To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To determine associations of alcohol use with cognitive aging among middle-aged men.
1,608 male twins (mean 57 years at baseline) participated in up to three visits over 12 years, from 2003–2007 to 2016–2019. Participants were classified into six groups based on current and past self-reported alcohol use: lifetime abstainers, former drinkers, very light (1–4 drinks in past 14 days), light (5–14 drinks), moderate (15–28 drinks), and at-risk drinkers (>28 drinks in past 14 days). Linear mixed-effects regressions modeled cognitive trajectories by alcohol group, with time-based models evaluating rate of decline as a function of baseline alcohol use, and age-based models evaluating age-related differences in performance by current alcohol use. Analyses used standardized cognitive domain factor scores and adjusted for sociodemographic and health-related factors.
Performance decreased over time in all domains. Relative to very light drinkers, former drinkers showed worse verbal fluency performance, by –0.21 SD (95% CI –0.35, –0.07), and at-risk drinkers showed faster working memory decline, by 0.14 SD (95% CI 0.02, –0.20) per decade. There was no evidence of protective associations of light/moderate drinking on rate of decline. In age-based models, light drinkers displayed better memory performance at advanced ages than very light drinkers (+0.14 SD; 95% CI 0.02, 0.20 per 10-years older age); likely attributable to residual confounding or reverse association.
Alcohol consumption showed minimal associations with cognitive aging among middle-aged men. Stronger associations of alcohol with cognitive aging may become apparent at older ages, when cognitive abilities decline more rapidly.
Patients with hoarding disorder (HD) experience difficulties discarding that result in excess clutter in the home. HD causes distress and impairment for patients and family members and represents a significant public health burden, highlighting a need for treatment research. In this chapter, we provide an overview of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for hoarding, a promising avenue to treat core HD features in a collaborative and time-limited manner. We begin by discussing etiological factors for HD, including familial features, information-processing deficits, and core beliefs about the self and possessions. Next, we describe HD assessment, including standardized measures and case conceptualization considerations. After discussing the research evidence for individual and group CBT for HD, we provide an overview of treatment components, including psychoeducation, motivational enhancement, skills training, behavioral exposures, cognitive techniques, and relapse prevention. Barriers to treatment are also considered. We end with a case vignette illustrating the successful application of CBT for HD in an individual outpatient setting.
Studies have shown mixed results regarding social capital and the risk of developing a psychotic disorder, and this has yet to be studied in North America. We sought to examine the relationship between neighbourhood-level marginalisation, social capital, and the incidence of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in Toronto, Canada.
We used a retrospective population-based cohort to identify incident cases of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder over a 10 year period and accounted for neighbourhood-level marginalisation and a proxy indicator of neighbourhood social capital. Mixed Poisson regression models were used to estimate adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRRs).
In the cohort (n = 649 020) we identified 4841 incident cases of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. A 27% variation in incidence was observed between neighbourhoods. All marginalisation dimensions, other than ethnic concentration, were associated with incidence. Compared to areas with low social capital, areas with intermediate social capital in the second [aIRR = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.33] and third (aIRR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.08–1.40) quintiles had elevated incidence rates after accounting for marginalisation. There was a higher risk associated with the intermediate levels of social capital (aIRR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.00–1.39) when analysed in only the females in the cohort, but the CI includes the possibility of a null effect.
The risk of developing schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in Toronto varies by neighbourhood and is associated with socioenvironmental exposures. Social capital was not linearly associated with risk, and risk differs by sex and social capital quintile. Future research should examine these relationships with different forms of social capital and examine how known individual-level risk factors impact these findings.
To evaluate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy among healthcare personnel (HCP) with significant clinical exposure to COVID-19 at 2 large, academic hospitals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Design, setting, and participants:
HCP were surveyed in November–December 2020 about their intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine.
The survey measured the intent among HCP to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, timing of vaccination, and reasons for or against vaccination. Among patient-facing HCP, multivariate regression evaluated the associations between healthcare positions (medical doctor, nurse practitioner or physician assistant, and registered nurse) and vaccine hesitancy (intending to decline, delay, or were unsure about vaccination), adjusting for demographic characteristics, reasons why or why not to receive the vaccine, and prior receipt of routine vaccines.
Among 5,929 HCP (2,253 medical doctors [MDs] and doctors of osteopathy [DOs], 582 nurse practitioners [NPs], 158 physician assistants [PAs], and 2,936 nurses), a higher proportion of nurses (47.3%) were COVID-vaccine hesitant compared with 30.0% of PAs and NPs and 13.1% of MDs and DOs. The most common reasons for vaccine hesitancy included concerns about side effects, the newness of the vaccines, and lack of vaccine knowledge. Regardless of position, Black HCP were more hesitant than White HCP (odds ratio [OR], ∼5) and females were more hesitant than males (OR, ∼2).
Although most clinical HCP intended to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, intention varied by healthcare position. Consistent with other studies, hesitancy was also significantly associated with race or ethnicity across all positions. These results highlight the importance of understanding and effectively addressing reasons for hesitancy, especially among frontline HCP who are at increased risk of COVID exposure and play a critical role in recommending vaccines to patients.
This retrospective case series study sought to describe the safety and clinical effectiveness of propafenone for the control of arrhythmias in children with and without CHD or cardiomyopathy.
We reviewed baseline characteristics and subsequent outcomes in a group of 63 children treated with propafenone at 2 sites over a 15-year period Therapy was considered effective if no clinically apparent breakthrough episodes of arrhythmias were noted on the medication.
Sixty-three patients (29 males) were initiated on propafenone at a median age of 2.3 years. CHD or cardiomyopathy was noted in 21/63 (33%). There were no significant differences between demographics, clinical backgrounds, antiarrhythmic details, side effect profiles, and outcomes between children with normal hearts and children with CHD or cardiomyopathy. Cardiac depression at the initiation of propafenone was more common amongst children with CHD or cardiomyopathy compared to children with normal hearts. Systemic ventricular function was diminished in 15/63 patients (24%) prior to starting propafenone and improved in 8/15 (53%) of patients once better rhythm control was achieved. Other than one child in whom medication was stopped due to gastroesophageal reflux, no other child experienced significant systemic or cardiac side effects during treatment with propafenone. Propafenone achieved nearly equal success in controlling arrhythmias in both children with normal hearts and children with congenital heart disease or cardiomyopathy (90% versus 86%, p = 0.88).
Propafenone is a safe and effective antiarrhythmic medication in children.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Advanced imaging techniques are enhancing research capacity focussed on the developmental origins of adult health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis, and consequently increasing awareness of future health risks across various subareas of DOHaD research themes. Understanding how these advanced imaging techniques in animal models and human population studies can be both additively and synergistically used alongside traditional techniques in DOHaD-focussed laboratories is therefore of great interest. Global experts in advanced imaging techniques congregated at the advanced imaging workshop at the 2019 DOHaD World Congress in Melbourne, Australia. This review summarizes the presentations of new imaging modalities and novel applications to DOHaD research and discussions had by DOHaD researchers that are currently utilizing advanced imaging techniques including MRI, hyperpolarized MRI, ultrasound, and synchrotron-based techniques to aid their DOHaD research focus.
Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive function in older adults. Although understudied in middle-aged adults, the relationship between alcohol and cognition may also be influenced by genetics such as the apolipoprotein (ApoE) ε4 allele, a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. We examined the relationship between alcohol consumption, ApoE genotype, and cognition in middle-aged adults and hypothesized that light and/or moderate drinkers (≤2 drinks per day) would show better cognitive performance than heavy drinkers or non-drinkers. Additionally, we hypothesized that the association between alcohol use and cognitive function would differ by ApoE genotype (ε4+ vs. ε4−).
Participants were 1266 men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA; M age = 56; range 51–60) who completed a neuropsychological battery assessing seven cognitive abilities: general cognitive ability (GCA), episodic memory, processing speed, executive function, abstract reasoning, verbal fluency, and visuospatial ability. Alcohol consumption was categorized into five groups: never, former, light, moderate, and heavy.
In fully adjusted models, there was no significant main effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive functions. However, there was a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and ApoE ε4 status for GCA and episodic memory, such that the relationship of alcohol consumption and cognition was stronger in ε4 carriers. The ε4+ heavy drinking subgroup had the poorest GCA and episodic memory.
Presence of the ε4 allele may increase vulnerability to the deleterious effects of heavy alcohol consumption. Beneficial effects of light or moderate alcohol consumption were not observed.
Diet has a major influence on the composition and metabolic output of the gut microbiome. Higher-protein diets are often recommended for older consumers; however, the effect of high-protein diets on the gut microbiota and faecal volatile organic compounds (VOC) of elderly participants is unknown. The purpose of the study was to establish if the faecal microbiota composition and VOC in older men are different after a diet containing the recommended dietary intake (RDA) of protein compared with a diet containing twice the RDA (2RDA). Healthy males (74⋅2 (sd 3⋅6) years; n 28) were randomised to consume the RDA of protein (0⋅8 g protein/kg body weight per d) or 2RDA, for 10 weeks. Dietary protein was provided via whole foods rather than supplementation or fortification. The diets were matched for dietary fibre from fruit and vegetables. Faecal samples were collected pre- and post-intervention for microbiota profiling by 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing and VOC analysis by head space/solid-phase microextraction/GC-MS. After correcting for multiple comparisons, no significant differences in the abundance of faecal microbiota or VOC associated with protein fermentation were evident between the RDA and 2RDA diets. Therefore, in the present study, a twofold difference in dietary protein intake did not alter gut microbiota or VOC indicative of altered protein fermentation.
Physical evidence of weapon trauma in medieval burials is unusual, and evidence for trauma caused by arrowheads is exceptionally rare. Where high frequencies of traumatic injuries have been identified, this is mainly in contexts related to battles; it is much less common in normative burials. Osteological analysis of one context from an assemblage of disarticulated and commingled human bones recovered from a cemetery associated with the thirteenth-century Dominican friary in Exeter, Devon, shows several instances of weapon trauma, including multiple injuries caused by projectile points. Arrow trauma is notoriously difficult to identify, but this assemblage shows that arrows fired from longbows could result in entry and exit wounds in the skull not incomparable to modern gunshot wounds. Microscopic examination of the fracture patterns and spalling associated with these puncture wounds provides tentative evidence that medieval arrows were fletched to spin clockwise. These results have profound implications for our understanding of the power of the medieval longbow, for how we recognise arrow trauma in the archaeological record and for our knowledge of how common violent death and injury were in the medieval past, and how and where casualties were buried.
Emerging research highlights the importance of the timing of the onset of a depressive episode. This study examines the risk factors and psychiatric features of participants who experienced their first major depressive episode as children, teenagers or adults. This study is unique in that it emphasises the importance of examining onset of an episode during critical developmental periods.
Participants were 372 depressed outpatients who were either treated with psychotherapy (IPT or CBT) or medication as part of two separate randomised clinical trials. Participants completed a number of assessment measures including clinician ratings of DSM diagnoses. Personality was also assessed using Cloninger's (e.g., 1994) Temperament and Character Inventory.
Participants with childhood onset and teenage-onset depression had a higher number of co-morbid diagnoses and more DSM III/IV personality disorder diagnoses than those with adult-onset depression. Specifically, more participants with childhood or teenage onset depression had diagnoses of avoidant and borderline personality disorder. Women who had childhood onset depression were over three times more likely to have attempted suicide compared to other participants. Participants with childhood onset depression were also more likely to report being threatened with abuse, have experienced psychological abuse and reported more abuse incidents. Age of onset was also associated with a number of differences in temperament and character.
This research emphasises the significance of understanding the age of onset of a depressive episode. Depressive episodes that begin in childhood/adolescence are associated with higher co-morbidity and greater personality dysfunction.
The Place of the Western Canada Waitlist Project in Regional Child and Adolescent Mental Health Program Services.
In this presentation is described the history of the Western Canada Waitlist Project (WCWL) and its implementation within the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Program. Highlighted is how the Western Canada Waitlist Project fits into regional clinical and accountability processes. Our results confirm that the Western Canada Waitlist Project Children's Mental Health component is a useful, economic instrument. For example, 11,067 Children's Mental Health Priority Criteria Score (CMH-PCS) forms have been completed since the beginning of the project in 2002. Not only have the WCWL data been used clinically to place clients within the continuum of care and develop priority and safety flags, the WCWL data have also been used to predict and model clinical outcomes. The current paper highlights the degree to which the WCWL-CMH-PCS, gathered at the time of screening and triage, prior to admission, predicts clinical outcomes at the time of discharge. Described is the way in which we plan to use this information to flag on admission, for the purpose of additional intervention, children who are at risk of poor clinical outcomes.
Longitudinal studies reporting the association between cannabis use and developing depression provide mixed results. The objective of this study was to establish the extent to which different patterns of use of cannabis are associated with the development of depression using meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.
Peer-reviewed publications that compared the risk of development of depression in cannabis users and non-userst were located using searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO and ISI Web of Science. Data on measures of cannabis use, measures of depression and control variables were extracted. Odds ratios were extracted by age and length of follow-up.
After screening 3,905 articles, 55 articles were selected for full-text review, of which 12 were included in the quantitative analysis. The odds for cannabis users developing depression compared to controls was 1.26 (95%CI=1.10-1.44). The odds for heavy cannabis users developing depression was 1.72 (95%CI=1.27-2.34), compared to non-users or light users. Meta-regression revealed no significant differences in effect based on age of subjects or length of follow-up in the individual studies. There was large heterogeneity in the number and type of control variables in the different studies.
Cannabis use, and particularly heavy cannabis use, may be associated with an increased risk for developing depressive disorders. Despite limitations due to heterogeneity in control variables, this study represents the current state of knowledge on this association. In order to establish a more precise dose-response relationship between cannabis use and the risk of developing depression, future longitudinal exploration should take into account cumulative exposure to cannabis.
Psychiatric disorders commonly emerge during the first year following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it is not clear whether these disorders soon remit or persist for long periods post-injury. This study aimed to examine, prospectively: (1) the frequency, (2) patterns of co-morbidity, (3) trajectory, and (4) risk factors for psychiatric disorders during the first 5 years following TBI.
Participants were 161 individuals (78.3% male) with moderate (31.2%) or severe (68.8%) TBI. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, administered soon after injury and 3, 6 and 12 months, and 2, 3, 4 and 5 years post-injury. Disorder frequencies and generalized estimating equations were used to identify temporal relationships and risk factors.
In the first 5 years post-injury, 75.2% received a psychiatric diagnosis, commonly emerging within the first year (77.7%). Anxiety, mood and substance-use disorders were the most common diagnostic classes, often presenting co-morbidly. Many (56.5%) experienced a novel diagnostic class not present prior to injury. Disorder frequency ranged between 61.8 and 35.6% over time, decreasing by 27% [odds ratio (OR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65–0.83] with each year post-injury. Anxiety disorders declined significantly over time (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.63–0.84), whilst mood and substance-use disorder rates remained stable. The strongest predictors of post-injury disorder were pre-injury disorder (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.41–4.25) and accident-related limb injury (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.03–3.07).
Findings suggest the first year post-injury is a critical period for the emergence of psychiatric disorders. Disorder frequency declines thereafter, with anxiety disorders showing greater resolution than mood and substance-use disorders.
There has been a recent move in psychiatry towards the use of electronic discharge (e-discharge) summaries in an effort to improve the efficiency of communication between primary and secondary care, but there are little data on how this affects the quality of information exchanged.
To evaluate the quality of psychiatric discharge summaries before and after the introduction of the e-discharge summary system.
A retrospective analysis of 50 dictated discharge summaries from 1 January to 1 July 2010 and of 50 e-discharge summaries from 1 January to 1 July 2012, evaluating for the inclusion of 15 key items of clinical information.
The average total score of the dictated summaries (mean=9.5, s.d.=2.0) was significantly higher (p<0.001) than the e-discharge summaries (mean=6.7, s.d.=1.8). There were statistically significant differences in five of the standards: findings of physical examination (p<0.001), ICD-10 code (p<0.001), forensic history (p<0.001), alcohol history (p<0.001) and drug history (p<0.001).
Our results revealed a decline in the quality of discharge summaries following the introduction of an electronic system. The reasons for this are unclear and require further analysis. Specific suggestions will depend on the local need, but include improvements in software design and layout as well as better education and training.
Data were extracted from the case records of UK patients admitted with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. White and non-White patients were characterized by age, sex, socioeconomic status, pandemic wave and indicators of pre-morbid health status. Logistic regression examined differences by ethnicity in patient characteristics, care pathway and clinical outcomes; multivariable models controlled for potential confounders. Whites (n = 630) and non-Whites (n = 510) differed by age, socioeconomic status, pandemic wave of admission, pregnancy, recorded obesity, previous and current smoking, and presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. After adjustment for a priori confounders non-Whites were less likely to have received pre-admission antibiotics [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0·43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28–0·68, P < 0·001) but more likely to receive antiviral drugs as in-patients (aOR 1·53, 95% CI 1·08–2·18, P = 0·018). However, there were no significant differences by ethnicity in delayed admission, severity at presentation for admission, or likelihood of severe outcome.