb electron microprobe (zircon and monazite) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) U–Pb (zircon) ages from a granulite-facies metapelite and a garnet–biotite gniess from Chittikara, a classic locality within the Trivandrum Block of southern India. The majority of the electron-microprobe data on zircons from the metapelite define apparent ages between 1500 and 2500 Ma with a prominent peak at 2109±22 Ma, although some of the cores are as old as 3070 Ma. Zircon grains with multiple age zoning are also detected with 2500–3700 Ma cores, 1380–1520 mantles and 530–600 Ma outer rims. Some homogeneous and rounded zircon cores yielded late Neoproterozoic ages that suggest that deposition within the Trivandrum Block belt was younger than 610 Ma. The outermost rims of these grains are characterized by early Cambrian ages suggesting metamorphic overgrowth at this time. The apparent ages of monazite grains from this locality reveal multiple provenance and polyphase metamorphic history, similar to those of the zircons. In a typical case, Palaeoproterozoic cores (1759–1967 Ma) are enveloped by late Neoproterozoic rims (562–563 Ma), which in turn are mantled by an outermost thin Cambrian rim (∼515 Ma). PbO v. ThO*2 plots for monazites define broad isochrons, with cores indicating a rather imprecise age of 1913±260 Ma (MSWD=0.80) and late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian cores as well as thin rims yielding a well-defined isochron with an age of 557±19 Ma (MSWD=0.82). SIMS U–Pb isotopic data on zircons from the garnet–biotite gneiss yield a combined core/rim imprecise discordia line between 2106±37 Ma and 524±150 Ma. The data indicate Palaeoproterozoic zircon formation with later partial or non-uniform Pb loss during the late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian tectonothermal event. The combined electron probe and SIMS data from the metapelite and garnet–biotite gneiss at Chittikara indicate that the older zircons preserved in the finer-grained metapelite protolith have heterogeneous detrital sources, whereas the more arenaceous protolith of the garnet–biotite gniess was sourced from a single-aged terrane. Our data suggest that the metasedimentary belts in southern India may have formed part of an extensive late Neoproterozoic sedimentary basin during the final amalgamation of the Gondwana supercontinent.
Based on a model of microstructure evolution, an appropriate rolling schedule
has been worked out to produce ultrafine grained steel (2 to 5 μm) on the hot strip mill.
This rolling schedule is characterized by a large reduction in the finishers followed by
strong cooling. Implementing such a rolling schedule on a conventional HSM raises major
problems: increased rolling torque and force, lowered crown and shape control, disturbed
looper control, accelerated roll damage, increased slip between strip and roll,
insufficient cooling efficiency. These problems have been solved on the new Nakayama
HSM by introducing innovative processes such as: single roll drive with different
diameter and a new CVC, curtain wall cooling in the finisher, low inertia hydraulic looper,
new high-speed steel rolls with solid lubrication.
Insect seed predators of 24 dipterocarp species (including the genera of Dipterocarpus, Dryobalanops and Shorea) and five species belonging to the Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Celastraceae and Sapotaceae were investigated. In a tropical lowland dipterocarp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia, these trees produced seeds irregularly but intensely during general flowering and seeding events in 1996 and/or 1998. Dipterocarp seeds were preyed on by 51 insect species (11 families), which were roughly classified into three taxonomic groups: smaller moths (Tortricidae, Pyralidae, Crambidae, Immidae, Sesiidae and Cosmopterigidae), scolytids (Scolytidae) and weevils (Curculionidae, Apionidae, Anthribidae, and Attelabidae). Although the host-specificity of invertebrate seed predators has been assumed to be high in tropical forests, it was found that the diet ranges of some insect predators were relatively wide and overlapped one another. Most seed predators that were collected in both study years changed their diets between general flowering and seeding events. The results of cluster analyses, based on the number of adults of each predator species that emerged from 100 seeds of each tree species, suggested that the dominant species was not consistent, alternating between the two years.
The control of nanoholes formed by anodic oxidation of aluminum (Al) was investigated using AFM nano-indentation on Al film prior to the anodic oxidation. It is well known that ordered trigonal nanohole arrays are formed under certain voltage conditions of anodic oxidation of Al. We succeeded in forming both tetragonal and trigonal arrays of alumina nanoholes on a SiO2/Si- substrate by using nano-indentation on the surface of sputtered pure Al film. The ordered array of nanoholes was obtained at indentation intervals that were close to the nearest neighbor distance of nanoholes in the self-organization condition. Furthermore, we fabricated tetragonal and hexagonal Al nanodot arrays by the selective removal of porous alumina film.
We have developed and tested a new near infrared camera equipped with a 512 × 512 PtSi CCD and cooled by two independent Stirling Cycle refrigerators. The camera, installed on the 60 cm reflector telescope of the Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory (NHAO) since April 2000, has begun regular observations toward infrared objects. Since the reasonable cost and lower maintenance needs of the camera make it more attractive, we introduce it as an alternative to robotic telescopes.
We find an important piece of evidence for magnetic reconnection inflow in a flare on March 18, 1999. The flare occurred on the north-east limb, displaying a nice cusp-shaped soft X-ray loop and a plasmoid ejection typical for the long-duration-events. As the plasmoid is ejected, magnetic reconnection occurs at the disconnecting point. A clear ingoing pattern toward the magnetic X-point is seen. The velocity of this apparent motion is about 5 km sec−1, which is an upper limit on reconnection inflow speed. Based on this observation, we derive the reconnection rate as MA = 0.001 − 0.03, where MA is a Alfvén Mach number of the inflow.