To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Recent infection testing algorithms (RITA) for HIV combine serological assays with epidemiological data to determine likely recent infections, indicators of ongoing transmission. In 2016, we integrated RITA into national HIV surveillance in Ireland to better inform HIV prevention interventions. We determined the avidity index (AI) of new HIV diagnoses and linked the results with data captured in the national infectious disease reporting system. RITA classified a diagnosis as recent based on an AI < 1.5, unless epidemiological criteria (CD4 count <200 cells/mm3; viral load <400 copies/ml; the presence of AIDS-defining illness; prior antiretroviral therapy use) indicated a potential false-recent result. Of 508 diagnoses in 2016, we linked 448 (88.1%) to an avidity test result. RITA classified 12.5% of diagnoses as recent, with the highest proportion (26.3%) amongst people who inject drugs. On multivariable logistic regression recent infection was more likely with a concurrent sexually transmitted infection (aOR 2.59; 95% CI 1.04–6.45). Data were incomplete for at least one RITA criterion in 48% of cases. The study demonstrated the feasibility of integrating RITA into routine surveillance and showed some ongoing HIV transmission. To improve the interpretation of RITA, further efforts are required to improve completeness of the required epidemiological data.
This experiment aimed to assess the effect of different indoor winter growth rates (WGR) followed by different concentrate supplementation levels at pasture on meat quality of 90 bulls. During the first winter, bulls were offered grass silage ad libitum and either 3 kg (WGR3) or 6 kg (WGR6) of concentrates. After turn-out to pasture, bulls were offered: grass without supplementation (PO), grass plus 0.2 predicted dry matter intake (DMI) as concentrates (PL) or grass plus 0.4 predicted DMI as concentrates (PH). After finishing, colour, chemical composition (unaged), instrumental texture and sensory characteristics (14 days of ageing) of longissimus thoracis were measured. WGR6 bulls had heavier carcasses than WGR3 bulls. There was an interaction between WGR and supplementation for instrumental texture and redness (a). Within WGR3, PO beef was the most tender, whereas within WRG6, PL was the most tender. However, these differences were not detected by the sensory panel. Within WGR3, redness was the lowest for PL, whereas within WRG6, PO was the least red. No differences were found for chemical composition. The multivariate analysis highlighted WGR as the main variable affecting meat quality characteristics. In conclusion, variations in growth path exerted minor effects on appearance and instrumental texture which did not affect the perception of bull beef by a trained sensory panel.
Motivational impairment is a common feature of both depression and psychosis; however, the psychological and neural mechanisms that give rise to motivational impairment in these disorders are poorly understood. Recent research has suggested that aberrant effort-cost decision-making (ECDM) may be a potential contributor to motivational impairment in both psychosis and depression. ECDM refers to choices that individuals make regarding the amount of ‘work’ they are willing to expend to obtain a certain outcome or reward. Recent experimental work has suggested that those with psychosis and depression may be less willing to expend effort to obtain rewards compared with controls, and that this effort deficit is related to motivational impairment in both disorders. In the current review, we aim to summarize the current literature on ECDM in psychosis and depression, providing evidence for transdiagnostic impairment. Next, we discuss evidence for the hypothesis that a seemingly similar behavioral ECDM deficit might arise from disparate psychological and neural mechanisms. Specifically, we argue that effort deficits in psychosis might be largely driven by deficits in cognitive control and the neural correlates of cognitive control processes, while effort deficits in depression might be largely driven by reduced reward responsivity and the associated neural correlates of reward responsivity. Finally, we will provide some discussion regarding future directions, as well as interpretative challenges to consider when examining ECDM transdiagnostically.
We summarize the results and interpretation of a four station transcontinental VLBI experiment of the luminous water masers in the nearby galaxy NGC 4258. At a distance of 5 Mpc, the longest baseline of the experiment provides spatial resolution of less than 1016 cm. The strongest maser emission was detected on all baselines, and was found to consist of at least two features separated by about 0.1 mas (1016 cm). Weaker features are possibly spread over a region up to 1 mas in size. These results provide evidence that supports the scenario described by Claussen and Lo (1986) which suggests that the very luminous water masers reside in molecular gas that immediately surrounds the central, active nucleus.
The UK has one of the largest systems of immigration detention in Europe.. Those detained include asylum-seekers and foreign national prisoners, groups with a higher prevalence of mental health vulnerabilities compared with the general population. In light of little published research on the mental health status of detainees in immigration removal centres (IRCs), the primary aim of this study was to explore whether it was feasible to conduct psychiatric research in such a setting. A secondary aim was to compare the mental health of those seeking asylum with the rest of the detainees.
Cross-sectional study with simple random sampling followed by opportunistic sampling. Exclusion criteria included inadequate knowledge of English and European Union nationality. Six validated tools were used to screen for mental health disorders including developmental disorders like Personality Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Intellectual Disability, as well as for needs assessment. These were the MINI v6, SAPAS, AQ-10, ASRS, LDSQ and CANFOR. Demographic data were obtained using a participant demographic sheet. Researchers were trained in the use of the screening battery and inter-rater reliability assessed by joint ratings.
A total of 101 subjects were interviewed. Overall response rate was 39%. The most prevalent screened mental disorder was depression (52.5%), followed by personality disorder (34.7%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (20.8%). 21.8% were at moderate to high suicidal risk. 14.9 and 13.9% screened positive for ASD and ADHD, respectively. The greatest unmet needs were in the areas of intimate relationships (76.2%), psychological distress (72.3%) and sexual expression (71.3%). Overall presence of mental disorder was comparable with levels found in prisons. The numbers in each group were too small to carry out any further analysis.
It is feasible to undertake a psychiatric morbidity survey in an IRC. Limitations of the study include potential selection bias, use of screening tools, use of single-site study, high refusal rates, the lack of interpreters and lack of women and children in study sample. Future studies should involve the in-reach team to recruit participants and should be run by a steering group consisting of clinicians from the IRC as well as academics.
Commonly thought of as a disease of poverty and overcrowding in resource-poor settings globally, scabies is also an important public health issue in residential care facilities for the elderly (RCFE) in high-income countries such as the UK. We compared and contrasted current local Health Protection Team (HPT) guidelines for the management of scabies outbreaks in RCFE throughout England. We performed content analysis on 20 guidelines, and used this to create a quantitative report of their variation in key dimensions. Although the guidelines were generally consistent on issues such as the treatment protocols for individual patients, there was substantial variation in their recommendations regarding the prophylactic treatment of contacts, infection control measures and the roles and responsibilities of individual stakeholders. Most guidelines did not adequately address the logistical challenges associated with mass treatment in this setting. We conclude that the heterogeneous nature of the guidelines reviewed is an argument in favour of national guidelines being produced.
Radio astronomy has seen major advances in both instrumentation and scientific discovery during the last three years. This report is not encyclopedic but is intended to show the breadth of activity in the field. Division X is a technique-based division, and radio telescopes are becoming increasingly more international in character and usage. For these reasons this report devotes considerable attention to advances in instrumentation. More complete information on radio telescopes and scientific advances in the field can be found at the following Web site: http://www.stsci.edu/science/net-resources.html
The relative proper motions of water vapor maser features in the H ɪɪ region IC 133 have been used to determine a distance to the galaxy M33 that is independent of the usual calibrations associated with extragalactic distance estimates, e.g., extinction and metallicity.
VLBI images of the H2O megamaser in NGC 4258 and a time series of spectra taken over several years combine to make a compelling case that there is a compact molecular disk associated with a supermassive object in the nucleus of this galaxy. The images of the maser in the velocity rangenear the systemic velocity show a highly elongated structure with a major axis of about 0.009 pc, along which the gradient in line-of-sight velocity is essentially a constant of 7970 ± 40 km s-1 pc-1. The observed acceleration of these spectral features by about 6-11 km s-1 yr-1, the presence of high-velocity maser satellite emission, and the VLBI results suggest emission from a disk of diameter0.2 pc, rotating with a velocity of ~800 Km s-1, bound by a mass of 1.5×107 M⊙ and denisty of ≳3.6×109 M⊙ pc-3
Tomato product consumption and estimated lycopene intake are hypothesised to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. To define the impact of typical servings of commercially available tomato products on resultant plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations, men scheduled to undergo prostatectomy (n 33) were randomised either to a lycopene-restricted control group ( < 5 mg lycopene/d) or to a tomato soup (2–2¾ cups prepared/d), tomato sauce (142–198 g/d or 5–7 ounces/d) or vegetable juice (325–488 ml/d or 11–16·5 fluid ounces/d) intervention providing 25–35 mg lycopene/d. Plasma and prostate carotenoid concentrations were measured by HPLC. Tomato soup, sauce and juice consumption significantly increased plasma lycopene concentration from 0·68 (sem 0·1) to 1·13 (sem 0·09) μmol/l (66 %), 0·48 (sem 0·09) to 0·82 (sem 0·12) μmol/l (71 %) and 0·49 (sem 0·12) to 0·78 (sem 0·1) μmol/l (59 %), respectively, while the controls consuming the lycopene-restricted diet showed a decline in plasma lycopene concentration from 0·55 (sem 0·60) to 0·42 (sem 0·07) μmol/l ( − 24 %). The end-of-study prostate lycopene concentration was 0·16 (sem 0·02) nmol/g in the controls, but was 3·5-, 3·6- and 2·2-fold higher in tomato soup (P= 0·001), sauce (P= 0·001) and juice (P= 0·165) consumers, respectively. Prostate lycopene concentration was moderately correlated with post-intervention plasma lycopene concentrations (r 0·60, P =0·001), indicating that additional factors have an impact on tissue concentrations. While the primary geometric lycopene isomer in tomato products was all-trans (80–90 %), plasma and prostate isomers were 47 and 80 % cis, respectively, demonstrating a shift towards cis accumulation. Consumption of typical servings of processed tomato products results in differing plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations. Factors including meal composition and genetics deserve further evaluation to determine their impacts on lycopene absorption and biodistribution.
Little is known about the relative extent of crime against people with
severe mental illness (SMI).
To assess the prevalence and impact of crime among people with SMI
compared with the general population.
A total of 361 psychiatric patients were interviewed using the national
crime survey questionnaire, and findings compared with those from 3138
general population controls participating in the contemporaneous national
Past-year crime was experienced by 40% of patients v.
14% of controls (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, 95% CI 2.0–3.8); and
violent assaults by 19% of patients v. 3% of controls
(adjusted OR = 5.3, 95% CI 3.1–8.8). Women with SMI had four-, ten- and
four-fold increases in the odds of experiencing domestic, community and
sexual violence, respectively. Victims with SMI were more likely to
report psychosocial morbidity following violence than victims from the
People with SMI are at greatly increased risk of crime and associated
morbidity. Violence prevention policies should be particularly focused on
people with SMI.
Exogenous carbohydrases are commonly added to monogastric feed to help degrade non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). This action can increase the nutrient availability of feedingstuffs and decrease digestive disturbances, thus improving animal performance. This in turn can lead to improved feed conversion efficiency in meat and egg production. In light of the benefits associated with dietary xylanase inclusion, so too has it become increasingly relevant to quantity them in poultry feed premixtures with additional enzyme activities and directly in compound feed. Hitherto, the analysis of the activity of xylanase in animal feeds has proved difficult. Despite the widespread acceptance of the DNS method for the quantification of xylanase activity, it is not without limitations which can lead to erroneous under- or over-estimation of activity, and is particularly variable depending on the feed matrix wherein it is measured. The current method validation examined the following parameters: linearity, precision, uncertainty, sensitivity (limit of detection and limit of quantification) and the experiments were designed to highlight any interference from protease co-ingredients and possible matrix effects in various types of supplemented feed. The assay method described is convenient and inexpensive and could be applied to the rapid and routine analysis of xylanases in animal feeds during quality control and in investigating fraudulent adulteration of feed to ensure the authenticity and traceability of the product.
Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond growth on (111)-diamond surfaces has received increased attention lately because of the use of N-V related centers in quantum computing as well as application of these defect centers in sensing nano-Tesla strength magnetic fields. We have carried out a detailed study of homoepitaxial diamond deposition on (111)-single crystal diamond (SCD) surfaces using a 1.2 kW microwave plasma CVD (MPCVD) system employing methane/hydrogen/nitrogen/oxygen gas phase chemistry. We have utilized Type Ib (111)-oriented single crystal diamonds as seed crystals in our study. The homoepitaxially grown diamond films were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The nitrogen concentration in the plasma was carefully varied between 0 and 1500 ppm while a ppm level of silicon impurity is present in the plasma from the quartz bell jar. The concentration of N-V defect centers with PL zero phonon lines (ZPL) at 575nm and 637nm and the Si-defect center with a ZPL at 737nm were experimentally detected from a variation in CVD growth conditions and were quantitatively studied. Altering nitrogen and oxygen concentration in the plasma was observed to directly affect N-V and Si-defect incorporation into the (111)-oriented diamond lattice and these findings are presented.
The nutrient availability in animal feeds can be improved by including exogenous enzymes to the feed, either by helping breakdown anti-nutritional factors or by increasing digestibility of complex ingredients thereby releasing more nutrients for utilisation. This process can improve the efficiency of meat and egg production, increase animal health, decrease feeding costs and reduce nutrients in animal waste. Proteases are protein-digesting enzymes that are used in animal nutrition to break down storage proteins in various plant materials and proteinaceous anti-nutrients in vegetable proteins. The analysis of exogenous proteases in feed additives and after they have been added to feed has proven technically challenging. Accordingly, the purpose of this work was to validate a method for the determination of the activity of protease in animal feed additives and supplemented animal feed. The approach used for the assay was to adapt an assay based on the hydrolysis of haemoglobin. The method validations examined a range of parameters including; linearity & range; uncertainty, sensitivity, accuracy and studies designed to highlight any possible matrix effects on various types of supplemented feed. The assay method described herein is convenient and inexpensive and could be applied to the analysis of proteases in animal feeds during quality control and in investigating fraudulent adulteration of feed to ensure the authenticity and traceability of the product.
Domestic and sexual violence are significant public health problems but little is known about the extent to which men and women with severe mental illness (SMI) are at risk compared with the general population. We aimed to compare the prevalence and impact of violence against SMI patients and the general population.
Three hundred and three randomly recruited psychiatric patients, in contact with community services for ⩾1 year, were interviewed using the British Crime Survey domestic/sexual violence questionnaire. Prevalence and correlates of violence in this sample were compared with those from 22 606 general population controls participating in the contemporaneous 2011/12 national crime survey.
Past-year domestic violence was reported by 27% v. 9% of SMI and control women, respectively [odds ratio (OR) adjusted for socio-demographics, aOR 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7–4.0], and by 13% v. 5% of SMI and control men, respectively (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0–2.8). Past-year sexual violence was reported by 10% v. 2.0% of SMI and control women respectively (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.8). Family (non-partner) violence comprised a greater proportion of overall domestic violence among SMI than control victims (63% v. 35%, p < 0.01). Adulthood serious sexual assault led to attempted suicide more often among SMI than control female victims (53% v. 3.4%, p < 0.001).
Compared to the general population, patients with SMI are at substantially increased risk of domestic and sexual violence, with a relative excess of family violence and adverse health impact following victimization. Psychiatric services, and public health and criminal justice policies, need to address domestic and sexual violence in this at-risk group.
General Practitioner consultation rates for influenza-like illness (ILI) are monitored through several geographically distinct schemes in the UK, providing early warning to government and health services of community circulation and intensity of activity each winter. Following on from the 2009 pandemic, there has been a harmonization initiative to allow comparison across the distinct existing surveillance schemes each season. The moving epidemic method (MEM), proposed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for standardizing reporting of ILI rates, was piloted in 2011/12 and 2012/13 along with the previously proposed UK method of empirical percentiles. The MEM resulted in thresholds that were lower than traditional thresholds but more appropriate as indicators of the start of influenza virus circulation. The intensity of the influenza season assessed with the MEM was similar to that reported through the percentile approach. The MEM pre-epidemic threshold has now been adopted for reporting by each country of the UK. Further work will continue to assess intensity of activity and apply standardized methods to other influenza-related data sources.