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To test the functional implications of impaired white matter (WM) connectivity among patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, we examined the heritability of fractional anisotropy (FA) measured on diffusion tensor imaging data acquired in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, and its association with cognitive performance in a unique sample of 175 multigenerational non-psychotic relatives of 23 multiplex schizophrenia families and 240 unrelated controls (total = 438).
We examined polygenic inheritance (h2r) of FA in 24 WM tracts bilaterally, and also pleiotropy to test whether heritability of FA in multiple WM tracts is secondary to genetic correlation among tracts using the Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines. Partial correlation tests examined the correlation of FA with performance on eight cognitive domains on the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery, controlling for age, sex, site and mother's education, followed by multiple comparison corrections.
Significant total additive genetic heritability of FA was observed in all three-categories of WM tracts (association, commissural and projection fibers), in total 33/48 tracts. There were significant genetic correlations in 40% of tracts. Diagnostic group main effects were observed only in tracts with significantly heritable FA. Correlation of FA with neurocognitive impairments was observed mainly in heritable tracts.
Our data show significant heritability of all three-types of tracts among relatives of schizophrenia. Significant heritability of FA of multiple tracts was not entirely due to genetic correlations among the tracts. Diagnostic group main effect and correlation with neurocognitive performance were mainly restricted to tracts with heritable FA suggesting shared genetic effects on these traits.
Previous studies have reported depressive symptoms in patients with persistent delusional disorder (PDD). Patients with PDD and depression may need antidepressants for treatment.
The aim of the study was to compare the sociodemographic profile, clinical presentation and treatment response in patients with PDD with and without comorbid depressive symptoms.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with PDD (ICD-10) from 2000 to 2014 (n = 455). We divided the patients into PDD + depression (n = 187) and PDD only (n = 268) for analysis.
Of the 187 patients with PDD + D, only eighteen (3.9%) were diagnosed with syndromal depression. There were no significant differences in sociodemographic profile including sex, marital and socioeconomic status (all P > 0.05). PDD + D group had a significantly younger age at onset ([PDD + D: 30.6 9.2 years vs. PDD: 33.5 11.1 years]; t = 2.9, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the clinical presentation including mode of onset, the main theme of their delusion and secondary delusions (all P > 0.3). However, comorbid substance dependence was significantly higher in patients with PDD only. (χ2 = 5.3, P = 0.02). In terms of treatment, response to antipsychotics was also comparable ([> 75% response: PDD + D = 77/142 vs. PDD = 106/179); χ2 = 1.9, P = 0.3). There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of antidepressant treatment ([PDD + D = 32/187; 17% vs PDD: 17/268; 6%), χ2 = 12.9, P = 0.001).
Patients with PDD + D had significantly earlier onset of illness. These patients may require antidepressants for treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The burden of dengue virus infections increased globally during recent years. Though India is considered as dengue hyper-endemic country, limited data are available on disease epidemiology. The present study includes molecular characterization of dengue virus strains occurred in Hyderabad, India, during the year 2014. A total of 120 febrile cases were recruited for this study, which includes only children and 41 were serologically confirmed for dengue positive infections using non-structural (NS1) and/or IgG/IgM ELISA tests. RT-PCR, nucleotide sequencing and evolutionary analyses were carried out to identify the circulating serotypes/genotypes. The data indicated a high percent of severe dengue (63%) in primary infections. Simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes and co-infections were observed for the first time in Hyderabad, India. In total, 15 patients were co-infected with more than one dengue serotype and 12 (80%) of them had severe dengue. One of the striking findings of the present study is the identification of serotype Den-1 as the first report from this region and this strain showed close relatedness to the Thailand 1980 strains but not to any of the strains reported from India until now. Phylogenetically, all four strains of the present study showed close relatedness to the strains, which are reported to be high virulent.
Castor is an industrially important oilseed crop. Vascular wilt caused by the soil borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ricini is a serious disease of castor. Use of resistant cultivars is the only viable option for management of wilt disease problem in castor production. Excellent sources of resistance to wilt have been found in castor germplasm. In this study, a set of four castor inbred lines (48–1, CI-1, AP42 and AP48) was characterized for inheritance of resistance to wilt by studying segregating populations generated by crossing these inbred lines with eight different susceptible genotypes. An artificial screening method (sick pot) with a new scoring system (days to wilt) was used for evaluation of plant progenies for reaction to the pathogen infection. The reaction of F1s indicated that the nature of resistance in 48–1, CI-1 and AP48 is recessive whereas it was dominant in AP42. Inheritance results from eight F2 populations showed that resistance to wilt is conferred by a single locus in one population and at least two loci, which interact in complementary way, in other seven populations. Different modes of inheritance were also observed when the same resistant source was crossed with different susceptible parents, indicating the possible role of genetic backgrounds in determining resistance. Overall, the results suggested that Mendelian resistance to wilt is predominant in the castor genotypes, which can be exploited for breeding cultivars. Particularly, AP42 with dominant nature of resistance will be of great interest to hybrid breeding.
The influence of temperature-dependent fluid properties on flow and heat transfer of an electrically conducting fluid over a stretching sheet with variable thickness in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is analyzed. Using similarity transformations, the governing coupled non-linear partial differential equations (momentum and energy equations) are transformed into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations and are solved numerically by Keller-box method. For increasing values of the wall thickness parameter, the analysis reveals quite interesting flow and heat transfer patterns. The effects of the temperature dependent viscosity, the wall velocity power index, the thermal conductivity, the wall temperature parameter and the Prandtl number on the flow and temperature fields are presented. The obtained numerical results are compared with the available results in the literature for some special cases and are found to be in excellent agreement. The skin friction and the wall temperature gradient are presented for different values of the physical parameters and the salient features are analyzed.
Herpes virus infections can cause cognitive impairment during and after acute encephalitis. Although chronic, latent/persistent infection is considered to be relatively benign, some studies have documented cognitive impairment in exposed persons that is untraceable to encephalitis. These studies were conducted among schizophrenia (SZ) patients or older community dwellers, among whom it is difficult to control for the effects of co-morbid illness and medications. To determine whether the associations can be generalized to other groups, we examined a large sample of younger control individuals, SZ patients and their non-psychotic relatives (n=1852).
Using multivariate models, cognitive performance was evaluated in relation to exposures to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), controlling for familial and diagnostic status and sociodemographic variables, including occupation and educational status. Composite cognitive measures were derived from nine cognitive domains using principal components of heritability (PCH). Exposure was indexed by antibodies to viral antigens.
PCH1, the most heritable component of cognitive performance, declines with exposure to CMV or HSV-1 regardless of case/relative/control group status (p = 1.09 × 10−5 and 0.01 respectively), with stronger association with exposure to multiple herpes viruses (β = −0.25, p = 7.28 × 10−10). There were no significant interactions between exposure and group status.
Latent/persistent herpes virus infections can be associated with cognitive impairments regardless of other health status.
Two metabolism trials (experiments 1 and 2) were conducted to examine the effect of the organic S compound, sodium 3-mercapto-1-propane sulfonic acid (MPS) on feed intake, fiber digestibility, rumen fermentation and abundance of cellulolytic rumen microorganisms in cattle fed low S (<0.11%) roughages. Urea was provided in all treatments to compensate for the N deficiency (<0.6%) in the roughages. In experiment 1, steers (333 ± 9.5 kg liveweight) were fed Angleton grass (Dicanthium aristatum) supplemented with S in equivalent amounts as either MPS (6.0 g/day) or sodium sulfate (9.56 g/day). Supplementation of Angelton grass with either sulfate or MPS resulted in an apparent increase in flow of rumen microbial protein from the rumen. Sulfur supplementation did not significantly change whole tract dry matter digestibility or intake, even though sulfate and MPS supplementation was associated with an increase in the relative abundance of the fibrolytic bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes and anaerobic rumen fungi. Ruminal sulfide levels were significantly higher in the sulfate treatment, which indicated that the bioavailability of the two S atoms in the MPS molecule may be low in the rumen. Based on this observation, experiment 2 was conducted in which twice the amount of S was provided in the form of MPS (8.0 g/day) compared with sodium sulfate (6.6 g/day) to heifers (275 ± 9 kg liveweight) fed rice straw. Supplementation with MPS compared with sulfate in experiment 2 resulted in an increase in concentration of total volatile fatty acids, and ammonia utilization without a change in feed intake or whole tract fiber digestibility even though S and N were above requirement for growing cattle in both these treatment groups. In conclusion, supplementation of an S deficient low-quality roughage diet with either MPS or sodium sulfate, in conjunction with urea N, improved rumen fermentation, which was reflected in an increase in urinary purine excretion. However, MPS appeared to have a greater effect on stimulating short-chain fatty acid production and ammonia utilization when provided at higher concentrations than sulfate. Thus, the metabolism of MPS in the rumen needs to be investigated further in comparison with inorganic forms of S as it may prove to be more effective in stimulating fermentation of roughage diets.
The relationship between chromosome pairing and chromosome fragmentation has been studied in a gene controlled mutant of pearl millet (2n = 14). Premeiotic mitosis, premeiotic cell development and early prophase I are normal without any fragments, which first appear at pachytene. The extent of fragmentation varies from zero to very extreme with two discrete classes of plants, namely those with partial fragmentation and those with multiple fragmentation. A quantitative analysis of bivalent distribution and the distribution of AI bridges in desynaptic and fragmented cells show all of them to be nonrandom events. We suggest that in cells showing partial fragmentation the bridges and fragments result from U-type exchanges at pachytene. The reduced frequency of AII bridges indicates relatively low sister chromatid reunion at pachytene. In multiple fragmented plants numerous minute fragments were seen from pachytene. Despite these anomalies most PMCs complete meiosis but subsequently abort at the pollen grain stage. The mutant gene also causes disturbances in the sequence of meiotic development in the ear and in the synchronous development of PMCs within an anther. It has no effect on the tapetum or on the physiological development of the anther.
Vertically-aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) were grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique. These VA-MWCNTs were then dip coated by Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) followed by annealing. Samples were then polished to expose the tips of CNTs. Biological molecules Glucose Oxidase (GOx) were then immobilized on the exposed tips of these nanoelectrode ensembles. Here we present further characterization of these devices, with results on the detection limits and measurement stability. We found that these sensors can be reused for longer than eight months when kept in proper storage conditions.
The paper describes the fabrication and characterization of an ionic junction nanodevice as a biosensor using surfactant coated single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT's) via microcontact printing and its application in detecting standard protein biomolecules ( biotin-avidin). Intrinsic semiconducting SWCNT's are doped with anionic and cationic surfactant molecules respectively. Using double patterning process, these ionically doped anionic and cationic semiconducting SWCNT's are alternatively symmetrically patterned in a parallel array to form crossbar junctions onto base microelectrode arrays using flexible polymeric poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps. Parallel alignment of SWCNT's is achieved, due to transfer of the inked SWCNT's from the PDMS relief structure onto the microelectrode array. Base microcontacts on the microelectrode array serve as a platform for measuring electrical characteristics that get modulated due to the biomolecule binding. Functionality of the nanodevice is demonstrated by measuring impedance changes due to biomolecule binding. The modulation of the electrical behavior indicates the existence of potential for using ionically doped nanomaterial systems in fabricating functional building blocks for biosensors.
Field emission from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been known for more than a decade but there is no commercialized product available in the market. Apparently, we need to improve our basics understanding on stable field emission from CNTs. Here we compared the field emission properties of as grown vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to two types of modified MWCNTs: 1) Conical bundles of opened-tip MWCNTs, and 2) Opened-tip MWCNTs embedded in poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA). We found that both types of modified MWCNTs have lower emission thresholds and better emission stability than the as grown samples. Among these modified samples, MCNTs embedded in PMMA has lower emission thresholds and better emission stability. We attributed these improvements to the filling of spacing between MWCNTs with PMMA that has higher dielectric constant than vacuum.
Effect of graded levels of high-glucosinolate mustard (Brassica juncea) meal as substitute of soya-bean meal (SBM) in broiler rabbit diets was studied. Forty weaning rabbits of Soviet Chinchilla and White Giant breed were randomly allocated to one of four experimental diets containing mustard meal (MM) 0, 80, 160 and 245 g/kg. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. MM had 54.8 mg total glucosinolates (TGLSs) per g dry matter (DM). Diets had TGLS 3.8, 8.4 and 11.98 mg/g DM in 80, 160 and 245 g MM diets, respectively. MM-incorporated diets had higher digestible and linearly (P < 0.01) higher metabolisable energy (ME) content. However, the effect on total tract apparent digestibility of DM, and crude protein was quadratic. Average daily gain (ADG) reduced (P < 0.05) linearly with increasing MM levels in diet, still 80 and 160 g MM diets had similar ADG compared to that of SBM diet. Caecum weight reduced linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing MM levels in diet. The pH of caecal content ranged between 5.85 and 6.19, total N between 1.19 and 1.48 (g per 100 g) and total volatile fatty acids between 4.7 and 5.8 mmol per 100 g, and they were not statistically different. NH3-N ranged between 31.2 and 39.0 mg per 100 ml, and reduced linearly (P < 0.05) while trichloroacetic acid-precipitable nitrogen increased linearly (P < 0.01, ranged between 114 and 247 mg per 100 ml) with increasing MM levels in diet. Blood haemoglobin, packed cell volume and lymphocytes were higher (quadratic effects, P < 0.05) on 245 MM diet, whereas white blood cell count reduced linearly (P < 0.01). Serum aspartate aminotransferase increased linearly (P < 0.01) while alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity, protein, erythrocytes sedimentation rate and red blood cell counts were not affected by MM. Serum Cu, Na and K content increased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing MM levels. Liver Cu concentration showed quadratic (P < 0.05) increase. Rabbits tolerated 8.4 mg TGLS per g diet (160 g MM per kg) during active growth without any apparent effect on health and growth. It is concluded that MM can replace up to 66% SBM protein in rabbit feeding, whereas complete replacement of SBM with MM reduced feed intake and ADG by 23% and 13%, respectively. Further studies are required to confirm these inclusion levels and glucosinolate tolerance of rabbits.
During late Pliocene times, extrabasinally derived acidic volcanic ashes were deposited as distal pyroclastic fallout in upland interfluvial–lacustrine settings in the northwestern part of the Siwalik basin. These ash beds occur as a bentonitized tuff band and tuffaceous mudstones in the Jammu region of India. We located and described 12 outcrops of this conspicuous, geographically widespread bentonitized tuff band and tuffaceous mudstone association at the same stratigraphic level, coincident with the Gauss–Matuyama boundary at 2.48 Ma. This bentonitized tuff band and tuffaceous mudstone association represents a stratigraphic marker horizon in the diachronous and sporadic vertebrate fauna-yielding Siwalik strata. The claystone, siltstone, and sandstone units and embedded bentonitized tuff band and tuffaceous mudstone beds represent a coarsening-upward sequence reflecting deposition in lacustrine proximal and distal bottomsets, pro-delta foresets, and mouth-bar facies capped by fluvial topsets. This study reports a chain of four contemporaneous, palaeo-lake basins at this stratigraphic level, which ranged in length from 2 to 7 km.
Dielectric, impedance, modulus and conductivity
studies were performed over temperature 35 °C–600 °C and
frequency 45 Hz–5 MHz range on the Lead Potassium Lithium Niobate
(Pb4.0K1.0Li1.0Nb10O30, PKLN) ceramics. These
studies established the conduction ion motion and polarization mechanism in
the material. The dispersive dielectric loss at high temperature reveals the
ionic conductivity. From frequency variation of εl response
the pre-factor A(T) and critical exponent n(T) are evaluated, and are used
in Jonscher's dielectric dispersion relation for ε' to fit with
the experimental data. Complex impedance plots showed a non – Debye type
relaxation, are used to evaluate the grain and grain boundary conduction and
relaxation activation energies. DC and ac conduction activation energies are
estimated from Arrhenius plots. Occupancy of Li+ for C-sites gave
a completely filled structure and enhanced the phase transition temperature
to 520 °C compared to PKN. This is supported by the conduction
activation energy in ferro region is more than the para region. Also, the dc
conductivity characterized from bulk resistance and Mll peak frequency.
Polaron hoping mechanism at room temperature has been confirmed via the
linear variation of the plot log (σac – σdc) as a
function of log ω2. Stretched exponential parameter, β
(0 < β
1) has been evaluated from impedance plots, interpreted as
a result of correlated motions between the Li+ ions and distribution of
dielectric relaxation. Compared the results from different techniques, and
discussed the conduction mechanism in the material.
A study to compare two feeding systems, stall feeding (SF) and grazing plus supplementation (GR) was carried out, based on intake, performance and rumen fermentation characteristics of lambs. While SF animals received ad libitum complete feed blocks (CFB), GR animals were allowed grazing for 8 h on a pasture and supplemented with concentrate mixture at 250 g per head per day. Intake in grazing animals was determined using chromium III oxide as internal marker. Intake of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and organic matter (OM) were higher ( P < 0.01) in SF than in GR animals. Similarly, digestibility of OM, CP and energy were higher ( P < 0.01) in SF animals. Average daily gain in SF animals (101 g) was significantly ( P < 0.01) higher than in GR animals (78 g) but total wool yield was similar for the two groups (856 g, SF; 782 g, GR). The pH of the rumen content, concentration of total volatile fatty acids and total activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase and esterase in the rumen liquor were similar. The concentrations (mg/dl) of total nitrogen (125, SF; 63, GR) and NH3-nitrogen (42, SF; 31, GR) were higher in SF animals than that of GR animals. A significantly higher activity ( P < 0.05) of microcrystalline cellulase (24.5 v. 7.7 units) and lower activity ( P < 0.05) of protease (309 v. 525 units), was observed in the rumen of SF animals than in GR animals. SF animals could therefore harness more energy through degradation of plant cell walls thus reducing breakdown of plant proteins as gluconeogenic source. The SF system of feeding where CFB was offered to sheep appeared superior to GR in terms of intake, nutrient utilisation and animal performance. Therefore the SF feeding system where CFB are offered to animals can be advocated as an alternative to grazing and supplementation feeding strategy for sheep production, especially where the pastures are highly eroded and need resting for regeneration or curing. The CFB feeding can also be adopted under adverse conditions like drought and famine, a common phenomenon in arid and semiarid conditions.