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In this paper, a colloidal solution of copper nanoparticles was prepared from a Cu ion aqueous solution with the protein casein surfactant by a liquid phase reduction method at low temperature below 373K. For the casein concentration ranging from 6g/L to 75g/L, the formation of copper nanoparticle colloid were observed. As a result, the peak was observed at the ranging of 450 to 650 nm corresponding to the copper nanoparticle colloid plasmon absorption. As the surfactant concentration increases, the absorption spectrum tends to blue-shift and the particle diameter decreases. Thus, it indicated that the optical property and particle diameter of copper nanoparticle colloidal solution will be controlled by the protein casein surfactant concentration.
The Japan-U.S. satellite ASCA was launched in February 1993 and provides a new capability to obtain high-resolution X-ray spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars in the 0.5 — 10 keV band. We present spectra of the wide binary HD 193793 (WC7+O4-5) obtained three months after periastron with the WC7 star in front, and of the WN7 star HD 93162 in Carina. The spectrum of HD 193793 is heavily absorbed below 2 keV by the WC7 wind and shows a prominent emission line from He-like iron at 6.7 keV. Acceptable fits were obtained using a Raymond-Smith model with kT ≈ 3 keV and non-solar abundances. In contrast, the spectrum of HD 93162 is softer and shows very little emission above ≍2 keV. The relatively low signal-to-noise precludes emission line analysis, and an acceptable spectral fit was obtained using a simple Bremsstrahlung model with kT ≍ 1.6 keV. No significant variability was detected in the X-ray light-curves of either star.
Stars more massive than ~ 20 − 25 M⊙ form a black hole at the end of their evolution. Stars with non-rotating black holes are likely to collapse “quietly” ejecting a small amount of heavy elements (faint supernovae). In contrast, stars with rotating black holes are likely to give rise to very energetic supernovae (hypernovae). We present distinct nucleosynthesis features of these two types of “black-hole-forming” supernovae. Nucleosynthesis in hypernovae is characterized by larger abundance ratios (Zn, Co, V, Ti)/Fe and smaller (Mn, Cr)/Fe than normal supernovae, which can explain the observed trend of these ratios in extremely metal-poor stars. Nucleosynthesis in faint supernovae is characterized by a large amount of fall-back. We show that the abundance pattern of the recently discovered most Fe-poor star, HE0107-5240, and other extremely metal-poor carbon-rich stars are in good accord with those of black-hole-forming supernovae, but not pair-instability supernovae. This suggests that black-hole-forming supernovae made important contributions to the early Galactic (and cosmic) chemical evolution. Finally we discuss the nature of first (Pop III) Stars.
We discuss the properties of the very energetic Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic) 1998bw and 1997ef, and of Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) 1997cy. SNe Ic 1998bw and 1997ef are characterized by their large luminosity and very broad spectral features. Their observed properties can be explained if they are very energetic SN explosions (EK ≳ 1 × 1052 erg), originating probably from the core collapse of the bare C+O cores of massive stars (~ 30–40M⊙). At late times, both the light curve and the spectra suggest that the explosion may have been asymmetric; this may help us understand the claimed connection with GRBs. Type IIn SN 1997cy is even more luminous than SN 998bw, and the light curve declines more slowly than the 56Co decay. We model such a light curve with circumstellar interaction, which requires the explosion energy of ~ 5 × 1052 erg. Because these kinetic energies of explosion are much larger than in normal core-collapse SNe, we call objects like these SNe “hypernovae”.
X-ray imaging spectroscopic observations near the Galactic center region were carried out with the ASCA satellite. We found two bright spots very close to the Galactic center (Sgr A∗); one is extended and has a soft spectrum associated with strong emission lines from highly ionized irons, while the other is a point-like object with a harder spectrum and a larger absorption. We also found extended emission with K-shell transition lines from highly ionized Si, S, Ar, Ca and Fe. Remarkable feature found with ASCA is an extended emission of 6.4 keV lines of low ionization irons. The 6.4 keV line fluxes are found to be well correlated to the region of cool clouds. We interpret that the 6.4 keV line is due to florescence from the cool clouds irradiated by strong (and obscured from our line of sight) X-ray beams.
The complex radio source Sgr A is embedded in a region near our Galactic Center. The dynamical center of our Galaxy is considered to be Sgr A*, the compact non-thermal radio source. Dynamical mass within ~0.1 pc from Sgr A* has been estimated to be ~ 3×106 M⊙. This places Sgr A* to be a candidate of a massive blackhole (Eckart and Genzel, 1997 and reference therein).
Since the real Universe is clumpy and inhomogeneous even at rather large scale such as 100 Mpc, we may wonder whether the isotropic and homogeneous Friedmann model is valid when we compare some cosmological parameters with the observed values. The observed Hubble parameter H0 or the density parameter Ω0 might be deviated from the theoretically expected ones from the Friedmann model. In fact, the density parameter Ω0 seems to vary depending on the observational methods and the distance scales. Furthermore, our Universe seems to possess a fractal property in the galaxy distributions at least at scale up to 10 Mpc.
Stars more massive than ~ 20–25 M⊙ form a black hole at the end of their evolution. Stars with non-rotating black holes are likely to collapse ”quietly” ejecting a small amount of heavy elements (Faint supernovae). In contrast, stars with rotating black holes are likely to give rise to very energetic supernovae (Hypernovae). Nucleosynthesis in Hypernovae is characterized by larger abundance ratios (Zn,Co,V,Ti)/Fe and smaller (Mn,Cr)/Fe than normal supernovae, which can explain the observed trend of these ratios in extremely metal-poor stars. Nucleosynthesis in Faint supernovae is characterized by a large amount of fall-back. We show that the abundance pattern of the recently discovered most Fe-poor star, HE0107-5240, and other extremely metal-poor carbon-rich stars are in good accord with those of black-hole-forming supernovae, but not pair-instability supernovae. This suggests that black-hole-forming supernovae made important contributions to the early Galactic (and cosmic) chemical evolution as the First (Pop III) Supernovae.
Superficial siderosis is a rare disease that results from chronic bleeding in the subarachnoid space. Haemosiderin deposits throughout the subpial layers of the brain and spinal cord lead to progressive sensorineural hearing loss, which is seen in 95 per cent of patients with superficial siderosis. The impact of cochlear implantation on the quality of life of superficial siderosis patients is under debate.
A 38-year-old male with superficial siderosis presented with bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss. The patient underwent cochlear implantation and his quality of life was improved as evaluated by the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit inventory.
The remarkable improvement in Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit scores shown in this study indicates that cochlear implantation leads to a better quality of life in superficial siderosis patients.
Changes in critical current properties depending on growth temperature (Ts) were clarified for Ba-Nb-O-doped YBa2Cu3Oy (Y123) films deposited by YAG- and excimer-PLD. Due to the introduction of Ba-Nb-O-nanorods, a vortex-Bose-glass-like behavior emerged as irreversibility lines and in-field critical current densities (Jcs) were improved. Crossover magnetic fields (Bcr) and in-field Jcs increased with the increase in Ts for the Y123 films with nanorods. These Ts-dependent critical current properties were attributable to the changes in morphology of the nanorods with Ts and were independent of laser source in PLD apparatuses. For the fabrication of RE123 coated conductors containing nanorods, optimization of Ts with taking both materials of RE123 matrix and nanorod into account is necessary to achieve higher in-field Jc.
The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study was designed to clarify the incidence of and predictive and immunological factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based Japanese population. As part of this series, a total of 5683 residents aged ⩾50 years received a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin test with VZV antigen, and 48 h later, the erythema and oedema were assessed by measuring the longest diameter. The diameters of both the erythema and oedema decreased with the increasing age of the subject. Sixty-three subjects contracted herpes zoster within a year after receiving the VZV skin test. Analysis of the herpes zoster incidence rate vs. the skin test reaction revealed that the shorter the diameter of erythema or oedema, the greater the likelihood of herpes zoster. These results demonstrated that the VZV skin test is an excellent surrogate marker for predicting the risk of herpes zoster.
The gullet worm (Gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide, including monkeys and humans. Due to its wide host range, it has been suggested that the worm may be transmitted locally to any mammalian host by chance. To investigate this notion, the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), mainly regions of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2, and a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region of mitochondrial DNA of G. pulchrum were characterized using parasites from the following hosts located in Japan: cattle, sika deer, wild boars, Japanese macaques, a feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The rDNA nucleotide sequences of G. pulchrum were generally well conserved regardless of their host origin. However, a few insertions/deletions of nucleotides along with a few base substitutions in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions were observed in G. pulchrum from sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques, and those differed from G. pulchrum in cattle, the feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The COI sequences of G. pulchrum were further divided into multiple haplotypes and two groups of haplotypes, i.e. those from a majority of sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques and those from cattle and zoo animals, were clearly differentiated. Our findings indicate that domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles of the gullet worm are currently present, at least in Japan.
Static corrosion tests were performed on the simulated waste glass doped
with Pu and Cm (PuO2; 0.22wt%, Cm2O3;
0.09%) in deionized water at 90 °C with S/V ratio of 2600 m−1
under oxidizing and reducing conditions, respectively. The corrosion tests
under oxidizing conditions were performed in air, while the corrosion tests
under reducing conditions were performed in an airtight stainless steel
container purged with mixed gas (Ar+5%H2), where the Eh of the solution was
maintained at approximately -0.45 V vs SHE. The results showed that the
redox conditions have no remarkable influence on the leaching behavior of Pu
and Cm. It was also observed that the Pu and Cm concentrations in the 1.8nm
filtered solutions were one or two orders of magnitude lower than those in
the 450nm filtered solutions under both redox conditions, which suggests
that the insoluble suspended fractions (colloidal particles) with the size
from 1.8nm to 450nm are dominant phase for Pu and Cm in the solution under
both redox conditions.
The microstructure change of the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuels (MOX fuels) irradiated in a fast reactor occurs because of a radial temperature gradient. To make detailed observations and elemental analyses of fuel samples, a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with a wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (WDX) was installed in a hot laboratory.
Because fuel samples have high radioactivities and emit α-particles, the instrument was modified as follows :
1)The instrument was attached to a remote control air-tight sample transfer unit between a shielded hot cell and the FE-SEM.
2)The FE-SEM was installed in a lead shield box and the control unit was separately located outside the box.
After the installation, the microscopy and elemental analyses were applied to low burnup fuel samples. High resolution images were obtained and characteristic X-rays (U, Pu, and so on) emitted from the sample surface were measured. The technique has the great advantage of being able to evaluate the irradiated fuels in detail. In future work, samples of even higher radioactive will be observed and analyzed.
A super-Chandrasekhar (SC) supernova (SN) has an extremely high luminosity and a slow decline rate of the light curve in the early-phase. We present late-phase observations of the SC SN 2009dc. We find that the optical luminosity a year after maximum is much fainter than that expected from its early luminosity. We attempt to fit the analytic light curve model to the observations using Arnett's rule. The model successfully explains the light curves until 120 days. This suggests that the extremely high luminosity originates from the 56Ni decay. We suggest that the late-phase decline would be caused by dust formation. The existence of strong carbon features in early-phase spectra would support this scenario. We also find a blend of [Ca ii] and [Ni ii] in its late-phase spectrum. This indicates that the calcium is distributed in the inner layer along with nickel and iron. We conclude that the mixing may occur in the inner parts of the ejecta.
Static corrosion tests were performed with an inactive HLW glass of R7T7 type in order to evaluate alteration-phase formation and associated Cs release during the glass corrosion. The tests were performed in NaOH solutions at elevated temperatures in order to accelerate the corrosion. Crystalline phases formed in the corroded glass were analyzed by use of XRD, in addition to the solution analysis. The results indicated that; 1)Analcime or Na-beidellite or both of them form during the corrosion depending on the conditions, 2)Si rich amorphous phases are contained in the alteration-phases, 3)In addition to solution pH, solution concentrations of Na and K sensitively affect formation of analcime and Na-beidellite, 4)Analcime formation accelerates the glass corrosion, 5)Most of Cs in the glass is retained in the alteration-phases by sorption onto Na-beidellite or incorporation into amorphous phases and pollucite
A new fabrication method of SiGe-on-Insulator (SGOI) and Ge-on-Insulator (GOI) structures are presented as well as the application to high-mobility channel CMOS devices. This method, the Ge-condensation technique, consists of epitaxial growth of a SiGe layer with a low Ge fraction on an SOI substrate and successive oxidation at high temperatures, which can be incorporated in conventional CMOS processes. During the oxidation, Ge atoms are pushed out from the oxide layer and condensed in the remaining SiGe layer. The interface between the Si and SiGe layers is disappeared due to the interdiffusion of Si and Ge atoms. Eventually, an SGOI layer with a higher Ge fraction is formed on the buried oxide layer. The Ge fraction in the SGOI layer can be controlled by the oxidation time because total amount of Ge atoms in the SGOI layer is conserved throughout the oxidation process. We found that the lattice relaxation in the SGOI layer also can be controlled through the initial SiGe thickness. P- and n-type strained SOI MOSFETs, which were fabricated on relaxed SGOI substrates formed by this technique, exhibited mobility enhancement of 50% and 80%, respectively. CMOS ring oscillators comprised of the MOSFETs exhibited reduction in propagation delay of 70%-30% compared to a conventional SOI-CMOS device. Ultrathin-body strained SGOI pMOSFETs with high Ge fraction and surface channels were also fabricated by this technique. These devices exhibited hole-mobility enhancement factors up to 2.3. Furthermore, Ge-on-Insulator (GOI) structures with thicknesses less than 10 nm were realized for ultrathin body GOI-CMOS applications by using the Ge-condensation technique. In conclusion, the Ge-condensation technique is a promising technique for fabricating various types of high-mobility channel-on-insulator devices.