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Damage to the corticospinal tract (CST) from stroke leads to motor deficits. The damage can be quantified as the amount of overlap between the stroke lesion and CST (CST Injury). Previous literature has shown that the degree of motor deficits post-stroke is related to the amount of CST Injury. These studies delineate the stroke lesion from structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, often acquired for research. In Canada, computed tomography (CT) is the most common imaging modality used in routine acute stroke care. In this proof-of-principle study, we determine whether CST Injury, using lesions delineated from CT scans, significantly explains the variability in motor impairment in individuals with stroke.
Thirty-seven participants with stroke were included in this study. These individuals had a CT scan within the acute stage (7 days) of their stroke and underwent motor assessments. Brain images from CT scans were registered to MRI space. We performed a stepwise regression analysis to determine the contribution of CST injury and demographic variables in explaining motor impairment variability.
Using clinically available CT scans, we found modest evidence that CST Injury explains variability in motor impairment (R2adj = 0.12, p = 0.02). None of the participant demographic variables entered the model.
We show for the first time a relationship between CST Injury and motor impairment using CT scans. Further work is required to evaluate the utility of data derived from clinical CT scans as a biomarker of stroke motor recovery.
The costs and benefits of polyandry are still not well understood. We studied the effects of multiple mating on the reproductive performance of female Brontispa longissima (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), one of the most serious pests of the coconut palm, by using three experimental treatments: (1) singly-mated females (single treatment); (2) females that mated 10 times with the same male (repetition treatment); and (3) females that mated once with each of 10 different males (polyandry treatment). Both multiple mating treatments resulted in significantly greater total egg production and the proportion of eggs that successfully hatched (hatching success) than with the single mating treatment. Furthermore, the polyandry treatment resulted in greater total egg production and hatching success than with the repetition treatment. Thus, mate diversity may affect the direct and indirect benefits of multiple mating. Female longevity, the length of the preoviposition period, the length of the period from emergence to termination of oviposition, and the length of the ovipositing period did not differ among treatments. The pronounced fecundity and fertility benefits that females gain from multiple mating, coupled with a lack of longevity costs, apparently explain the extreme polyandry in B. longissima.
In rats, maternal exposure to restraint stress during pregnancy can induce abnormalities in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems of the offspring. These effects are mediated by long-lasting hyperactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, little is known about the potential effects of stress during pregnancy on metabolic systems. We examined the effect of restraint stress in pregnant mice on the liver function of their offspring. The offspring of stressed mothers showed significantly higher lipid accumulation in the liver after weaning than did the controls; this accumulation was associated with increased expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins such as alanine aminotransferase 2 diglyceride acyltransferase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucocorticoid receptor. Additionally, we observed increased levels of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, an intercellular mediator that converts glucocorticoid from the inactive to the active form, in the foetal and postnatal periods. These results indicate that restraint stress in pregnancy in mice induces metabolic abnormalities via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-related pathways in the foetal liver. It is therefore possible that exposure to stress in pregnant women may be a risk factor for metabolic syndromes (e.g. fatty liver) in children.
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis refers to the concept that ‘malnutrition during the fetal period induces a nature of thrift in fetuses, such that they have a higher change of developing non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, if they grow up in the current well-fed society.’ Epigenetics is a chemical change in DNA and histones that affects how genes are expressed without alterations of DNA sequences. Several lines of evidence suggest that malnutrition during the fetal period alters the epigenetic expression status of metabolic genes in the fetus and that this altered expression can persist, and possibly lead to metabolic disorders. Similarly, mental stress during the neonatal period can alter the epigenetic expression status of neuronal genes in neonates. Moreover, such environmental, stress-induced, epigenetic changes are transmitted to the next generation via an acquired epigenetic status in sperm. The advantage of epigenetic modifications over changes in genetic sequences is their potential reversibility; thus, epigenetic alterations are potentially reversed with gene expression. Therefore, we potentially establish ‘preemptive medicine,’ that, in combination with early detection of abnormal epigenetic status and early administration of epigenetic-restoring drugs may prevent the development of disorders associated with the DOHaD.
A serious sugarcane pest, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, remains in the soil during most of its life cycle except for a short period for mating. Mating disruption by an artificial release of the sex pheromone (R)-2-butanol (R2B), therefore, may be a feasible method to control this pest. We examined the effects of artificial release of R2B and its related compounds, (S)-2-butanol (S2B) and the racemic 2-butanol (rac-2B), on the mating success of this beetle both in the laboratory and in the field. In flight tunnel experiments, almost all males orientated towards a R2B-releasing source and 40% of them landed on the source. When the atmosphere was permeated with R2B, the frequency of males landing on the model was significantly reduced. Both rac-2B and S2B were less effective, but substantial reduction in landing success by males was achieved at higher rac-2B concentrations. R2B released from polyethylene dispensers in sugarcane plots greatly reduced not only the proportion of females mated with males but also the number of males caught by R2B-baited traps, indicating that male mate-searching behaviour was strongly affected by the released R2B. Similar inhibitory effects on male behaviour were also observed when tube- or rope-type dispensers released high rac-2B concentrations in the field. These results indicate that it would be highly possible to control D. ishigakiensis through the disruption of the sexual communication by releasing either synthetic R2B or rac-2B.
We present the results of a mm wavelength methanol maser survey towards massive star forming regions. We have carried out Class II methanol maser observations at 86.6 GHz, 86.9 GHz and 107.0 GHz, simultaneously, using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We selected 108 6.7 GHz methanol maser sources with declinations above −25 degrees and fluxes above 20 Jy. The detection limit of maser observations was ~3 Jy. Of the 93 sources surveyed so far, we detected methanol emission in 25 sources (27%) and “maser” emission in nine sources (10%), of which thre “maser” sources are new detections. The detection rate for maser emission is about half that of a survey of the southern sky (Caswell et al. 2000). There is a correlation between the maser flux of 107 GHz and 6.7 GHz/12 GHz emission, but no correlation with the “thermal” (non maser) emission. From results of other molecular line observations, we found that the sources with methanol emission show higher gas temperatures and twice the detection rate of SiO emission. This may suggest that dust evaporation and destruction by shock are responsible for the high abundance of methanol molecules, one of the required physical conditions for maser emission.
Structures and electrical properties of newly synthesized vinylidene fluoride (VDF) oligomer [CF3(CH2CF2)17I] films evaporated onto various substrates around liquid nitrogen temperature were investigated. As a result, the VDF oligomer films were mainly formed with ferroelectric phase (form I) crystals and the molecular chains were oriented parallel to the substrate surfaces regardless of both the kind of the substrates and the thickness of the VDF oligomer films. In addition to these properties, the VDF oligomer films showed polarization reversal due to 180° rotation of the polar VDF oligomer molecules according to the applied voltages. This ferroelectric behavior was verified by local poling and piezoresponse measurements with an atomic force microscope, and by measurements of D-E hysteresis curves.
Gadolinium(Gd) doped ferroelectric lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLGZT 6/2/65/35) thin films were prepared by sol-gel spin coating technique. Fused silica and platinized silicon were used as substrates. Two-step pre-annealing heat treatment was employed to prepare crack free films. Annealing temperature was optimized though the x-ray diffraction studies to prepare films in single perovskite phase. Effects of Pb concentration and the seeding layer on the crystallization were studied. Optical transmission spectra were recorded and from this, refractive index, extinction coefficient and thickness were calculated for amorphous films on fused silica annealed at 400°C. In addition, the resultant films showed more than 60% transmission in the visible region. The electrical measurements were conducted on metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitors. Ferroelectric properties of crystalline films were studied by plotting the P-E hysteresis loop.
The line flux ratio of the [C II] 158 μm fine-structure (2P3/2 → 2P3/2) emission to CO rotational emission is a probe of the intensity of the interstellar UV radiation in galaxies. The largest values for the [C II]/CO (J = 1-0) line ratios are found in starburst galaxies, none of which, however, show values larger than 6 ×103 (Stacey et al. 1991). The exception ([CII]/CO ≃ 2 × 104) are galaxies of Magellanic type which have low metallicity, an intense interstellar UV field, and irregular morphology (Table 1).
Mochizuki et al. (1994) showed that the two conditions, a low metallicity and an intense UV field are expected to result in the large [C II]/CO ratios in the Magellanic types. These conditions are likely to be common in more massive galaxies as well, but at an early epoch in their evolution. This suggests that bright [C II] emission can be a good indicator of young galaxies. However, the metal-poor galaxies previously observed in the [C II] line were exclusively Magellanic types. Observations of different types of dwarf galaxies are necessary to help us understand the physical conditions in the interstellar medium of low-metallicity systems.
An extensive survey of [C II] line emission at 158 microns using the balloon borne telescope (BICE) has provided a complete map of the emission intensity distribution in the first and the fourth quadrants of the galactic plane (280° < l < 80°, −5° < b < 5°: Okuda et al. 1993). The emission is very extended throughout the galactic plane in which three intensity maxima are seen towards the tangential directions of the Scutum and the Norma arms as well as in the Galactic center region. However the Galactic center maximum is much less prominent compared with the two other distributions, unlike the case of far infrared continuum and CO emissions.
Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) has been used to study carrier recombination in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The spin dependent photoconductivity signals depend strongly on the electrical contact properties. Using silver paste contacts a narrow (18 G) resonance located at g = 2.001 is observed. It has been previously attributed to surface defects on GaAs. Using alloyed In-contacts other signals are detected. The dominant resonance observed at 9 GHz has an isotropic g-value of g = 1.99 with a halfwidth of 200 G and is therefore assigned to Cr4+. Other signals of considerably lower intensity are explained by the well known electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) properties of the Gai-interstitial and the AsGa-antisite defects. EDMR performed at 34 GHz allows the experimental separation of the two sets of hyperfine lines.
A pyroelectric infrared sensor using a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) thin film has been integrated with a read-out circuit on a silicon substrate. The PVDF thin film with a thickness of 1-2 µm was deposited on the sensing area by an electro-spray (ESP) method. A form I crystal and a large pyroelectric coefficient of 4 nCcm−2K−1 were observed just after the deposition without any poling treatments. The fabrication process of the sensor was based on a standard MOS LSI process and a polysilicon sacrificial layer etching technique. In order to reduce the heat capacitance and the thermal conduction, the PVDF thin film was supported on a thin Si3N4 membrane structure formed by etching a part of the silicon substrate under the sensing area. The sensor with a sensing area of 400x400 µm2 had a responsivity of 98 V/W, a detectivity of l.4× 107 cmHz1/2W−1, an NEP of 2.9× 10−99 Hz1/2W at a frequency of 100 Hz and a time constant of 1.3 msec.
We investigated the reason of the (imbalanced) accumulation of electrons in AIGaSb/lnAs/AIGaSb QW system in spite of the p-type conduction of undoped AIGaSb. It was found that the concentration of the accumulated electrons negligibly depended on the number of the interfaces, but increased linearly with the effective AlSb thickness. These results indicate that donor levels in AIGaSb are the dominant electron sources. We propose a model that the deep acceptors with larger concentration and donors coexist, and the electron accumulation depends on the energy position of the acceptor in AIGaSb with respect to the quantum level in the InAs well. Acceptor levels obtained experimentally are about 100 meV higher than the bottom of the InAs conduction band, and we succeeded in eliminating the electron accumulation by making the quantum level of the InAs well higher than this acceptor level. The origins of the donors and acceptors are also discussed.
The wavelength scalings of soft X-ray and hot electron generation efficiencies were studied using 1·05, 0·53, 0·35 and 0·26 μm lasers. A coupling efficiency from absorbed laser energy to compressed fuel core of 4.5% was obtained by using the GEKKO XII green laser.
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