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In this paper, a priori error estimates are derived for the mixed finite element discretization of optimal control problems governed by fourth order elliptic partial differential equations. The state and co-state are discretized by Raviart-Thomas mixed finite element spaces and the control variable is approximated by piecewise constant functions. The error estimates derived for the state variable as well as those for the control variable seem to be new. We illustrate with a numerical example to confirm our theoretical results.
The presence of the fish species Enneapterygius pusillus and confirmation of Parablennius opercularis occurrence in the Kuwaiti waters of the northern Arabian Gulf regions are both reported here. One adult specimen of each species was photographed in the Qit at Binaya patch reef off Al Khiran, in southern Kuwait waters. The pixie triplefin record is a new ichthyofaunal record for the northern Arabian Gulf.
The electroglottogram approximate entropy value is a numerical variable which gives an overall measure of voice quality. It is derived by analysing the complexity of the electroglottogram waveform using regulatory statistics.
(1) To use electroglottogram approximate entropy to measure voice quality in patients with glottic pathology and in normal subjects, to ascertain whether this parameter can distinguish between pathological and normal voices. (2) To ascertain whether electroglottogram approximate entropy can measure voice change over time within individual subjects. (3) To determine any correlation between electroglottogram approximate entropy and the grade–roughness–breathiness–asthenia–strain scale.
One hundred and forty-one normal volunteers were recruited to characterise electroglottogram approximate entropy in the normal voice. One hundred and eighty-six patients with glottic squamous cell carcinoma underwent electroglottogram approximate entropy measurement prior to radiotherapy and then three to six months and one year after treatment. Subjects’ voices were categorised by a speech therapist using the grade–roughness–breathiness–asthenia–strain scale.
The mean electroglottogram approximate entropy of the normal volunteers was 0.302 (range 0.05–0.42). The mean electroglottogram approximate entropy of the glottic squamous cell carcinoma patients was significantly lower prior to treatment, at 0.227 (range 0.001–0.397; p < 0.0005), but improved after radiotherapy to 0.277 at three to six months and 0.282 at one year. Electroglottogram approximate entropy results correlated significantly with grade–roughness–breathiness–asthenia–strain scale results.
Electroglottogram approximate entropy can be used to assess change in voice quality resulting from glottic morphological abnormality. Electroglottogram approximate entropy values improve as voice quality improves after treatment. Electroglottogram approximate entropy values correlate significantly with grade–roughness–breathiness–asthenia–strain scale results.
We investigated two sequential outbreaks of severe diarrhoea in two neighbouring villages of Orissa, in 2005. We conducted descriptive and matched case-control studies. The attack rates were 5·6% (n=62) and 5·2% (n=51), respectively, in the first and second villages. One death was reported in the second village (case fatality 2%). We identified that consumption of milk products prepared in the household of the index case [matched odds ratio (mOR) 5·7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·7–30] in the first village, and drinking well water in the second village were associated with the illness (mOR 4·7, 95% CI 1·6–19). We isolated Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 Ogawa from stool samples from both the villages. Mishandling of milk products led to a cholera outbreak in the first village, which led to sewerage contamination of a well and another outbreak in the second village. Environmental contamination should be expected and prevented during cholera outbreaks.
The levels of fluphenazine and fluphenazine sulphoxide in schizophrenic patients who were randomly assigned to receive either 5 mg or 25 mg of fluphenazine decanoate every two weeks were monitored. Patients treated with 25 mg of fluphenazine decanoate required three months to reach a steady-state plasma level, indicating that those patients who are being converted from oral to depot fluphenazine should continue to receive oral supplementation during the first three months of treatment with fluphenazine decanoate. Plasma levels of fluphenazine sulphoxide were lower than levels of fluphenazine. At six and nine months following randomisation, there was a statistically significant relationship between lower fluphenazine plasma levels and an increased risk of psychotic exacerbations. A relatively weak relationship was found between fluphenazine plasma levels and akinesia, but non-significant relationships between fluphenazine levels and other neurological side-effects including akathisia, retardation, and tardive dyskinesia. Monitoring the plasma levels may be helpful to clinicians who are attempting to treat stabilised patients with the lowest effective dose of fluphenazine decanoate.
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