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Dietary delivery of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has a great potential for management of Leptinotarsa decemlineata. An important first step is to discover possible RNA-interference (RNAi)-target genes effective against larvae, especially the old larvae. In the present paper, five putative Broad-Complex (BrC) cDNAs (Z1-Z4, and Z6) were identified in L. decemlineata. The expression of the five LdBrC isoforms was suppressed by juvenile hormone signaling, whereas the transcription was upregulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone signaling at the fourth (final) instar larval stage. Feeding of bacterially expressed dsBrC (derived from a common fragment of the five LdBrC variants) in the third- and fourth-instar larvae successfully knocked down the target mRNAs. For the fourth-instar LdBrC RNAi hypomorphs, they had a higher larval mortality compared with the controls. Moreover, most dsBrC-fed beetles did not pupate normally. After removal of the apolysed larval cuticle, a miniature adult was found. The adult head, compound eyes, prothorax, mesothorax, metathorax were found on the dorsal view. Distinct adult cuticle pigmentation was seen on the prothorax. The mouthparts, forelegs, midlegs, and hindlegs could be observed on the ventral view of the miniature adults. For the third-instar LdBrC RNAi specimens, around 20% moribund beetles remained as prepupae and finally died. Therefore, LdBrC is among the most attractive candidate genes for RNAi to control the fourth-instar larvae in L. decemlineata.
Correcting a sign error results in no changes to the key conclusions of Hutchings and others (2011). However, there is an improved agreement with previous work. Mean total sea-ice deformation scales log linearly with distance and the scaling exponent was found to be dependent on time. We find a linear relationship between the temporal scale and spatial scaling exponent, for timescales of an hour to a day. Extrapolating to the timescales of deformation resolved by RADARSAT, we find total deformation and distance scale with an exponent of between −0.16 and −0.19.
Pressure ridges impact the mass, energy and momentum budgets of the sea-ice cover and present an obstacle to transportation through ice-infested waters. Quantifying ridge characteristics is important for understanding total sea-ice mass and for improving the representation of sea-ice dynamics in high-resolution models. Multi-sensor measurements collected during annual Operation IceBridge (OIB) airborne surveys of the Arctic provide new opportunities to assess the sea ice at the end of winter. We present a new methodology to derive ridge sail height from high-resolution OIB Digital Mapping System (DMS) visible imagery. We assess the efficacy of the methodology by mapping the full sail height distribution along 12 pressure ridges in the western and central Arctic. Comparisons against coincident Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) elevation anomalies are used to demonstrate the methodology and evaluate DMS-derived sail heights. Sail heights and elevation anomalies were correlated at 0.81 or above. On average mean and maximum sail height agreed with ATM elevation to within 0.11 and 0.49 m, respectively. Of the ridges mapped, mean sail height ranged from 0.99 to 2.16 m, while maximum sail height ranged from 2.1 to 4.8 m. DMS also delivered higher sampling along ridge crests than coincident ATM data.
Recent observational and modeling studies indicate that the Arctic sea-ice cover is undergoing significant climate-induced changes, affecting both its extent and thickness. The thickness or, more precisely, the mass balance of the ice cover is a key climate-change indicator since it is an integrator of both the surface heat budget and the ocean heat flux. Accordingly, efforts are underway to develop and deploy in situ observing systems which, when combined with satellite remote-sensing information and numerical models, can effectively monitor and attribute changes in the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover. As part of this effort, we have developed an autonomous ice mass-balance buoy (IMB), which is equipped with sensors to measure snow accumulation and ablation, ice growth and melt, and internal ice temperature, plus a satellite transmitter. The IMB is unique in its ability to determine whether changes in the thickness of the ice cover occur at the top or bottom of the ice cover, and hence provide insight into the driving forces behind the change. Since 2000, IMBs have been deployed each spring from the North Pole Environmental Observatory and in several other areas, including a few in the Beaufort Sea and Central Basin. At this point, the collective time series is too short to draw significant and specific conclusions regarding interannual and regional variability in ice mass balance. Comparisons of available data indicate that ice surface ablation is greater in the Beaufort region (67–80 cm), relative to the North Pole (0–30 cm), consistent with a longer period of melt in the more southerly location. Ablation at the bottom of the ice (22 cm), maximum ice thickness (235 cm) and maximum snow depth (28 cm) were comparable in the two regions.
There has been a marked decline in the summer extent of Arctic sea ice over the past few decades. Data from autonomous ice mass-balance buoys can enhance our understanding of this decline. These buoys monitor changes in snow deposition and ablation, ice growth, and ice surface and bottom melt. Results from the summer of 2008 showed considerable large-scale spatial variability in the amount of surface and bottom melt. Small amounts of melting were observed north of Greenland, while melting in the southern Beaufort Sea was quite large. Comparison of net solar heat input to the ice and heat required for surface ablation showed only modest correlation. However, there was a strong correlation between solar heat input to the ocean and bottom melting. As the ice concentration in the Beaufort Sea region decreased, there was an increase in solar heat to the ocean and an increase in bottom melting.
Winter ice dynamics plays an important role in the energy budget of the air-ice-ocean system, through the formation of leads and ridges. In summer, thermodynamic processes cause a transition in the ice pack from a mechanical continuum to an ensemble of floes that move in a state of free drift, with little floe-floe interaction. Results from the recent Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment have demonstrated that even under summer conditions, ice dynamics can still cause dramatic changes in the characteristics of the ice-ocean matrix that affect the energy budget. To illustrate this, we present observations taken before and after a period of sustained, moderate winds in late July 1998, which was preceded by an extended period of low winds. These conditions resulted in significant differential motion of ice floes in the vicinity of SHEBA. The measurements include the mass balance of the ice cover, the distribution of ice and open water, and salinity and temperature profiles in leads. The data show that after the storm there was a significant change in the amount and distribution of open-water areas, that there was an increase in the rate of bottom ablation, and that a stratified layer of warm fresh water that had formed at the top of leads during melt had become mixed.
The morphology of the Arctic sea-ice cover undergoes large changes over an annual cycle. These changes have a significant impact on the heat budget of the ice cover, primarily by affecting the distribution of the solar radiation absorbed in the ice-ocean system. In spring, the ice is snow-covered and ridges are the prominent features. The pack consists of large angular floes, with a small amount of open water contained primarily in linear leads. By the end of summer the ice cover has undergone a major transformation. The snow cover is gone, many of the ridges have been reduced to hummocks and the ice surface is mottled with melt ponds. One surface characteristic that changes little during the summer is the appearance of the bare ice, which remains white despite significant melting. The large floes have broken into a mosaic of smaller, rounded floes surrounded by a lace of open water. Interestingly, this break-up occurs during summer when the dynamic forcing and the internal ice stress are small During the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) field experiment we had an opportunity to observe the break-up process both on a small scale from the ice surface, and on a larger scale via aerial photographs. Floe break-up resulted in large part from thermal deterioration of the ice. The large floes of spring are riddled with cracks and leads that formed and froze during fall, winter and spring. These features melt open during summer, weakening the ice so that modest dynamic forcing can break apart the large floes into many fragments. Associated with this break-up is an increase in the number of floes, a decrease in the size of floes, an increase in floe perimeter and an increase in the area of open water.
In late March 2007 an array of GPS ice drifters was deployed in the Beaufort Sea as part of the Sea Ice Experiment: Dynamic Nature of the Arctic (SEDNA). the drifters were deployed in an array designed to resolve four, nested spatial scales of sea-ice deformation, from 10 to 140 km, with the arrays maintaining appropriate shape for strain-rate calculation until mid-June. In this paper, we test whether sea-ice deformation displays fractal properties in the vicinity of SEDNA. We identify that deformation time series have different spectral properties depending on the spatial scale. At the scales around 100 km, deformation is a red-noise process, indicating the importance of the ice-pack surface forcing in determining the deformation rate of sea ice at this scale. At smaller scales, the deformation becomes an increasingly whiter process (it has pink noise properties), which suggests an increasing role of dissipative processes at smaller scales. At spatial scales of 10–100 km, and sub-daily scales, there is no deformation coherence across scales; coherence only becomes apparent at longer scales greater than 100 km. the lack of coherence at small scales aids in understanding previous observations where correlation between 10km regions adjacent to each other varied widely, with correlation coefficients between –0.3 and 1. This suggests it is not appropriate to think of sea ice as having a decorrelation length scale for deformation. We find that lead scale observations of deformation are required when estimating ice growth in leads and ridging time series. For the two SEDNA arrays, we find coherence between 140 and 20 km scale deformation up to periods of 16 days. This suggests sea-ice deformation displays coherent deformation between 100 km scale and the scale of the Beaufort Sea (of order 1000 km), over synoptic time periods (daily to weekly timescales). Organization of leads at synoptic and larger scales is an emergent feature of the deformation field that is caused by the smooth variation of surface forcing (wind) on the ice pack.
We present the results of tests done to determine the tensile behavior of first-year columnar sea ice over a range of temperatures from −20° to −3°C and strain rates of 10−5 and 10−3s−1. The temperature of a test specimen was dictated by its in-situ location within the sea-ice sheet; samples located near the top of the sea-ice sheet were tested at the lower temperatures. A tensile load was applied along the cylindrical axes of the test specimens, which were perpendicular to the growth direction of the ice. Results showed that the maximum stress reached during a test was most strongly influenced by temperature, while the failure strain and the modulus were principally affected by the loading rate. A model relating the tensile strength of the ice to its porosity based on temperature-dependent variations in the brine-pocket geometry is evaluated.
During the LeadEx main field experiment, held in April 1992 in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, a number of large ice stalactites were observed growing under young lead ice. Formation of the stalactites was associated with rafting of the thin, highly saline ice. The rafting caused the brine to drain rapidly from the ice at a temperature well below the freezing point of the surrounding water, which in turn caused ice to form in a hollow cylinder around the brine plume. Within a 15 h period after the rafting event, the stalactites, which were located approximately 10 m apart in a line along the upwind edge of a 150 m wide lead, had grown to a length of 2 m. A detailed structural analysis of the upper part of one of these stalactites revealed that the interior channel, down which the brine flowed, was bounded by a zone of frazil ice that developed into a shell of columnar ice. The growth of the columnar ice was directed radially outward and the c axes of these crystals were oriented perpendicular to their growth direction. Development of the stalactites illustrates the impact ice deformation can have on the process of brine rejection in freezing leads and potentially on the thermohaline structure of the upper ocean in the immediate vicinity of the lead.
Se and green tea have been shown in epidemiological, observational and preclinical studies to be inversely related to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there are limited studies to evaluate their regulatory effects on genes/proteins that relate to CRC oncogenesis in human subjects, such as selenoproteins, WNT signalling pathway, inflammation and methylation. This study examined the effects of supplementation of Se using Brazil nuts and green tea extract (GTE) capsules, alone and in combination, on targeted biomarkers. In total, thirty-two volunteers (>50 years of age) with plasma Se≤1·36 µmol/l were randomised to one of three treatment groups: nine to Se (approximately 48 µg/d) as six Brazil nuts, eleven to four GTE capsules (800 mg (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate) and twelve to a combination of Brazil nuts and GTE. Blood and rectal biopsies were obtained before and after each intervention. Plasma Se levels, rectal selenoprotein P (SePP) and β-catenin mRNA increased significantly in subjects consuming Brazil nuts alone or in combination, whereas rectal DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) and NF-κB mRNA were reduced significantly in subjects consuming GTE alone or in combination. None of the interventions significantly affected rectal acetylated histone H3 or Ki-67 expression at the protein level or plasma C-reactive protein. Effects of the combination of Brazil nuts and GTE did not differ from what would be expected from either agent alone. In conclusion, supplementation of Brazil nuts and/or GTE regulates targeted biomarkers related to CRC oncogenesis, specifically genes associated with selenoproteins (SePP), WNT signalling (β-catenin), inflammation (NF-κB) and methylation (DNMT1). Their combination does not appear to provide additional effects compared with either agent alone.
Germany has been an officially bovine tuberculosis (bTB)-free (OTF) country since 1996. Gradually rising numbers of bTB herd incidents due to Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae in North-Western and Southern Germany during the last few years prompted the competent authorities to conduct a nationwide bTB survey in 2013/2014. This led to the detection of a dairy herd in which as many as 55 cattle reacted positively to consecutive intra vitam testing. Test-positive animals lacked visible lesions indicative of bTB at necropsy. Extensive mycobacterial culturing as well as molecular testing of samples from 11 tissues for members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) yielded negative results throughout. However, caseous lymphadenitis of Ln. mandibularis accessorius was observed during meat inspection of a fattening pig from the same farm at regular slaughter at that time. Respective tissue samples tested MTC positive by polymerase chain reaction, and M. tuberculosis T1 family were identified by spoligotyping. Four human reactors within the farmer's family were also found to be immunoreactive. As exposure of livestock to M. tuberculosis is not generally considered, its impact may result in regulatory and practical difficulties when using protocols designed to detect classical bTB, particularly in OTF countries.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
To investigate water contributors in relation to dietary and serum micronutrient profiles.
A cross-sectional study. The main exposures were water contributors. Selected dietary and serum micronutrient levels were outcome measures.
The US population and its subgroups.
US adults (n 2691) aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006.
The daily mean total water intake was 3·1 (se 0·047) litres, with 68 % of adults consuming below the Adequate Intake level. Total water intake was higher in adults with higher BMI and physical activity, those taking dietary supplements and alcohol consumers (P < 0·05). Plain water intake was positively associated with food moisture and negatively with beverage moisture (P < 0·001). Beverage moisture was negatively associated with food moisture (P < 0·001). In multivariate regression analyses, plain water and food moisture intakes were positively associated with Fe, Ca, vitamins A, B, C, E and K and carotenoid intakes (P < 0·05). However, beverage moisture was unrelated to Ca, niacin and vitamin B6 intakes, and negatively associated with Fe, vitamin A, folate, vitamins C, E and K and carotenoid intakes (P < 0·05). Concentrations of serum vitamins A and C and carotenoids increased with plain water and food moisture intakes (P < 0·05) but decreased (P < 0·01) or were unrelated to beverage moisture intake.
Various contributors of total water intake differed in their associations with dietary and serum micronutrient profiles in US adults. The study provides evidence of plain water benefits on micronutrient adequacy over beverages.
The effects of melamine on gas production (GP) kinetics, methane (CH4) production and fermentation of diets differing in forage content (low-forage (LF) diet: 200 g/kg and high-forage (HF) diet: 800 g/kg) by rumen micro-organisms in vitro were studied using batch cultures. Rumen contents were collected from three Simmental×Luxi crossbred beef cattle. Melamine was added to the incubation bottles to achieve final concentration of 0 (control), 2, 6, 18, 54, 162 and 484 mg/kg of each diet. Cumulative GP was continuously measured in an automated gas recording instrument during 72 h of incubation, while fermentation gas end-products were collected to determine molar proportions of carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4 and hydrogen gas (H2) in manually operated batch cultures. Differences in GP kinetics and fermentation gases were observed in response to the nature of the diets incubated. Although melamine addition did not affect GP kinetics and fermentation gas pattern compared to the control, the increase of melamine addition stimulated the yield of CH4 by decreasing CO2, especially during the fermentation of the HF diet. The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (N), amino acid N and microbial N in culture fluids were greater in the fermentation of LF- than HF diets, and these concentrations were increased by the increase of melamine addition after 72-h fermentation. The concentrations of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) were greater in HF than LF diets. The addition of melamine decreased total VFA concentrations and this response was greater in HF than LF diet fermentations. Melamine addition did not affect molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, propionate and valerate compared with the control; however, branched-chain VFA production, which was lower in the HF than the LF diet, was increased by the melamine addition, especially in the HF diet fermentation. The ratio of non-glucogenic to glucogenic acids was lower in the HF than the LF diet, but it was not affected by melamine addition. In brief, the greater reduction in the rate and extent of rumen fermentation found for the HF diet in comparison with the LF diet suggested that rumen fermentation rate and extent in vitro depended mainly on the nature of the incubated substrate, and that they could be further inhibited by the increase of melamine addition.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
To validate an FFQ to assess antioxidant intake in overweight postmenopausal women.
A seventy-four-item antioxidant 1-month FFQ was developed based on major antioxidant sources in the American diet. Forty overweight postmenopausal women participated in a 9-month observational study and completed four sets of FFQ and 7 d food record (7dFR) every 3 months. Twelve-hour fasting blood was collected for plasma antioxidant measurement at the first visit.
Forty overweight postmenopausal women.
Spearman correlation coefficients of 1-month antioxidant intake estimated from the first set of FFQ and 7dFR ranged from 0·34 to 0·87, except for γ-tocopherol. The proportion of participants categorized into the extremely opposite tertiles averaged 7 %. Significant correlations were observed for diet–plasma vitamin C, α-tocopherol and carotenoids (P < 0·05). No time effect was observed on the dietary antioxidant intakes estimated from four 7dFR and four FFQ. Dietary antioxidants estimated from averaged four 7dFR showed moderate to high correlation with those estimated from averaged four FFQ and from each FFQ collected every 3 months. Bland–Altman plots did not show any systematic bias. Averaged misclassifications were below 10 % between these two instruments.
These findings attested a reasonable validity and a good acceptance of this 1-month FFQ in assessing both short-term and long-term diverse antioxidant intakes in these overweight postmenopausal women. The use of this FFQ in associating antioxidant intake with disease risk needs further investigation.
Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied.
The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms.
During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.