Probiotics such as lactic acid bacteria directly influence the host’s health and have beneficial effects such as decreasing the number of enteric pathogens, regulating intestinal immune responses and preventing diseases. Among domestic animals, probiotics have been expected to be an alternative to antibiotics added in the diet; and fermented liquid diet (FLD) containing probiotics has great potential as a diet for reducing the use of antibiotics. In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of FLD, prepared using Lactobacillus plantarum LQ80 (LQ80), on the immune response of weaning pigs. Ten weaning piglets were divided into two groups and were fed the FLD (n = 5) or a non-fermented liquid diet (NFLD) (n = 5) for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, the total immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in the sera of the FLD-fed piglets were significantly higher than those of the NFLD-fed piglets (P < 0.05). In contrast, the total immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in the feces and saliva were not significantly affected by FLD feeding. However, the mean fecal IgA levels of FLD-fed piglets at day 28 were higher than those at 14 and 21 days (P < 0.05). Blood cells from the FLD-fed piglets showed a low level of interferon-γ secretion and mitogen-induced proliferation compared to that of the NFLD-fed piglets. Furthermore, the levels of interluekin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α, which are proinflammatory cytokines, in the blood cells of the FLD-fed piglets were lower than those of the NFLD-fed piglets (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the FLD used in this study could alter the immune responses of weaning piglets by stimulation of the systemic or mucosal antibody response, without unnecessary inflammatory reactions. This indicates, that the FLD feed prepared with the use of LQ80 may be a candidate feed, with regard to enhancing immune responses and preventing diseases in weaning piglets.