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Improved plasticity models require simultaneous experimental local strain and microstructural evolution data. Microscopy tools, such as electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), that can monitor transformation at the relevant length-scale, are often incompatible with digital image correlation (DIC) techniques required to determine local deformation. In this paper, the viability of forescatter detector (FSD) images as the basis for the DIC study is investigated. Standard FSD and an integrated EBSD/FSD approach (Pattern Region of Interest Analysis System: PRIAS™) are analyzed. Simultaneous strain and microstructure maps are obtained for tensile deformation of Q&P 1180 steel up to ~14% strain. Tests on an undeformed sample that is simply shifted indicate a standard deviation of error in strain of around 0.4% without additional complications from a deformed surface. The method resolves strain bands at ~2 μm spacing but does not provide significant sub-grain strain resolution. Similar resolution was obtained for mechanically polished and electropolished samples, despite electropolished surfaces presenting a smoother, simpler topography. While the resolution of the PRIAS approach depends upon the EBSD step size, the 80 nm step size used provides seemingly similar resolution as 8,000× (22.7 nm) FSD images. Surface feature evolution prevents DIC analysis across large strain steps (>6% strain), but restarting DIC, using an FSD reference image from an interim strain step, allows reasonable DIC across the stress–strain curve. Furthermore, the data are obtained easily and provide complementary information for EBSD analysis.
The aim of this study was to evaluate contact endoscopy in detecting local treatment failures post-radiotherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract.
A total of 135 consecutive patients with suspected residual or recurrent cancer after definitive radiotherapy underwent contact endoscopy before biopsy. Contact endoscopy findings were compared with histopathological examination findings. Contact endoscopy could not be completed in 7 patients (5.9 per cent) and histopathological examination was inconclusive in 5 patients (3.7 per cent). The findings of the remaining 123 patients were compared.
The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of contact endoscopy were 88.75, 88.72 and 86.99 per cent, respectively, with similar results across various sites of upper aerodigestive tract. Inter-observer kappa value was 0.86 (95 per cent confidence interval: 0.79–0.93). The intra-observer kappa value was 0.93 (95 per cent confidence interval: 0.87–1.00) for the first observer and 0.95 (95 per cent confidence interval: 0.90–1.00) for second and third observers.
Contact endoscopy showed the same high sensitivity and specificity with low inter- and intra-observer variability in detecting post-radiotherapy failures in cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract as has been shown in non-irradiated tissues in earlier studies.
This is a cross-sectional study aiming to understand the early characteristics and background of bone health impairment in clinically well children with Fontan circulation.
We enrolled 10 clinically well children with Fontan palliation (operated >5 years before study entrance, Tanner stage ≤3, age 12.1 ± 1.77 years, 7 males) and 11 healthy controls (age 12.0 ± 1.45 years, 9 males) at two children’s hospitals. All patients underwent peripheral quantitative CT. For the Fontan group, we obtained clinical characteristics, NYHA class, cardiac index by MRI, dual x-ray absorptiometry, and biochemical studies. Linear regression was used to compare radius and tibia peripheral quantitative CT measures between Fontan patients and controls.
All Fontan patients were clinically well (NYHA class 1 or 2, cardiac index 4.85 ± 1.51 L/min/m2) and without significant comorbidities. Adjusted trabecular bone mineral density, cortical thickness, and bone strength index at the radius were significantly decreased in Fontan patients compared to controls with mean differences −30.13 mg/cm3 (p = 0.041), −0.31 mm (p = 0.043), and −6.65 mg2/mm4 (p = 0.036), respectively. No differences were found for tibial measures. In Fontan patients, the mean height-adjusted lumbar bone mineral density and total body less head z scores were −0.46 ± 1.1 and −0.63 ± 1.1, respectively, which are below the average, but within normal range for age and sex.
In a clinically well Fontan cohort, we found significant bone deficits by peripheral quantitative CT in the radius but not the tibia, suggesting non-weight-bearing bones may be more vulnerable to the unique haemodynamics of the Fontan circulation.
The community composition of zooplankton with an emphasis on copepods was assessed in the frontal zones of the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean (SO) during summer 2013. Copepods were the dominant group in both the bongo net and multiple plankton sampler across the entire region. High zooplankton abundance was recorded along each transect in the Polar Front (PF). Community structure in this front was dominated by common taxa, including Ctenocalanus citer, Clausocalanus spp., Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus, Calanus australis and Rhincalanus gigas, which together accounted for > 62% of the total abundance. Calocalanus spp., Neocalanus tonsus and C. propinquus were indicator species in the Sub-Tropical Front (STF), Sub-Antarctic Front and PF, respectively. A strong contrast in population structure and biovolume was observed between then PF and the STF. The community structure of smaller copepods was associated with the high-temperature region, whereas communities of larger copepods were associated with the low-temperature region. Thus, it seems probable that physical and biological characteristics of the SO frontal regions are controlling the abundance and distribution of zooplankton community structure by restricting some species to the warmer stratified zones and some species to the well-mixed zone.
Bell pepper or sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum) is highly susceptible to high-temperature stress (HT). Hence, search for donor across C. annuum for HT tolerance was undertaken by following Temperature Induction Response (TIR) technique. The induction and challenging temperature requirement for TIR screening were standardized in 1 d-old Capsicum seedlings. Forty Capsicum genotypes were evaluated based on the recovery growth (RG) and per cent reduction in recovery growth (%RRG) of the seedlings. The genotypes Punjab Guchhedar and Ajeet 1 were found to have maximum cellular level tolerance (CLT) to HT with higher RG and lower %RRG compared to the non-induced seedlings and HDC 75 was found to have minimum CLT. In order to confirm the findings, another experiment was conducted under managed stress and control conditions. Absolute yield obtained from both the environments were used to calculate stress tolerance indices such as heat susceptibility index, tolerance index, stress tolerance index, mean productivity, geometric mean productivity and yield stability index. Based on these tolerance indices, Punjab Guchhedar and Ajeet 1 were found to be highly tolerant and HDC 75 as highly susceptible. Further, the combined result of TIR and tolerance indices also gave the same result confirming Punjab Guchhedar and Ajeet 1 can be used as a donor for the future breeding programme aimed at evolving high-temperature-tolerant bell pepper cultivars. The result also confirms the fitness of TIR technique to screen Capsicum genotypes for tolerance to HT based on variability in acquired thermotolerance.
The binary metal oxides are increasingly used as supercapacitor electrode materials in energy storing devices. Particularly NiCo2O4 has shown promising electrocapacitive performance with high specific capacitance and energy density. The electrocapacitive performance of these oxides largely depends on their morphology and electrical properties governed by their energy band-gaps and defects. The morphological structure of NiCo2O4 can be altered via the synthesis route, while the energy band-gap could be altered by doping. Also, doping can enhance crystal stability and bring in grain refinement, which can further improve the much-needed surface area for high specific capacitance. Given the above, this study evaluates the electrochemical performance of Ca-doped Ni1-xCaxCo2O4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) compounds. This stipulates promising applications for electrodes in future supercapacitors.
The difference in the defect structures produced by different ion masses in a tungsten lattice is investigated using 80 MeV Au7+ ions and 10 MeV B3+ ions. The details of the defects produced by ions in recrystallized tungsten foil samples are studied using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocations of type b = 1/2 and  were observed in the analysis. While highly energetic gold ion produced small clusters of defects with very few dislocation lines, boron has produced large and sparse clusters with numerous dislocation lines. The difference in the defect structures could be due to the difference in separation between primary knock-on atoms produced by gold and boron ions.
Using a sample survey from Vietnam's M&RRD, this study examines both the factors affecting smallholder households’ perceptions of climate change, and the impact of climatic change on smallholders’ income and land allocation decisions. Results show a significant and negative impact of perception of climate change on income of smallholder households. Smallholders with perceived climate changes reduce land allocated to paddy crop. Farmers make strategic decision to counter the negative effects of climate change by increasing the amount of rented land for paddy crop production, while at the same time decreasing the amount of owned land allocated to paddy crop.
Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) contribute to the perturbation of solar wind in the heliosphere. Thus, depending on the different phases of the solar cycle and the rate of CME occurrence, contribution of CMEs to solar wind parameters near the Earth changes. In the present study, we examine the long term occurrence rate of CMEs, their speeds, angular widths and masses. We attempt to find correlation between near sun parameters of the CMEs with near the Earth measurements. Importantly, we attempt to find what fraction of the averaged solar wind mass near the Earth is provided by the CMEs during different phases of the solar cycles.
We have used the Coronagraphic and Heliospheric Imaging data from Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) to observe a prominence which is erupted on June 7th 2011. This prominence is subjected to the morphological evolution of MRT instability from the lower solar corona upto the inter-planetary space. The unstable structures are converted into the bunch of localized plasma spikes due to the turbulent mixing, and propagate in the inter-planetary space upto 1 A.U.
Active sun is characterized by compelling short-lived flash of solar eruption like solar flare, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), high-speed solar winds and solar energetic particles along with colossal release of energy and mass. This paper proposes a new method to evaluate solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices based on wavelet analysis during the solar flares. The crucial role of IMF-Bz (interplanetary magnetic field) is examined for the two solar flares events. The key result obtained from our study is substantial dependence of solar flare intensity on IMF-Bz together with solar wind velocity. We also observed the duration of solar flares and their effect on ionospheric and ground based parameters.
It has been established that Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) may have significant impact on terrestrial magnetic field and lead to space weather events. In the present study, we selected several CMEs which are associated with filament eruptions on the Sun. We attempt to identify the presence of filament material within ICME at 1AU. We discuss how different ICMEs associated with filaments lead to moderate or major geomagnetic activity on their arrival at the Earth. Our study also highlights the difficulties in identifying the filament material at 1AU within isolated and in interacting CMEs.
The Sun is an active star and its magnetic field fluctuates from a fraction of a second to a long period of time. The solar wind, CME, solar prominence, solar flares, solar particle and solar filament are the direct result of solar magnetic activity effects on the interplanetary space, Earth’s magnetosphere and ionosphere. The intensity of irruption of these phenomena from the Sun’s surface depends upon its phases. The extreme events affect technology both in space and on the ground.The data obtained from series of observations can help to predict solar activities and safekeeping to the space technology. In this study the cross correlations between IMF Bz, solar wind velocity(Vsw) and interplanetary electric field(Ey) with AE and SYM-H are studied. The results reveal that strong geomagnetic disturbances have high impact on the components of space weather than weak disturbances have.
Using data from India’s National Family Health Survey, 2005–06 (NFHS-3), this article examines the patterns of relationship between birth order and infant mortality. The analysis controls for a number of variables, including mother’s characteristics such as age at the time of survey, current place of residence (urban/rural), years of schooling, religion, caste, and child’s sex and birth weight. A modest J-shaped relationship between birth order of children and their risk of dying in the neonatal period is found, suggesting that although both first- and last-born children are at a significantly greater risk of dying compared with those in the middle, last-borns (i.e. fourth and higher order births) are at the worst risk. However, in the post-neonatal period first-borns are not as vulnerable, but the risk increases steadily with the addition of successive births and last-borns are at much greater risk, even worse than those in the neonatal period. Although the strength of relationship between birth order and mortality is attenuated after the potential confounders are taken into account, the relationship between the two variables remains curvilinear in the neonatal period and direct in the post-neonatal period. There are marked differences in these patterns by the child’s sex. While female children are less prone to the risk of dying in the neonatal period in comparison with male children, the converse is true in the post-neonatal period. Female children not only run higher risks of dying in the post-neonatal period, but also become progressively more vulnerable with an increase in birth order.
The occurrence of pesticidal pollution in the environment and the resistance in the mosquito species makes an urge for the safer and an effective pesticide. Permethrin, a poorly water-soluble pyrethroid pesticide, was formulated into a hydrodispersible nanopowder through rapid solvent evaporation of pesticide-loaded oil in water microemulsion. Stability studies confirmed that the nanopermethrin dispersion was stable in paddy field water for 5 days with the mean particle sizes of 175.3 ± 0.75 nm and zeta potential of −30.6 ± 0.62 mV. The instability rate of the nanopermethrin particles was greater in alkaline (pH 10) medium when compared with the neutral (pH 7) and acidic (pH 4) dispersion medium. The colloidal dispersion at 45°C was found to be less stable compared with the dispersions at 25 and 5°C. The 12- and 24-h lethal indices (LC50) for nanopermethrin were found to be 0.057 and 0.014 mg l−1, respectively. These results were corroborative with the severity of damages observed in the mosquito larvae manifested in epithelial cells and the evacuation of the midgut contents. Further, the results were substantiated by the decrease in cellular biomolecules and biomarker enzyme activity in nanopermethrin treated larvae when compared to bulk and control treatment.
Background: Ross syndrome is diagnosed by the presence of segmental anhidrosis, areflexia, and tonic pupils. Fewer than 60 cases have been described in literature so far. There have been reports of presence of antibodies in such patients, suggesting an autoimmune pathogenesis. Methods: We describe the clinical profile in this case series of 11 patients with Ross syndrome and discuss the current status of autoimmunity in its pathogenesis and the management. Results: Of the 11 patients with Ross syndrome there was an almost equal sex distribution (male:female ratio was 1.17:1) and the mean age of onset of symptoms was 26 years. Patients took an average of 6 years to present to a tertiary center. Sixty-three percent of the patients presented with complaints of excessive sweating, whereas only 27% had complaints of decreased sweating over a particular area of the body. Only 45% of the patients had the complete triad of Ross syndrome, which included segmental anhidrosis, tonic pupil, and absent reflexes. Eighty-nine percent of the patients had documented absent sympathetic skin response on electromyography. The various markers of autoimmunity were negative in all patients who were investigated for the same in this series. Ninety percent of the patients were managed conservatively. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, in Ross syndrome, generalized injury to ganglion cells or their projections are not purely autoimmune-mediated.
Rice, may be of a high- or low-quality type, based on the size and shape of the rice grain and variety. Thus, perhaps with an increase in income, consumers might not only switch from rice to other high-value-added foods, but also shift away from short-and-bold-grain to long-and-slender-grain rice. Using the case of Bangladesh, this article examines the drivers of change in rice grain-type preferences by households. We econometrically demonstrate that educated, rich, and urban households in Bangladesh are increasingly consuming fine-grain (i.e., long-and-slender-grain) rice, by replacing ordinary-grain (i.e., short-and-bold-grain) rice.