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The assessment of the completeness of milk-out in dairy cows is one of the indicators used to evaluate and optimise the milking process. A number of different methods and thresholds are available for this purpose, but procedures and validation of the methods are not always described in detail, and may vary between studies. The objective of this study was to introduce and evaluate a new, precisely defined hand-milking method (DEFINED) and to compare its outcome with two commonly applied methods to assess the completeness of milking: visual scoring of the degree of quarter filling (VISUAL) and quantitative assessment of the number of easy strips (EASYSTRIPS). Each of the three methods was applied in 131 Holstein cows of six dairy herds in northern Germany. The assessment of milk-out was carried out by three experienced but non-regular milkers (evaluators). Each evaluator visited the six herds once during afternoon milking. To avoid any transitions, the interval between visits of two evaluators was at least 2 days. Maximum hand-milking time per cow was set to 60 s. The total strip yield collected in 60 s (SY60) by the application of a strip frequency of 1 Hz was used as a reference for the amount of milk left in the investigated quarter after machine-milking. The three methods were evaluated by analysing their statistical relationship with SY60, and by ranking their suitability for quantitative or qualitative assessment of milk-out. VISUAL and SY60 were not related, indicating that VISUAL was unsuitable for estimating the amount of milk left actually in the udder quarters. The strip yield in 15 s (DEFINED) and SY60 was significantly related, but results varied among evaluators. With regard to EASYSTRIPS, a significant relationship with SY60 was found, but the results were influenced by evaluator and herd. The findings of this study imply that DEFINED allows a rapid and farm-independent quantitative estimate of the post-milking strip yield. Likewise, EASYSTRIPS was meaningful in assessing milk-out of quarters in a given herd, whereas VISUAL allowed neither a quantitative nor a qualitative assessment of post-milking strip yield or milk-out. Thresholds for complete or incomplete milk-out by DEFINED must be lower than those commonly applied in 15 s of post-milking.
To examine factors that influence decision-making, preferences, and plans related to advance care planning (ACP) and end-of-life care among persons with dementia and their caregivers, and examine how these may differ by race.
13 geographically dispersed Alzheimer’s Disease Centers across the United States.
431 racially diverse caregivers of persons with dementia.
Survey on “Care Planning for Individuals with Dementia.”
The respondents were knowledgeable about dementia and hospice care, indicated the person with dementia would want comfort care at the end stage of illness, and reported high levels of both legal ACP (e.g., living will; 87%) and informal ACP discussions (79%) for the person with dementia. However, notable racial differences were present. Relative to white persons with dementia, African American persons with dementia were reported to have a lower preference for comfort care (81% vs. 58%) and lower rates of completion of legal ACP (89% vs. 73%). Racial differences in ACP and care preferences were also reflected in geographic differences. Additionally, African American study partners had a lower level of knowledge about dementia and reported a greater influence of religious/spiritual beliefs on the desired types of medical treatments. Notably, all respondents indicated that more information about the stages of dementia and end-of-life health care options would be helpful.
Educational programs may be useful in reducing racial differences in attitudes towards ACP. These programs could focus on the clinical course of dementia and issues related to end-of-life care, including the importance of ACP.
Weed size can nfluence herbicide performance and herbicide interactions in mixtures. To control a broad range of species in soybean or cotton, POST herbicide mixtures will likely be commonplace in Roundup Ready® XtendFlex® and Enlist™ technologies. The impact of weed size on herbicide interactions that could occur in Roundup Ready XtendFlex or Enlist crops was assessed in two field experiments conducted in 2015 and 2016 at the Northeast Research and Extension Center in Keiser, AR. Combinations of glufosinate, glyphosate, dicamba, and 2,4-D were applied to either 10-cm or 30-cm weeds and evaluated for percent weed control, height reduction, and density reduction, collected 5 wk after treatment. Colby’s method was used to analyze treatments for herbicide interactions for control of barnyardgrass, Palmer amaranth, and pitted morningglory. Antagonism was identified with at least one treatment on all species. Almost all treatments were antagonistic for percent weed control, height reduction, and density reduction on barnyardgrass. When glyphosate in mixture with 2,4-D or dicamba was applied to 30-cm barnyardgrass, control declined 9% for both mixtures relative to glyphosate alone. Glufosinate plus glyphosate was antagonistic when applied to both 30-cm pitted morningglory and barnyardgrass. Glufosinate plus dicamba provided less control and density reduction of Palmer amaranth than what was expected from Colby’s equation. Overall, antagonism was more likely to be identified when applications were made to 30-cm weeds compared with 10-cm weeds. The utility of a given herbicide mixture will depend on the species present in the field and the size of those species at the time of application.
Species distribution models (SDMs) are statistical tools used to develop continuous predictions of species occurrence. ‘Integrated SDMs’ (ISDMs) are an elaboration of this approach with potential advantages that allow for the dual use of opportunistically collected presence-only data and site-occupancy data from planned surveys. These models also account for survey bias and imperfect detection through the use of a hierarchical modelling framework that separately estimates the species–environment response and detection process. This is particularly helpful for conservation applications and predictions for rare species, where data are often limited and prediction errors may have significant management consequences. Despite this potential importance, ISDMs remain largely untested under a variety of scenarios. We performed an exploration of key modelling decisions and assumptions on an ISDM using the endangered Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) as a test species. We found that site area had the strongest effect on the magnitude of population estimates and underlying intensity surface and was driven by estimates of model intercepts. Selecting a site area that accounted for the individual movements of the species within an average home range led to population estimates that coincided with expert estimates. ISDMs that do not account for the individual movements of species will likely lead to less accurate estimates of species intensity (number of individuals per unit area) and thus overall population estimates. This bias could be severe and highly detrimental to conservation actions if uninformed ISDMs are used to estimate global populations of threatened and data-deficient species, particularly those that lack natural history and movement information. However, the ISDM was consistently the most accurate model compared to other approaches, which demonstrates the importance of this new modelling framework and the ability to combine opportunistic data with systematic survey data. Thus, we recommend researchers use ISDMs with conservative movement information when estimating population sizes of rare and data-deficient species. ISDMs could be improved by using a similar parameterization to spatial capture–recapture models that explicitly incorporate animal movement as a model parameter, which would further remove the need for spatial subsampling prior to implementation.
The evolution of glaciers and ice sheets depends on processes in the subglacial environment. Shear seismicity along the ice–bed interface provides a window into these processes. Such seismicity requires a rapid loss of strength that is typically ascribed to rate-weakening friction, i.e., decreasing friction with sliding or sliding rate. Many friction experiments have investigated glacial materials at the temperate conditions typical of fast flowing glacier beds. To our knowledge, however, these studies have all found rate-strengthening friction. Here, we investigate the possibility that rate-weakening rock-on-rock friction between sediments frozen to the bottom of the glacier and the underlying water-saturated sediments or bedrock may be responsible for subglacial shear seismicity along temperate glacier beds. We test this ‘entrainment-seismicity hypothesis’ using targeted laboratory experiments and simple models of glacier sliding, seismicity and sediment entrainment. These models suggest that sediment entrainment may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for the occurrence of basal shear seismicity. We propose that stagnation at the Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica may be caused by the growth of a frozen fringe of entrained sediment in the ice stream margins. Our results suggest that basal shear seismicity may indicate geomorphic activity.
Milk provides energy and nutrients considered protective for bone. Meta-analyses of cohort studies have found no clear association between milk drinking and risk of hip fracture, and results of recent studies are contradictory. We studied the association between milk drinking and hip fracture in Norway, which has a population characterised by high fracture incidence and a high Ca intake. Baseline data from two population-based cohorts were used: the third wave of the Norwegian Counties Study (1985–1988) and the Five Counties Study (2000–2002). Diet and lifestyle variables were self-reported through questionnaires. Height and weight were measured. Hip fractures were identified by linkage to hospital data with follow-up through 2013. Of the 35 114 participants in the Norwegian Counties Study, 1865 suffered a hip fracture during 613 018 person-years of follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression, hazard ratios (HR) per daily glass of milk were 0·97 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·03) in men and 1·02 (95 % CI 0·96, 1·07) in women. Of 23 259 participants in the Five Counties Study, 1466 suffered a hip fracture during 252 996 person-years of follow-up. HR for hip fractures per daily glass of milk in multivariable Cox regression was 0·99 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·07) in men and 1·02 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·08) in women. In conclusion, there was no overall association between milk intake and risk of hip fracture in Norwegian men and women.
The Ceratitis FAR complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) includes four economically important frugivorous flies (Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis quilicii, Ceratitis rosa) whose immature stages and adult females cannot be properly resolved through morphological identification. In order to develop a simplified molecular tool for the identification of two of these species (C. rosa, C. quilicii), we selected a subset of six microsatellite markers out of a panel of 16 loci that were previously developed for the molecular differentiation of the taxa within the complex. These six markers were first tested in silico and then used for the actual genotyping of C. quilicii and C. rosa, resulting in the correct identification of all male reference specimens. Here, we propose an integrated morphological and molecular setup for the identification of the four species of the FAR complex. The decision map relies on preliminary DNA barcoding or morphological identification (when possible) to exclude species not belonging to the complex followed by (a) morphological identification of all adult male specimens and female C. anonae, (b) molecular identification via a panel of 16 microsatellite markers for immature stages, damaged vouchers and samples potentially including adult female C. fasciventris/C. quilicii/C. rosa and (c) molecular identification via a reduced panel of six microsatellite markers for samples including only C. quilicii and C. rosa. This simplified diagnostic setup was profitably implemented in the framework of the ERAfrica fruit fly project and will help correctly identify species within the FAR complex for their early detection and monitoring.
Introduction: Aligning health systems appropriately to the needs of the elderly is an urgent global priority, according to the WHO. In Canada, ED length of stay has risen 16% for elderly patients in the last year. Agitation requiring chemical restraint is a common, high-risk problem for elderly in the ED. Improving outcomes in this heterogeneous population remain difficult due to inability to effectively identify and evaluate delirium, frailty, multi-morbidity, and incompatibility with the ED system. A data-driven approach to complex health problems is a recognized emerging tool for healthcare innovation. New opportunities for targeted quality improvement in the ED will be uncovered by identifying the clinical characteristics of elderly patients with agitation, and the system process factors that influence their outcomes. Methods: We studied 400 patients in a case-control study at two tertiary-care EDs over five years. Patients were randomly selected if age was greater than 75 years. 200 cases of patients who received an intravenous dose of haloperidol, midazolam and/or lorazepam were selected as a surrogate data marker for having agitation. Controls were randomly matched by age and ED diagnosis. Standardized clinical, systems and process variables were collected. We conducted a univariate analysis. Results: Elderly given intravenous medications for agitation had increased mortality (OR 3.8 CI: 1.6-10.7, p<0.001) and ED length of stay (27 vs. 15 hours, p<0.001). No statistical significance was found in clinical characteristics, CTAS scores, PRISMA7 frailty scores nor sentinel or return visits. There was no statistical difference in median hospital length of stay (8 vs. 6 days, p<0.70). No differences were found in median time from ED physician seeing a patient to first consultant request (73 vs. 83 mins, p=0.75). The largest time intervals contributing to ED length of stay were from first consultant request to hospital request (15 vs. 12 hours, p=0.056) and hospitalization delay (13 vs. 7 hours, p=0.45). Conclusion: Identification of high-risk elderly patients for targeted intervention through a data-driven approach is feasible and informative. Traditional clinical characteristics remain unhelpful in identifying and evaluating outcomes in elderly with agitation. We have identified a process factor that is clinically relevant and pragmatic to evaluate in our ED system. Future research focused on optimizing systems process factors to improve quality of elderly care should be prioritized.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is a problematic weed encountered in U.S. cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production, with infestations spreading northward. This research investigated the influence of planting date (early, mid-, and late season) and population (AR, IN, MO, MS, NE, and TN) on A. palmeri growth and reproduction at two locations. All populations planted early or midseason at Throckmorton Purdue Agricultural Center (TPAC) and Arkansas Agriculture Research and Extension Center (AAREC) measured 196 and 141 cm or more, respectively. Amaranthus palmeri height did not exceed 168 and 134 cm when planted late season at TPAC and AAREC, respectively. Early season planted A. palmeri from NE grew to 50% of maximum height 8 to 13 d earlier than all other populations under TPAC conditions. In addition, the NE population planted early, mid-, and late season achieved 50% inflorescence emergence 5, 4, and 6 d earlier than all other populations, respectively. All populations established at TPAC produced fewer than 100,000 seeds plant−1. No population planted at TPAC and AAREC produced more than 740 and 1,520 g plant−1 of biomass at 17 and 19 wk after planting, respectively. Planting date influenced the distribution of male and female plants at TPAC, but not at AAREC. Amaranthus palmeri from IN and MS planted late season had male-to-female plant ratios of 1.3:1 and 1.7:1, respectively. Amaranthus palmeri introduced to TPAC from NE can produce up to 7,500 seeds plant−1 if emergence occurs in mid-July. An NE A. palmeri population exhibited biological characteristics allowing it to be highly competitive if introduced to TPAC due to a similar latitudinal range, but was least competitive when introduced to AAREC. Although A. palmeri originating from different locations can vary biologically, plants exhibited environmental plasticity and could complete their life cycle and contribute to spreading populations.
Characterisation of genetic diversity in a large number of European pig populations has been undertaken with EC support. The populations sampled included local (rare) breeds, national varieties of the major international breeds, commercial lines and the Chinese Meishan breed. A second phase of the project will sample a further 50 Chinese breeds. Neutral genetic markers (AFLP and microsatellites), with individual or bulk typing, were used and compared.
DNA from 59 European pig populations was extracted on samples of about 50 individuals per population. Individuals were typed for 50 microsatellites and for 148 AFLP bands. A subset of 25 populations was typed for 20 microsatellites on pools of DNA. Allele frequencies were estimated by direct allele counting for the co-dominant markers. Frequencies of AFLP negative alleles (absent bands) were obtained by taking the square root of absent band frequencies. Within-breed variability was summarised using standard statistics: expected and observed heterozygosity, mean observed and effective numbers of alleles, and F statistics. Between-breed diversity analysis was based on a bootstrapped Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree derived from Reynolds distances (DR). The standard distance of Nei (DS) was also calculated.
Transmission of acute respiratory infections (ARI) and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) often occurs in households. The aim of this study was to assess which proportion of ARI and AGE is introduced and transmitted by children in German households with children attending child care. We recruited families with children aged 0–6 years in Braunschweig (Germany), for a 4 months prospective cohort study in the winter period 2014/2015. Every household member was included in a health diary and used nasal swabs for pathogen identification in case of ARI. We defined a transmission if two persons had overlapping periods with symptoms and used additional definitions for sensitivity analyses. In total, 77 households participated with 282 persons. We observed 277 transmission events for ARI and 23 for AGE. In most cases, the first infected person in a household was a child (ARI: 63%, AGE: 53%), and the risk of within-household transmission was two times higher when the index case was a child. In 26 ARI-transmission events, pathogens were detected for both cases; hereof in 35% (95% confidence interval (17–56%)) the pathogens were different. Thus, symptomatic infections in household members, apparently linked in time, were in 2/3 associated with the same pathogens.
Lameness in the dairy cow results in large financial losses to the industry and severely compromises the welfare of the cows affected. A large proportion of lameness involves haemorrhage and lesions of the solar horn of the hoof. Deterioration of hoof horn quality may involve inadequate keratinisation, with differences in the amount of specific keratins present in the horn. Few studies of the keratin composition of solar horn have been carried out. The present study examines specifically the expression of the type I, acidic cytokeratin 9 (CK9). since this protein appears to be a major constituent of hardened epidermal structures. In human epidermal studies, CK9 has only been identified in the calloused palmar and plantar sites (Langbein et al, 1993). A comparable cytokeratin has been demonstrated in the epidermis of the bovine heel pad, but not at other body sites studied (Knapp et al, 1986). CK9 has not previously been reported in the solar horn.
Bovine hoof soles from adult cows were obtained from abattoirs. Samples of cornified Stratum comeum material from below the pedal bone (the commonest site of solar lesions) were taken and the proteins extracted in 8M urea.
Throughout its range in Latin America the jaguar Panthera onca is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, and conflict with humans. Protected areas in Panama harbour some of the last remaining suitable habitat for jaguars and are vital to conservation. However, no previous studies had assessed which factors in particular affect the tolerance of rural Panamanians towards jaguars and National Park conservation, which is important to jaguar persistence. Whether these factors are consistent with previous research on human–carnivore coexistence is unclear. To address this we estimated the number of instances of depredation of cattle by jaguars, and assessed attitudes and perceptions of rural Panamanians. We conducted semi-structured interviews in two disparate study areas: Cerro Hoya National Park and Darién National Park. Depredation events were more frequent in the latter, but only residents of the former reported conflict between people and coyotes Canis latrans. Positive perceptions of jaguars and National Parks, and criticism of park management, increased with level of education and land ownership. Men were more open to receiving help on their farms to mitigate impacts of jaguars, and more tolerant of the presence of jaguars, than women. Residents from both study areas indicated high appreciation for their respective National Parks. We provide recommendations to improve community outreach and education initiatives, and suggest priority areas for future mitigation efforts concerning human–jaguar interactions in Panama.
Individuals with chronic respiratory conditions may be at increased risk for pertussis. We conducted a retrospective administrative claims analysis to examine the incidence and economic burden of diagnosed pertussis among adolescents and adults in the USA with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. Patients aged ⩾11 years with diagnosed pertussis and pre-existing COPD (n = 343) or asthma (n = 1041) were matched 1:1 to patients with diagnosed pertussis but without COPD or asthma. Differences in all-cause costs (‘excess’ costs) during the 45-day and 3-month and 6-month periods before and after the pertussis index date were calculated; adjusted excess costs were estimated via multivariate regressions. The incidence of diagnosed pertussis was higher among patients with COPD or asthma than among matched patients. Compared with matched patients, patients with pertussis and pre-existing COPD or asthma accrued greater all-cause adjusted costs across study periods ($3694 and $1193 more, respectively, in the 45-day period; $4173 and $1301 more in the 3-month period; and $6154 and $1639 more in the 6-month period; all P < 0·0001). Patients with pre-existing COPD or asthma experience an increased economic burden after diagnosed pertussis and may especially benefit from targeted tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination strategies.