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To determine the effect of three psycholinguistic variables—lexical frequency, age of acquisition (AoA), and neighborhood density (ND)—on lexical-semantic processing in individuals with non-fluent (nfvPPA), logopenic (lvPPA), and semantic primary progressive aphasia (svPPA). Identifying the scope and independence of these features can provide valuable information about the organization of words in our mind and brain.
We administered a lexical decision task—with words carefully selected to permit distinguishing lexical frequency, AoA, and orthographic ND effects—to 41 individuals with PPA (13 nfvPPA, 14 lvPPA, 14 svPPA) and 25 controls.
Of the psycholinguistic variables studied, lexical frequency had the largest influence on lexical-semantic processing, but AoA and ND also played an independent role. The results reflect a brain-language relationship with different proportional effects of frequency, AoA, and ND in the PPA variants, in a pattern that is consistent with the organization of the mental lexicon. Individuals with nfvPPA and lvPPA experienced an ND effect consistent with the role of inferior frontal and temporoparietal regions in lexical analysis and word form processing. By contrast, individuals with svPPA experienced an AoA effect consistent with the role of the anterior temporal lobe in semantic processing.
The findings are in line with a hierarchical mental lexicon structure with a conceptual (semantic) and a lexeme (word-form) level, such that a selective deficit at one of these levels of the mental lexicon manifests differently in lexical-semantic processing performance, consistent with the affected language-specific brain region in each PPA variant.
Rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) simulation was used to model the absorption in periodic arrays of GaAs0.73P0.27 nanowires (NWs) on Si substrates dependent upon the diameter (D), length (L), and spacing (center-to-center distance, or pitch, P) of the NWs. Based on this study, two resonant arrangements for a top NW array sub-cell having the highest limiting short-circuit current densities (Jsc) were found to be close to D = 150 nm, P = 250 nm and D = 300 nm, P = 500 nm, both featuring the same packing density of 0.28. Even though a configuration with thinner NWs exhibited the highest Jsc = 19.46 mA/cm2, the array with D = 350 nm and P = 500 nm provided current matching with the underlying Si sub-cell with Jsc = 18.59 mA/cm2. Addition of a rear-side In0.81Ga0.19As nanowire array with D = 800 nm and P = 1000 nm was found to be suitable for current matching with the front NW sub-cell and middle Si. However, with thinner and sparser In0.81Ga0.19As NWs with D = 700 nm and P = 1000 nm, the Jsc of the bottom sub-cell was increased from 17.35 mA/cm2 to 18.76 mA/cm2 using a planar metallic back surface reflector, thus achieving a current matching with the top and middle cells.
Late-summer subglacial water pressures have been measured in a dense array of boreholes in the ablation area of Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland. Interpolated surfaces of minimum diurnal water pressure and diurnal water-pressure variation suggest the presence of a subglacial channel within a more widespread, distributed drainage system. The channel flows along the centre of a variable pressure axis (VPA), some tens of metres wide, that is characterized by low minimum diurnal water pressures (frequently atmospheric) and high diurnal water-pressure variations. These characteristics are transitional over a lateral distance of c. 70 m to higher and more stable subglacial water pressures in the adjacent distributed system. Water-pressure variations recorded in boreholes located close to the centre of the VPA reflect the delivery of surface-derived meltwater to the glacier bed and result in a diurnally reversing, transverse hydraulic gradient that drives water out from the channel into the distributed system during the afternoon and back to the channel overnight. Subglacial observations suggest that such flow occurs through a vertically confined sediment layer. Borehole turbidity records indicate that the resulting diurnal water flows are responsible for the mobilization and transport of fine debris in suspension. Analysis of the propagation velocity and amplitude attenuation cf the diurnal pressure waves suggests that the hydraulic conductivity of the sediment layer decreases exponentially with distance from the channel, falling from c. 10−4 m s−1 at the channel boundary to c. 10−7 m s−1 70 m away. These apparent hydraulic conductivities are consistent with Darcian flow through clean sand and typical glacial till, respectively.
We suggest that fine material is systematically flushed from basal sediments located adjacent to large, melt-season drainage channels beneath warm-based glaciers. This process may have important implications for patterns of glacier erosion, hydro-chemistry and dynamics.
To define the scope of an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease (LD), to identify the source, and to stop transmission.
DESIGN AND SETTING
Epidemiologic investigation of an LD outbreak among patients and a visitor exposed to a newly constructed hematology-oncology unit.
An LD case was defined as radiographically confirmed pneumonia in a person with positive urinary antigen testing and/or respiratory culture for Legionella and exposure to the hematology-oncology unit after February 20, 2014. Cases were classified as definitely or probably healthcare-associated based on whether they were exposed to the unit for all or part of the incubation period (2–10 days). We conducted an environmental assessment and collected water samples for culture. Clinical and environmental isolates were compared by monoclonal antibody (MAb) and sequence-based typing.
Over a 12-week period, 10 cases were identified, including 6 definite and 4 probable cases. Environmental sampling revealed Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) in the potable water at 9 of 10 unit sites (90%), including all patient rooms tested. The 3 clinical isolates were identical to environmental isolates from the unit (MAb2-positive, sequence type ST36). No cases occurred with exposure after the implementation of water restrictions followed by point-of-use filters.
Contamination of the unit’s potable water system with Lp1 strain ST36 was the likely source of this outbreak. Healthcare providers should routinely test patients who develop pneumonia at least 2 days after hospital admission for LD. A single case of LD that is definitely healthcare associated should prompt a full investigation.
A growing body of evidence suggests that indicators of social disadvantage are associated with an increased risk of psychosis. However, only a few studies have specifically looked at cumulative effects and long-term associations. The aims of this study are: To compare the prevalence of specific indicators of social disadvantage at, and prior to, first contact with psychiatric services in patients suffering their first episode of psychosis and in a control sample. To explore long-term associations, cumulative effects, and direction of effects.
We collected information on social disadvantage from 332 patients and from 301 controls recruited from the local population in South London. Three indicators of social disadvantage in childhood and six indicators of social disadvantage in adulthood were analysed.
Across all the domains considered, cases were more likely to report social disadvantage than were controls. Compared with controls, cases were approximately two times more likely to have had a parent die and approximately three times more likely to have experienced a long-term separation from one parent before the age of 17 years. Cases were also more likely than controls to report two or more indicators of adult social disadvantage, not only at first contact with psychiatric services [odds ratio (OR) 9.5], but also at onset of psychosis (OR 8.5), 1 year pre-onset (OR 4.5), and 5 years pre-onset (OR 2.9).
Greater numbers of indicators of current and long-term exposure are associated with progressively greater odds of psychosis. There is some evidence that social disadvantage tends to cluster and accumulate.
Evidence has accumulated that implicates childhood trauma in the aetiology of psychosis, but our understanding of the putative psychological processes and mechanisms through which childhood trauma impacts on individuals and contributes to the development of psychosis remains limited. We aimed to investigate whether stress sensitivity and threat anticipation underlie the association between childhood abuse and psychosis.
We used the Experience Sampling Method to measure stress, threat anticipation, negative affect, and psychotic experiences in 50 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, 44 At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) participants, and 52 controls. Childhood abuse was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.
Associations of minor socio-environmental stress in daily life with negative affect and psychotic experiences were modified by sexual abuse and group (all pFWE < 0.05). While there was strong evidence that these associations were greater in FEP exposed to high levels of sexual abuse, and some evidence of greater associations in ARMS exposed to high levels of sexual abuse, controls exposed to high levels of sexual abuse were more resilient and reported less intense negative emotional reactions to socio-environmental stress. A similar pattern was evident for threat anticipation.
Elevated sensitivity and lack of resilience to socio-environmental stress and enhanced threat anticipation in daily life may be important psychological processes underlying the association between childhood sexual abuse and psychosis.
Alternate aluminum and arsenic precursors were investigated for InAlAs grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). The quality of the InAlAs growths was investigated by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to measure impurity concentrations. Trends are extracted from SIMS measurements for each precursor as a function of V/III ratio and growth temperature. Two arsenic precursors, arsine and tertiarybutylarsine (TBAs), were chosen to compare InAlAs growth quality. The impurity concentrations measured by SIMS decrease as the V/III ratio increases, for both arsine and TBAs growths. Impurities also decrease as growth temperature increases. Two aluminum precursors, trimethylaluminum (TMAl) and tritertiarybutylaluminum (TTBAl), were used to compare the effect of alumimum precursor on carbon and oxygen impurity levels. TMAl is widely studied in literature, though TTBAl is less common. This study represents the first report using the TTBAl precursor for InAlAs growth. Each aluminum source is used in conjunction with each aforementioned arsenic precursor in order to compare all possible precursor combinations. TMAl growths demonstrated decreasing impurities with increasing V/III ratio. TTBAl growths did not exhibit such a dependence, impurity concentrations remained virtually constant regardless of V/III ratio.
The insertion of nanostructured materials (such as quantum wells, wires, and dots) into the intrinsic region of p-i-n solar cells introduces an intermediate band within the bandgap of the host material. It has been shown that the sub-bandgap conversion provided by the nanostructured materials, enhances the short circuit current as well as the overall efficiency of InAs quantum dots (QD) imbedded in GaAs superlattice (SL) solar cells . As a contender for space applications, it is necessary to subject these solar cell structures to temperatures encountered in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), probing for any material degradation. Herein, we focus on temperature dependent characterization using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) of InAs QD enhanced GaAs solar cell structures with varying growth parameters. The structures characterized can be classified into three groups: (1) GaP strain compensation coverage, (2) GaAs barrier coverage, and (3) InAs coverage for QD formation. HRXRD rocking curves of each structure focusing around the GaAs peak are analyzed at a range of temperatures up to 200˚C. Although no noticeable shifts in the SL peaks are detected, interfacial diffusion decreased the resolution of fringes produced by reflections at the SL interfaces in test structures with varying InAs QD coverage. Unbalanced strain in the same structures shows a distortion in the GaAs peaks.
This article describes a number of velocity-based moving mesh numerical methods for multidimensional nonlinear time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs). It consists of a short historical review followed by a detailed description of a recently developed multidimensional moving mesh finite element method based on conservation. Finite element algorithms are derived for both mass-conserving and non mass-conserving problems, and results shown for a number of multidimensional nonlinear test problems, including the second order porous medium equation and the fourth order thin film equation as well as a two-phase problem. Further applications and extensions are referenced.
Pulsed laser direct deposit Ni2Si Ohmic contacts were successfully fabricated on n-SiC. The electrical, structural, compositional, and surface morphological properties were investigated as a function of heat treatments ranging from 700 °C to 950 °C. The as-deposited and 700 °C annealed samples were non-Ohmic. Annealing at 950 C° yielded excellent Ohmic behavior, an abrupt void free interface, and a smooth surface morphology. No residual carbon was present within the contact film or at the film-SiC interface and the contact showed no appreciable contact expansion as a result of the 950 °C annealing process. Results of this investigation demonstrate that 950 °C annealed pulse laser deposited Ni2Si-SiC contacts possess excellent electrical, interfacial, microstructural, and surface properties, which are required for reliable device operation.
In this paper, we report on the fabrication and characterization of pure and Al doped Ta2O5 thin films fabricated by metalorganic solution deposition (MOSD) technique. The pure and Aldoped Ta2O5 thin films were fabricated by spin-coating technique using room temperature processed carboxylate-alkoxide precursor solution. The structure of the films was analyzed by xray diffraction (XRD). The surface and cross-sectional morphology of the films were examined by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The electrical measurements were conducted on films in MIM configuration using Pt as the top and bottom electrode. The effects of Al concentration and the post-deposition annealing temperature on the structural, dielectric, and insulating properties were analyzed. The effects of the applied bias and the measurement temperature on the dielectric and insulating properties were also analyzed to establish the stability and reliability of Al doped Ta2O5 thin films.
Systematic studies of the effects of pulsed laser deposition processing parameters on plume dynamics and resultant film properties have been performed. Plume angular distributions, cosm(θ), were observed to be variable between 1 > m > 15 depending on laser energy density and spot size. Under optimized conditions, epitaxial, superconducting thin films could be grown in‐situ on a variety of single‐crystal substrates. High quality, 2000 Å ss thick films were obtained at deposition rates approaching 150 Å/sec.
Excimer laser surface processing of Ti-6A1-4V results in substantial surface oxygen incorporation as measured by the narrow resonance in the elastic scattering of a particles at 3.05 MeV. Single pulse processing at 1.0 J-cm−2 results in transformation from the original a + β grain structure to a martensite structure. Multiple pulse processing results in oxygen incorporation proportional to the number of pulses during processing, but this is primarily reflected in the depth of the oxygen containing layer. A maximum oxygen to titanium ratio of 1.0 was observed in the surface layer. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which showed the development of a fine-grained equiaxed TiO surface layer from a phase mixture of Ti alloy with TiO precipitates. Concentration vs. depth profiles show that this layer is approximately 400 nm thick after 40 pulses. Further processing with a total of 60 pulses results in coarsening of the grains and an increase in the thickness of the layer. The TiO precipitate concentration increases gradually, becoming apparent in electron diffraction patterns after 30 pulses. No other oxide phases are observed, the TiO developing directly from the metallic phases. In particular, we do not observe the formation of Ti2O prior to the formation of the TiO, or the formation of TiO2.
Neutron reflectometry (NR) studies1 of thin films of amorphous 11B/l0B on silicon indicate that a non-standard form of Fickian diffusion occurs across the boron interface upon annealing. In order to verify this observation, the samples were examined by neutron depth profiling (NDP). Comparison of the results from models of a step function, standard Fickian diffusion and Fickian diffusion with a fixed composition at the interface were made and compared to the previous NR results. The diffusion constant resulting from the non-standard Fickian model for the NDP data differs slightly from that obtained from the commonly used Fickian diffusion model and is not inconsistent with the NR results. This finding suggests that more information regarding diffusion at interfaces can be gained from these higher resolution neutron scattering techniques.
The Interfacial stability of a high strength TiB2/Cu multilayer structure was examined by subjecting the layers to ion irradiation by 400 keV Ne++ ions up to a maximum dose of 12×1015 ions/cm2. Even at the highest dose, with a maximum dpa value of 4.92, the TiB2/Cu interface did not show any mixing. This stability of the multilayers has been explained by examining the maximum thermodynamic driving force for Interfacial reactions in this system.
Target modification by excimer laser exposure has been investigated. Under conditions typical in the fabrication of superconducting thin films, deposition rate decreases with exposure and significant physical and chemical modifications occur on the target surface. These modifications do not inhibit congruent evaporation.
Excimer laser processing enables both thermally-driven transformations and the incorporation of solutes into the surface of materials through melting and diffusional mixing. We have examined the effect of excimer laser processing on the microstructure and surface mechanical properties of titanium alloys. Changes in the surface hardness due to laser processing were studied using a Nanoindenter™. Alloying experiments using both mixing of evaporated surface layers of boron and laser gas alloying in air and in nitrogen all result in changes in the surface hardness of the material. Alloying with boron results in an amorphous surface which is somewhat harder than the as polished surface. Laser processing in air and pure nitrogen results in incorporation of oxygen and nitrogen and the development of fine precipitates of TiO and TiN respectively. Substantial increases in surface hardness result due to solution and precipitation mechanisms. Nanoindenter™ data from several depths in the material are correlated with microstructure and solute concentration to illuminate the strengthening mechanisms involved.
Using tabulated thermodynamic data, a comprehensive investigation of the thermodynamic stability of binary oxides in contact with silicon at 1000 K was conducted. Reactions between silicon and each binary oxide at 1000 K, including those involving ternary phases, were considered. Sufficient thermodynamic data exists to conclude that all binary oxides except the following are unstable in contact with silicon at 1000 K: LiO2, the alkaline earth oxides (BeO, MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO), the column IIIB oxides (Sc2O3, Y2O3, and Re2O3 where Re is a rare earth), ThO2, ZrO2, HfO2, and Al2O3. Of these remaining oxides, sufficient thermodynamic data exists to conclude that MgO, CaO, and ZrO2 are thermodynamically stable in contact with silicon at 1000 K.