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New technological innovations offer significant opportunities to promote and protect human rights. At the same time, they also pose undeniable risks. In some areas, they may even be changing what we mean by human rights. The fact that new technologies are often privately controlled raises further questions about accountability and transparency and the role of human rights in regulating these actors. This volume - edited by Molly K. Land and Jay D. Aronson - provides an essential roadmap for understanding the relationship between technology and human rights law and practice. It offers cutting-edge analysis and practical strategies in contexts as diverse as autonomous lethal weapons, climate change technology, the Internet and social media, and water meters. This title is also available as Open Access.
New innovations in human rights fact-finding and criminal investigations offer both opportunities and challenges for human rights law in practice.1 As documentation of human rights violations becomes more difficult and complex, practitioners are exploring ways to augment their work with new tools and new methodologies.2 Social media, accessible satellite data, and even drone technology have expanded the capacity of human rights investigators to document abuses, even when access to the sites of atrocities is limited.
Using the example of harmful speech online, this essay argues that duties to others—a core component of our humanness—require us to consider the impact our speech has on those who hear it. The widening availability of tools for sharing information and the rise of social media have opened up new avenues for individuals to communicate without the need for journalistic intermediaries. While this presents considerable opportunities for expression, it also means that there are fewer filters in place to manage the harmful effects of speech. Moreover, the structure of online spaces and the uneven legal frameworks that regulate them have exacerbated the effects of harmful speech, allowing mob behavior, harassment, and virtual violence, particularly against minority populations and other vulnerable groups.
Carbonated calcium apatites doped with a monovalent cation (Li+, Na+, or K+) or a divalent cation (Mg2+ or Zn2+) were prepared in aqueous solution and analysed by powder X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The hypothesis that the location of carbonate in the apatite structure, either in place of hydroxide ions in the c-axis channels (A-type substitution) or in place of phosphate (B-type substitution), is affected by the solution energetics of the cation (specifically its enthalpy of hydration) was strengthened by the observation of larger amounts of Atype carbonate in apatites containing the monovalent cations in aqueous solution. It is shown that cations with low negative enthalpies of hydration favour A-type substitution, whereas cations with higher negative hydration enthalpies, such as divalent cations (Mg2+, Zn2+), favour B-type substitution.
Two in situ experimental methods are presented in which dust particles are used to determine the extent of the sheath and gain information about the time-averaged electric force profile within a radio frequency (RF) plasma sheath. These methods are advantageous because they are not only simple and quick to carry out, but they also can be performed using standard dusty plasma experimental equipment. In the first method, dust particles are tracked as they fall through the plasma towards the lower electrode. These trajectories are then used to determine the electric force on the particle as a function of height as well as the extent of the sheath. In the second method, dust particle levitation height is measured across a wide range of RF voltages. Similarities were observed between the two experiments, but in order to understand the underlying physics behind these observations, the same conditions were replicated using a self-consistent fluid model. Through comparison of the fluid model and experimental results, it is shown that the particles exhibiting a levitation height that is independent of RF voltage indicate the sheath edge – the boundary between the quasineutral bulk plasma and the sheath. Therefore, both of these simple and inexpensive, yet effective, methods can be applied across a wide range of experimental parameters in any ground-based RF plasma chamber to gain useful information regarding the sheath, which is needed for interpretation of dusty plasma experiments.
We have used times of maximum light for SX Phe, obtained by ourselves and other workers over 55 years to study the behaviour of the fundamental and first overtone radial pulsation modes of the star. We find (1/P0)dP0/dt to be (+2.53 ± 0.05) × 10−8 yr−1 and (1/P1)dP1/dt to be (−1.60 ± 0.03) × 10−7 yr−1, which differ significantly from the value +1.9 × 10−9 yr−1 expected if the changes are due to standard evolution of the star. The residuals in O–C from a quadratic fit cannot be explained by a light–time effect in a binary. There is some evidence that the amplitudes of the two modes change slowly with time.
From 1949 to 1962, residents of several villages in Kazakhstan received substantial doses of radiation to the thyroid gland resulting from nuclear tests conducted at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site. The primary source of radiation was internal from an intake of radioactive iodine by consumption of contaminated dairy products. A previous research study of childhood exposure and thyroid disease in this region gathered limited data on study participants’ dairy intake at the time of the fallout for the purpose of estimating past radiation doses. As many participants were too young at the time of the nuclear tests to recall dietary consumption and existing sources of archival data are limited, it was necessary to interview parents and other village residents who cared for children during this time – older adults ranging in age from 75 to 90 years. Results from 11 focus group interviews conducted in 2007 with 82 women from 4 villages in Kazakhstan yielded group-level estimates of age-, gender-, ethnicity- and village-specific dairy consumption patterns in rural Kazakhstan during the 1950s. Children typically consumed cow’s milk with limited consumption of mare, goat and sheep milk; and consumed dairy products such as sour milk (airan), soft cottage cheese (tvorog) and fermented mare milk (koumiss) with the greatest amounts of koumiss reported at ages 15–21 years. The consumption patterns differed by age, and between Kazakh and Russian children, which should lead to different estimates of radiation exposure to the thyroid. This study showed the utility of focus groups to obtain quantitative estimates for dietary intake in the distant past.
An adequate diet is of profound importance in infancy and early childhood. To ensure an optimal diet, knowledge about actual intake must be obtained. The aims of this study were to assess the validity of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) applied in a large nation-wide survey among 2-year-old children and to examine the validity of the SFFQ in relation to different background parameters.
The SFFQ was administered to the parents close to the child's second birthday, and one to two weeks later they started to weigh and record the child's diet for 7 days.
One-hundred and eighty-seven families with a 2-year-old child completed both methods.
There were no differences between the intakes of protein, saturated fatty acids, total carbohydrates and calcium estimated from the two methods. The average intake of all micronutrients, except for calcium, was overestimated by the SFFQ. Bland–Altman plots showed a systematic increase in difference between the two methods with increasing intake for most nutrients. Spearman correlation coefficients between methods for nutrient intakes ranged from 0.26 to 0.50, the median correlation was 0.38. The correlations increased when estimates were adjusted for energy intake, the median correlation being 0.52. Differences in observed validity were found according to the number of siblings.
This study indicates that the SFFQ may be a valuable tool for measuring average intakes of energy, macronutrients and several food items among a 2-year-old population in Norway. The ability of the questionnaire to rank children according to intakes of nutrients and food items was rather low.