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The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
Optimisation of complex systems frequently requires evaluating a computationally expensive high-fidelity function to estimate a system metric of interest. Although design sensitivities may be available through either direct or adjoint methods, the use of formal optimisation methods may remain too costly. Incorporating low-fidelity performance estimates can substantially reduce the cost of the high-fidelity optimisation. In this paper we present a provably convergent multifidelity optimisation method that uses Cokriging Bayesian model calibration and first-order consistent trust regions. The technique is compared with a single-fidelity sequential quadratic programming method and a conventional first-order trust-region method on both a two-dimensional structural optimisation and an aerofoil design problem. In both problems adjoint formulations are used to provide inexpensive sensitivity information.
Recent observational work has shown that the emission in different layers of the solar atmosphere can de described statistically. For example, Pauluhn et al. (2000) show that the frequency distribution of quiet Sun emission in EUV lines is well fit by a lognormal distribution. In addition, Parnell (2002) has shown that the frequency distribution of discrete magnetic elements in the quiet Sun is well fit by a Weibull distribution. These distributions arise naturally from fragmentation studies of materials such as polymers and sediments. It is suggested that fragmentation and its related phenomena may be of use in describing the physics of how the above distributions appear on the Sun.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
The risk of Borrelia burgdorferi infection and the value
of antibiotic prophylaxis after tick bite
are controversial. In this study, performed in two areas of southwestern
Germany, ticks were
collected from 730 patients and examined by the polymerase chain reaction
B. burgdorferi. To assess whether transmission of B.
burgdorferi occurred, the patients were
clinically and serologically examined after tick removal and during follow-up
Data from all tick bites gave a total transmission rate of 2·6%
(19 patients). Eighty-four ticks
(11·3%) were PCR positive. Transmission occurred to 16
(26·7%) of 60 patients who were
initially seronegative and could be followed up after the bite of
an infected tick. These results
indicate that the transmission rate from infected ticks in Europe is higher
assumed. Examination of ticks and antibiotic prophylaxis in the case of
positivity appears to
A single 0.3 ppm injection of methoxychlor into the Athabasca River, Alberta on 4 June 1974 for 15 min caused catastrophic drift for a distance of over 400 km, and a subsequent large decrease in the drifting population. This decrease, when expressed as a percentage reduction from pretreatment drift, is in close agreement with percentage reduction of standing crop recorded by other sampling methods. The time required for the pesticide to affect different species varied considerably but was not related to the mode of feeding. Methoxychlor residues above ambient levels in water were recorded in all the invertebrate populations sampled. Caged animals had significantly different residues than the natural populations. The use of caged animals as indicators of environmental damage is therefore questioned.
The modified Thomas-Fermi method reported in (2) has been applied numerically to calculate the distribution of valence electrons in CC14. Slater wave functions have been used to describe the Cl inner-shell electrons, whilst a description of the C ls electrons based on the Thomas-Fermi model for atoms has been adopted. The electron distribution thus found is compared with the two approximations discussed in part I of this series (3). The first of these, in which valence and inner-shell electrons are treated in the same way, is shown to give a distribution of valence electrons in good agreement with the present results. The second approximation, that of effective nuclear charges, is less satisfactory and could only lead to a distribution of valence electrons in reasonable agreement with the present work if the effective nuclear charges were considerably reduced. This seems to throw some light on the results of Bowers for the force constants of tetrachlorides and tetrabromides.
The overall distribution of electrons obtained here seems to be the inevitable result of assuming the valence electrons to move in any plausible central field. It is, of course, by no means certain that such an approximation is near to the truth. In fact, the results of (3) and the present paper leave little doubt that the electron cloud obtained by such an approximate method will be too diffuse. This seems at least partly responsible for our finding that rather more than 20 of the 28 Cl valence electrons lie outside the sphere drawn through the Cl nuclei.
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