Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Following stage 1 palliation, delayed sternal closure may be used as a technique to enhance thoracic compliance but may also prolong the length of stay and increase the risk of infection.
We reviewed all neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation at our institution between 2010 and 2017 to describe the effects of delayed sternal closure.
During the study period, 193 patients underwent stage 1 palliation, of whom 12 died before an attempt at sternal closure. Among the 25 patients who underwent primary sternal closure, 4 (16%) had sternal reopening within 24 hours. Among the 156 infants who underwent delayed sternal closure at 4 [3,6] days post-operatively, 11 (7.1%) had one or more failed attempts at sternal closure. Patients undergoing primary sternal closure had a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit length of stay. Patients who failed delayed sternal closure had a longer aortic cross-clamp time (123±42 versus 99±35 minutes, p=0.029) and circulatory arrest time (39±28 versus 19±17 minutes, p=0.0009) than those who did not fail. Failure of delayed sternal closure was also closely associated with Technical Performance Score: 1.3% of patients with a score of 1 failed sternal closure compared with 18.9% of patients with a score of 3 (p=0.0028). Among the haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters studied, only superior caval vein saturation following sternal closure was different between patients who did and did not fail sternal closure (30±7 versus 42±10%, p=0.002). All patients who failed sternal closure did so within 24 hours owing to hypoxaemia, hypercarbia, or haemodynamic impairment.
When performed according to our current clinical practice, sternal closure causes transient and mild changes in haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters. Monitoring of SvO2 following sternal closure may permit early identification of patients at risk for failure.
Recently, large-scale trials of behavioural interventions have failed to show improvements in pregnancy outcomes. They have, however, shown that lifestyle support improves maternal diet and physical activity during pregnancy, and can reduce weight gain. This suggests that pregnancy, and possibly the whole periconceptional period, represents a ‘teachable moment’ for changes in diet and lifestyle, an idea that was made much of in the recent report of the Chief Medical Officer for England. The greatest challenge with all trials of diet and lifestyle interventions is to engage people and to sustain this engagement. With this in mind, we propose a design of intervention that aims simultaneously to engage women through motivational conversations and to offer access to a digital platform that provides structured support for diet and lifestyle change. This intervention design therefore makes best use of learning from the trials described above and from recent advances in digital intervention design.
Various environmental factors have been associated with the timing of eruption of primary dentition, but the evidence to date comes from small studies with limited information on potential risk factors. We aimed to investigate associations between tooth emergence patterns and pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal influences. Dentition patterns were recorded at ages 1 and 2 years in 2915 children born to women in the Southampton Women’s Survey from whom information had been collected on maternal factors before conception and during pregnancy. In mutually adjusted regression models we found that: children were more dentally advanced at ages 1 and 2 years if their mothers had smoked during pregnancy or they were longer at birth; mothers of children whose dental development was advanced at age 2 years tended to have poorer socioeconomic circumstances, and to have reported a slower walking speed pre-pregnancy; and children of mothers of Asian ethnicity had later tooth development than those of white mothers. The findings add to the evidence of environmental impacts on the timing of the eruption of primary dentition in indicating that maternal smoking during pregnancy, socio-economic status and physical activity (assessed by reported walking speed) may influence the child’s primary dentition. Early life factors, including size at birth are also associated with dentition patterns, as is maternal ethnicity.
An MIS Hydrogen sensor with a Pd0.96Cr0.04/AlN/Si structure was fabricated, exhibiting the dynamic range considerably wider than that of analogous devices with pure Pd gates. A useful response could be obtained for Hydrogen concentrations as large as 50, 000 ppm. Although the response amplitude was much reduced at the lower concentrations, satisfactory signal to noise down to 50 ppm could be obtained. The saturating magnitude of the electrical response is in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 V, which is the same as that for the pure Pd gated devices, inspite of the 3 orders of magnitude difference in the saturation hydrogen concentration. This result will be discussed in terms of the response mechanism of these devices.
Water beds in use in this hospital were found to be contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The addition of sodium hypochlorite, giving a final concentration of 200 parts/106 available chlorine, was found to be effective in preventing microbial contamination over a 6-month study period.
Previous investigations have shown lamb vigour to be improved by including long chain omega-3 fatty acids in maternal diets during late pregnancy (Capper et al., 2003; Dawson and Edgar 2005; Pickard et al., 2005). However, these trials fail to elucidate whether there is a period in late gestation when supplementing diets with omega-3s would be optimal. Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are found in high concentrations in brain and nervous tissue (Arbuckle and Innis, 1993), and are therefore required at times of neural and brain tissue growth. This study explored the effects of feeding an algal source of EFAs, with a high content of DHA, during different time periods on measures of lamb viability.
Migrants from Java arrive in hyperendemic Papua, Indonesia lacking exposure to endemic malaria. We evaluated records of evacuation to hospital with a diagnosis of severe malaria from a transmigration village in northeastern Papua. During the first 30 months, 198 residents with severe disease were evacuated (7·5 evacuations/100 person-years). During this period the risk of evacuation for adults (>15 years of age) was 2·8. (95% CI=2·1–3·8; P<0·0001) relative to children, despite apparently equal exposure to risk of infection. Relative risk (RR) for adults was greatest during the first 6 months (RR>16; 95% CI[ges ]2·0–129; P=0·0009), and diminished during the second 6 months (RR=9·4; 95% CI=2·7–32·8; P<0·0001) and the third 6 months (RR=3·7; 95% CI=1·7–7·9; P=0·0004). During the next two 6-month intervals, the RR for adults was 1·6 and 1·5 (95% CI range 0·8–2·6; P<0·18). Adults lacking chronic exposure were far more likely to progress to severe disease compared to children during initial exposure, but not after chronic exposure to infection.
Sixty-three relatives of 52 schizophrenics living at home were offered a package of treatments by professionals working in an everyday NHS setting: educational seminars, relatives' groups, and family meetings. Thirty-two relatives refused intervention. Of the 31 relatives who agreed, 14 attended neither the educational seminars nor the relatives' groups. Seventeen relatives had a mean of ten treatment sessions, but there was little change in their level of expressed emotion after intervention. The number of patients who relapsed was the same in the 18 months before and after intervention, although the total number of relapses fell after intervention.
British Journal of Psychiatry (1991), 158, 110–113
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.