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We report the results of Long Baseline Array observations made in 2001 of ten southern sources proposed by Mattox et al. as counterparts to EGRET >100 MeV gamma-ray sources. Source structures are compared with published data where available and possible superluminal motions identified in several cases. The associations are examined in the light of Fermi observations, indicating that the confirmed counterparts tend to have radio properties consistent with other identifications, including flat radio spectral index, high brightness temperature, greater radio variability, and higher core dominance.
The in vivo determination of methane (CH4) production requires specialist equipment which is costly to maintain. Whilst the in vitro gas production technique has been demonstrated to show potential to rank diets for their methanongenic potential at maintenance planes of nutrition (Moss and Givens, 1997) no study has investigated this relationship when feedstuffs are fed ad libitum. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of the technique to predict in vivo CH4 production and animal performance from six diets differing in their chemical composition.
We present results from a multiwavelength study of the blazar PKS 1954–388 at radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray energies. A RadioAstron observation at 1.66 GHz in June 2012 resulted in the detection of interferometric fringes on baselines of 6.2 Earth-diameters. This suggests a source frame brightness temperature of greater than 2 × 1012 K, well in excess of both equipartition and inverse Compton limits and implying the existence of Doppler boosting in the core. An 8.4-GHz TANAMI VLBI image, made less than a month after the RadioAstron observations, is consistent with a previously reported superluminal motion for a jet component. Flux density monitoring with the Australia Telescope Compact Array confirms previous evidence for long-term variability that increases with observing frequency. A search for more rapid variability revealed no evidence for significant day-scale flux density variation. The ATCA light-curve reveals a strong radio flare beginning in late 2013, which peaks higher, and earlier, at higher frequencies. Comparison with the Fermi gamma-ray light-curve indicates this followed ~ 9 months after the start of a prolonged gamma-ray high-state—a radio lag comparable to that seen in other blazars. The multiwavelength data are combined to derive a Spectral Energy Distribution, which is fitted by a one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) model with the addition of external Compton (EC) emission.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE) program is aimed at producing high-resolution images of southern radio sources. The radio telescopes of the present SHEVE array are described below and some recent results presented.
Intra-day variability (IDV) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) has been detected from gamma-ray energies to radio wavelengths. At high energies, such variability appears to be intrinsic to the sources themselves. However, at radio wavelengths, brightness temperatures as high as 1018 to 1021 K are encountered if the IDV is intrinsic to the source. We discuss here the accumulating evidence showing that, at radio wavelengths where the highest brightness temperatures are encountered, interstellar scintillation (ISS) is the principal mechanism causing IDV. While ISS reduces the implied brightness temperatures, they still remain uncomfortably high.
PKS 1830–211 is the strongest known radio gravitational lens by almost an order of magnitude and has the potential to provide a measurement of H0, provided the lensing system can be parameterized. Attempts to identify optical counterparts, to measure redshifts, have so far proved unsuccessful and this has lead to radio and millimetre spectral line observations. We present our discovery of an absorption system at z = 0.19. A brief description is also made of our ATCA observations to measure the lensing time delay for this source.
PKS 1934–638 is an archetypal GPS source, peaking at 1.4 GHz and exhibits almost no flux density variability. VLBI images at frequencies of .843, 2.3, 4.8, & 8.4 were made with the southern hemisphere VLBI array and they reveal that the source is a 42 mas compact double. There is no detectable change in separation over the last 20 years, yielding an upper limit of ~ 0.03c ± 0.2c on any expansion velocity. The spectral shapes of the two components are remarkably similar, despite indications of finer structure on longer baselines. Magnetic field calculations indicate fields of a few mGauss and the results are consistent with equipartition.
From the combination of VLBI phase-referenced observations and Hipparcos satellite data, we have found evidence of a low-mass object orbiting the late-type star AB Doradus. The mass of the new object is near the hydrogen burning limit and will constitute a precise point for calibrating the low end of the main sequence. This represents the first detection of a low-mass stellar companion using the VLBI technique, which could become an important tool in future searches for planets and brown dwarfs orbiting other stars.
PKS 1257—326 is one of three quasars known to show unusually large and rapid, intra-hour intensity variations, as a result of scintillation in the turbulent Galactic interstellar medium. We have measured time delays in the variability pattern arrival times at the VLA and the ATCA, as well as an annual cycle in the time-scale of variability for this source. Results of the two-station time delay observations are presented here. Implications for the scintillation of this source are discussed in the light of these results, together with results from two years of monitoring with the ATCA.
Flux density monitoring data at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz is presented for a sample of 33 southern hemisphere GPS sources, drawn from the 2.7 GHz Parkes survey. This monitoring data, together with VLBI monitoring data, shows that a small fraction of these sources, ∼10%, vary. Their variability falls into several categories: sources whose spectral classification is, at best, ephemeral on a timescale of years; sources with a stable GPS classification that vary, but retain their classification; and a small number of sources that exhibit interstellar scintillation, but that maintain a mean GPS spectrum. Existing data on GPS sources with higher frequency peaks, ≥3 GHz, reveals that many such sources vary. However, the majority of these sources possess a GPS spectrum only during outbursts, and hence should perhaps be classified as ephemeral GPS sources. In addition, significant levels of circular polarisation have been found in a number of GPS sources, both amongst the variables and non-variables. Remarkable amongst these is PKS 1519–273, which possesses strong and variable circular polarisation, and which exhibits IDV in all Stokes parameters.
We are undertaking an observational program using the ATCA to monitor the intraday variability (IDV) of a sample of sources at 4.8 and 8.6 GHz. The sources were selected to include the known strong southern IDV sources plus a number of sources whose IDV was recently discovered. The present monitoring program will extend over a full year in order to search for any annual cycle that may be present in the long-term IDV characteristics of these sources. In this paper we discuss the observing strategy and data analysis, and present the first results from our observations.
To facilitate an understanding of defect production in gallium nitride during lateral epitaxial overgrowth, computer models have been developed to simulate the complete mechanical stress and strain fields. The virtual process included the deposition of a GaN seed layer on a sapphire substrate followed by a silicon dioxide stencil mask through which, and over which, the GaN product layer evolved and then cooled down to room temperature. Lattice mismatch and thermal strain were continuously assessed. Shear stresses on different crystallographic planes were analyzed to predict dislocation generation.
Rubber-toughened poly(methyl methacrylate) materials have been prepared by blending poly(methyl methacrylate) with specially-synthesised, refractive index matched particles containing two, three and four radially-alternating rubbery and glassy layers. The paper describes the effects upon mechanical properties of (i) two-, three- and four-layer particle structure and (ii) particle diameter and glassy core size for three-layer particles.
Collaborative care is an effective intervention for depression which includes both organizational and patient-level intervention components. The effect in the UK is unknown, as is whether cluster- or patient-randomization would be the most appropriate design for a Phase III clinical trial.
We undertook a Phase II patient-level randomized controlled trial in primary care, nested within a cluster-randomized trial. Depressed participants were randomized to ‘collaborative care’ – case manager-coordinated medication support and brief psychological treatment, enhanced specialist and GP communication – or a usual care control. The primary outcome was symptoms of depression (PHQ-9).
We recruited 114 participants, 41 to the intervention group, 38 to the patient randomized control group and 35 to the cluster-randomized control group. For the intervention compared to the cluster control the PHQ-9 effect size was 0.63 (95% CI 0.18–1.07). There was evidence of substantial contamination between intervention and patient-randomized control participants with less difference between the intervention group and patient-randomized control group (−2.99, 95% CI −7.56 to 1.58, p=0.186) than between the intervention and cluster-randomized control group (−4.64, 95% CI −7.93 to −1.35, p=0.008). The intra-class correlation coefficient for our primary outcome was 0.06 (95% CI 0.00–0.32).
Collaborative care is a potentially powerful organizational intervention for improving depression treatment in UK primary care, the effect of which is probably partly mediated through the organizational aspects of the intervention. A large Phase III cluster-randomized trial is required to provide the most methodologically accurate test of these initial encouraging findings.
Common mental health problems are highly prevalent in primary care, the UK National Service Framework for mental health demanding that effective and accessible services be made available. Although built upon a strong evidence base, traditional psychological therapies are often limited in terms of their applicability and availability. As a consequence innovative self-help programmes are increasingly being advocated as an alternative means of managing mental health illness within primary care. This study reports the results of a three month evaluation of a self-help service provided by a busy UK urban Primary Care Trust. Levels of utilization, effectiveness and stakeholder acceptability were examined through a combination of quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 662 patients were referred to the self-help clinics over a three month period, 67% of whom attended their first appointment. The mean number of sessions per patient was 2.8 (SD = 2.4), with an average total time of 69.6 min (SD = 48.2). Mean Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE-OM) scores improved significantly between baseline and three month follow-up (P < 0.001), 39% of patients demonstrating a clinically significant improvement. Both selfhelp therapists and referring general practitioners reported moderate to high satisfaction with the self-help treatment model, with the majority of patients perceiving the intervention to be appropriate to their needs. Data demonstrated that, whilst there was a clear need for a simple self-help service to be based in primary care, the ultimate success of this provision necessitates a well developed infrastructure capable of providing sufficient support and information to ensure that it is flexible and responsive to individual needs.
In February 1997 the Japanese radio astronomy satellite HALCA was launched to provide the space-borne element for the VSOP mission. HALCA provided linear baselines three-times greater than that of ground arrays, thus providing higher resolution and higher AGN brightness temperature measurements and limits. Twenty-five percent of the scientific time of the mission was devoted to the “VSOP survey” of bright, compact, extra-galactic radio sources at 5 GHz. A complete list of 294 survey targets were selected from pre-launch surveys, 91% of which were observed during the satellite's lifetime.
The major goals of the VSOP Survey are statistical in nature: to determine the brightness temperature and approximate structure, to provide a source list for use with future space VLBI missions, and to compare radio properties with other data throughout the electro-magnetic spectrum. All the data collected have now been analysed and is being prepared for the final image Survey paper. In this paper we present details of the mission, and some statistics of the images and brightness temperatures.