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The difference in the defect structures produced by different ion masses in a tungsten lattice is investigated using 80 MeV Au7+ ions and 10 MeV B3+ ions. The details of the defects produced by ions in recrystallized tungsten foil samples are studied using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocations of type b = 1/2 and  were observed in the analysis. While highly energetic gold ion produced small clusters of defects with very few dislocation lines, boron has produced large and sparse clusters with numerous dislocation lines. The difference in the defect structures could be due to the difference in separation between primary knock-on atoms produced by gold and boron ions.
Using a sample survey from Vietnam's M&RRD, this study examines both the factors affecting smallholder households’ perceptions of climate change, and the impact of climatic change on smallholders’ income and land allocation decisions. Results show a significant and negative impact of perception of climate change on income of smallholder households. Smallholders with perceived climate changes reduce land allocated to paddy crop. Farmers make strategic decision to counter the negative effects of climate change by increasing the amount of rented land for paddy crop production, while at the same time decreasing the amount of owned land allocated to paddy crop.
We have used the Coronagraphic and Heliospheric Imaging data from Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) to observe a prominence which is erupted on June 7th 2011. This prominence is subjected to the morphological evolution of MRT instability from the lower solar corona upto the inter-planetary space. The unstable structures are converted into the bunch of localized plasma spikes due to the turbulent mixing, and propagate in the inter-planetary space upto 1 A.U.
It has been established that Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) may have significant impact on terrestrial magnetic field and lead to space weather events. In the present study, we selected several CMEs which are associated with filament eruptions on the Sun. We attempt to identify the presence of filament material within ICME at 1AU. We discuss how different ICMEs associated with filaments lead to moderate or major geomagnetic activity on their arrival at the Earth. Our study also highlights the difficulties in identifying the filament material at 1AU within isolated and in interacting CMEs.
Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) contribute to the perturbation of solar wind in the heliosphere. Thus, depending on the different phases of the solar cycle and the rate of CME occurrence, contribution of CMEs to solar wind parameters near the Earth changes. In the present study, we examine the long term occurrence rate of CMEs, their speeds, angular widths and masses. We attempt to find correlation between near sun parameters of the CMEs with near the Earth measurements. Importantly, we attempt to find what fraction of the averaged solar wind mass near the Earth is provided by the CMEs during different phases of the solar cycles.
The Sun is an active star and its magnetic field fluctuates from a fraction of a second to a long period of time. The solar wind, CME, solar prominence, solar flares, solar particle and solar filament are the direct result of solar magnetic activity effects on the interplanetary space, Earth’s magnetosphere and ionosphere. The intensity of irruption of these phenomena from the Sun’s surface depends upon its phases. The extreme events affect technology both in space and on the ground.The data obtained from series of observations can help to predict solar activities and safekeeping to the space technology. In this study the cross correlations between IMF Bz, solar wind velocity(Vsw) and interplanetary electric field(Ey) with AE and SYM-H are studied. The results reveal that strong geomagnetic disturbances have high impact on the components of space weather than weak disturbances have.
Active sun is characterized by compelling short-lived flash of solar eruption like solar flare, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), high-speed solar winds and solar energetic particles along with colossal release of energy and mass. This paper proposes a new method to evaluate solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices based on wavelet analysis during the solar flares. The crucial role of IMF-Bz (interplanetary magnetic field) is examined for the two solar flares events. The key result obtained from our study is substantial dependence of solar flare intensity on IMF-Bz together with solar wind velocity. We also observed the duration of solar flares and their effect on ionospheric and ground based parameters.
Using data from India’s National Family Health Survey, 2005–06 (NFHS-3), this article examines the patterns of relationship between birth order and infant mortality. The analysis controls for a number of variables, including mother’s characteristics such as age at the time of survey, current place of residence (urban/rural), years of schooling, religion, caste, and child’s sex and birth weight. A modest J-shaped relationship between birth order of children and their risk of dying in the neonatal period is found, suggesting that although both first- and last-born children are at a significantly greater risk of dying compared with those in the middle, last-borns (i.e. fourth and higher order births) are at the worst risk. However, in the post-neonatal period first-borns are not as vulnerable, but the risk increases steadily with the addition of successive births and last-borns are at much greater risk, even worse than those in the neonatal period. Although the strength of relationship between birth order and mortality is attenuated after the potential confounders are taken into account, the relationship between the two variables remains curvilinear in the neonatal period and direct in the post-neonatal period. There are marked differences in these patterns by the child’s sex. While female children are less prone to the risk of dying in the neonatal period in comparison with male children, the converse is true in the post-neonatal period. Female children not only run higher risks of dying in the post-neonatal period, but also become progressively more vulnerable with an increase in birth order.
The occurrence of pesticidal pollution in the environment and the resistance in the mosquito species makes an urge for the safer and an effective pesticide. Permethrin, a poorly water-soluble pyrethroid pesticide, was formulated into a hydrodispersible nanopowder through rapid solvent evaporation of pesticide-loaded oil in water microemulsion. Stability studies confirmed that the nanopermethrin dispersion was stable in paddy field water for 5 days with the mean particle sizes of 175.3 ± 0.75 nm and zeta potential of −30.6 ± 0.62 mV. The instability rate of the nanopermethrin particles was greater in alkaline (pH 10) medium when compared with the neutral (pH 7) and acidic (pH 4) dispersion medium. The colloidal dispersion at 45°C was found to be less stable compared with the dispersions at 25 and 5°C. The 12- and 24-h lethal indices (LC50) for nanopermethrin were found to be 0.057 and 0.014 mg l−1, respectively. These results were corroborative with the severity of damages observed in the mosquito larvae manifested in epithelial cells and the evacuation of the midgut contents. Further, the results were substantiated by the decrease in cellular biomolecules and biomarker enzyme activity in nanopermethrin treated larvae when compared to bulk and control treatment.
Background: Ross syndrome is diagnosed by the presence of segmental anhidrosis, areflexia, and tonic pupils. Fewer than 60 cases have been described in literature so far. There have been reports of presence of antibodies in such patients, suggesting an autoimmune pathogenesis. Methods: We describe the clinical profile in this case series of 11 patients with Ross syndrome and discuss the current status of autoimmunity in its pathogenesis and the management. Results: Of the 11 patients with Ross syndrome there was an almost equal sex distribution (male:female ratio was 1.17:1) and the mean age of onset of symptoms was 26 years. Patients took an average of 6 years to present to a tertiary center. Sixty-three percent of the patients presented with complaints of excessive sweating, whereas only 27% had complaints of decreased sweating over a particular area of the body. Only 45% of the patients had the complete triad of Ross syndrome, which included segmental anhidrosis, tonic pupil, and absent reflexes. Eighty-nine percent of the patients had documented absent sympathetic skin response on electromyography. The various markers of autoimmunity were negative in all patients who were investigated for the same in this series. Ninety percent of the patients were managed conservatively. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, in Ross syndrome, generalized injury to ganglion cells or their projections are not purely autoimmune-mediated.
Rice, may be of a high- or low-quality type, based on the size and shape of the rice grain and variety. Thus, perhaps with an increase in income, consumers might not only switch from rice to other high-value-added foods, but also shift away from short-and-bold-grain to long-and-slender-grain rice. Using the case of Bangladesh, this article examines the drivers of change in rice grain-type preferences by households. We econometrically demonstrate that educated, rich, and urban households in Bangladesh are increasingly consuming fine-grain (i.e., long-and-slender-grain) rice, by replacing ordinary-grain (i.e., short-and-bold-grain) rice.
Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electron probe microanalyses were conducted on a migmatitic metapelite to investigate the effects of alpha radiation and subsequent alteration at the interface between uraninite inclusions and the host minerals biotite, chlorite and albitic plagioclase. The study reveals (1) anomalous colouration under the polarizing microscope; (2) pertinent changes in the characteristic Raman spectra of host phases; (3) reaction aureoles, composed of secondary phases (viz. chlorite and K-feldspar) of various sizes (∼15–45 μm) within biotite and plagioclase, respectively; (iv) K-feldspatization and sericitization of plagioclase at the grain boundaries; (5) agreement between the observed α-penetration depths and the Monte-Carlo simulation results; and (6) dissolution textures within the matrix monazites. Analysis of the compositions of the reaction aureoles in albitic plagioclase reveals a systematic distribution of K-feldspar-, LREE- and clay-rich zones; while the same in biotite is composed of secondary chlorite. The growth sequence of the secondary phases indicates an influx of a K-rich fluid, following intense radiation damage, efficiently superimposed by LREE-metasomatism and later acidic alteration. These changes took place under low-temperature (≤150°C) conditions, wherein radial cracks (within plagioclase) and cleavages/fractures (within biotite) favoured fluid infiltration-circulation into the reaction aureoles. Depletion of the LREEs from the dissolved matrix monazites and their enrichment as a discrete LREE phase within the damaged aureoles in plagioclase demonstrate micrometre-scale LREE mobility.
A non-surgical approach for managing rhinosinusitis associated with chronic oroantral fistula resulting from tooth extraction was evaluated.
Twenty-six consecutive patients (15 males and 11 females) aged 28–72 years (mean, 49.81 years) were administered local decongestion therapy for 2 weeks and antibiotics for 10 days. Patients showing a reduction in Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 scores after two weeks continued to receive local decongestion therapy weekly for up to six weeks, while those not showing any improvement underwent surgical management.
At 2 weeks, 17 patients (65.38 per cent) showed an improvement in rhinosinusitis (33.39 per cent mean reduction in Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 scores). The primary determinant of response was fistula size. At 6 weeks, sinusitis resolved completely in all 17 patients, and the fistula closed in 16 of these. Final Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 and Lund–Mackay scores showed no significant difference between the surgically treated and non-surgically treated groups.
Local decongestion therapy along with antibiotics may promote resolution in this subset of rhinosinusitis patients.
Introduction: The suboptimal management of children’s pain in the emergency department (ED) is well described. Although surveys of physicians show improvements in providing analgesia, institutional audits suggest otherwise. One reason may be patient refusal. Our objectives were to determine the proportion of caregivers that offered analgesia prior to arrival to the ED, accept analgesia in the ED, and identify reasons for withholding analgesia. Our results will inform knowledge translation initiatives to improve analgesic provision to children. Methods: A novel survey was designed to test the hypothesis that a large proportion of caregivers withhold and refuse analgesia. Over a 16-week period across two Canadian paediatric EDs, we surveyed caregivers of children aged 4-17 years with an acutely painful condition (headache, otalgia, sore throat, abdominal pain, or musculoskeletal injury). The primary outcome was the proportion of caregivers who offered analgesia up to 24 hours prior to ED arrival and accepted analgesia in the ED. Results: The response rate was 568/707 (80.3%). The majority of caregivers were female (426/568, 75%), aged 36 years or older (434/568, 76.4%), and had a post-secondary education (448/561, 79.9%). Their children included 320 males and 248 females with a mean age of 10.6 years. Most (514/564, 91.1%) reported being “able to tell when their child was in pain”. On average, children rated their maximal pain at 7.4/10. A total of 382/561 (68.1%) caregivers did not offer any form of analgesia prior to arrival. Common reasons included lack of time (124/561, 22.1%), fear of masking signs and symptoms (74/561, 13.2%) or the seriousness of their child’s condition (72/561, 12.8%), and lack of analgesia at home (71/561, 12.7%). Analgesia was offered to 328/560 (58.6%) children in the ED and 283/328 (72.6%) caregivers accepted. The most common reason for not accepting analgesia was child refusal (20/45, 44.4%). Conclusion: Most caregivers do not offer analgesia to their child prior to arriving in the ED despite high levels of pain and an awareness of it. Despite high rates of acceptance of analgesia in the ED, misconceptions are common. Knowledge translation strategies should dispel caregiver misconceptions, and highlight the impact of pain on children and the importance of analgesia at home.
We examine the nature of the redshifts of twin quasars with discrepant redshifts (θ < 100 arcsec, Δz ≥ 0.5) by considering their Hubble diagram. If such twins are physically associated one expects a large scatter in their Hubble diagram. However, we find a statistically significant linear correlation between log (cz) and Vc magnitudes of such quasars, consistent with the hypothesis that their redshifts are cosmological in nature.
The objective of this research was to describe proportional differences across time and region in management practices among southern cotton farmers who experienced glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds on their farms earlier than those who experienced them later and among farmers who were closest to one of four historical outbreak epicenters: Lauderdale County, TN; Macon County, GA; Edgecombe County, NC; and Terry County, TX. A mail survey was conducted with cotton farmers in 2012 from 13 southern, cotton-producing states. Survey responses on practices used by farmers were classified into three broad categories of labor, mechanical/tillage/chemical (MTC), and cultural. Proportions of respondents using practices from each category were identified by time and region; across which, proportional-difference tests were conducted. Results indicated respondents encountering GR weeds earlier were more likely than farmers who experienced them later to use the three broad-category practices (labor, 98 vs. 92%; MTC, 95 vs. 89%; and cultural, 86 vs. 76%) and specific practices, including hooded sprayers (76 vs. 58%), in-season herbicide change (83 vs. 60%), and field-border management (60 vs. 35%). Also, respondents closest to Lauderdale County were more likely than farmers closest to Edgecombe County to use broad-labor practices (99 vs. 91%) and specific practices, including hand hoeing (96 vs. 84%), hand spraying (49 vs. 31%), spot spraying (76 vs. 59%), wick applicator (13 vs. 11%), and field-border management (58 vs. 39%). Education programs on weed management can be developed and tailored according to the time and regional differences to provide effective information and communication channels to farmers.
This study investigates the factors likely to affect an individual’s decision to enter farming after and/or while participating in an off-farm employment activity. Additionally, an ordered multivariate regression procedure was used to analyze the degree of importance of selected motivating reasons that were drivers of individuals’ decision to enter farming. Results indicate that individuals with lower education, children in the household, and older family members were more likely to have entered farming as an occupation. Findings further suggest that federal policies in the form of farm program payments may provide retired nonfarm workers incentives to enter farming in later life.