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New innovations in human rights fact-finding and criminal investigations offer both opportunities and challenges for human rights law in practice.1 As documentation of human rights violations becomes more difficult and complex, practitioners are exploring ways to augment their work with new tools and new methodologies.2 Social media, accessible satellite data, and even drone technology have expanded the capacity of human rights investigators to document abuses, even when access to the sites of atrocities is limited.
Using the example of harmful speech online, this essay argues that duties to others—a core component of our humanness—require us to consider the impact our speech has on those who hear it. The widening availability of tools for sharing information and the rise of social media have opened up new avenues for individuals to communicate without the need for journalistic intermediaries. While this presents considerable opportunities for expression, it also means that there are fewer filters in place to manage the harmful effects of speech. Moreover, the structure of online spaces and the uneven legal frameworks that regulate them have exacerbated the effects of harmful speech, allowing mob behavior, harassment, and virtual violence, particularly against minority populations and other vulnerable groups.
New technological innovations offer significant opportunities to promote and protect human rights. At the same time, they also pose undeniable risks. In some areas, they may even be changing what we mean by human rights. The fact that new technologies are often privately controlled raises further questions about accountability and transparency and the role of human rights in regulating these actors. This volume - edited by Molly K. Land and Jay D. Aronson - provides an essential roadmap for understanding the relationship between technology and human rights law and practice. It offers cutting-edge analysis and practical strategies in contexts as diverse as autonomous lethal weapons, climate change technology, the Internet and social media, and water meters. This title is also available as Open Access.
Carbonated calcium apatites doped with a monovalent cation (Li+, Na+, or K+) or a divalent cation (Mg2+ or Zn2+) were prepared in aqueous solution and analysed by powder X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The hypothesis that the location of carbonate in the apatite structure, either in place of hydroxide ions in the c-axis channels (A-type substitution) or in place of phosphate (B-type substitution), is affected by the solution energetics of the cation (specifically its enthalpy of hydration) was strengthened by the observation of larger amounts of Atype carbonate in apatites containing the monovalent cations in aqueous solution. It is shown that cations with low negative enthalpies of hydration favour A-type substitution, whereas cations with higher negative hydration enthalpies, such as divalent cations (Mg2+, Zn2+), favour B-type substitution.
Two in situ experimental methods are presented in which dust particles are used to determine the extent of the sheath and gain information about the time-averaged electric force profile within a radio frequency (RF) plasma sheath. These methods are advantageous because they are not only simple and quick to carry out, but they also can be performed using standard dusty plasma experimental equipment. In the first method, dust particles are tracked as they fall through the plasma towards the lower electrode. These trajectories are then used to determine the electric force on the particle as a function of height as well as the extent of the sheath. In the second method, dust particle levitation height is measured across a wide range of RF voltages. Similarities were observed between the two experiments, but in order to understand the underlying physics behind these observations, the same conditions were replicated using a self-consistent fluid model. Through comparison of the fluid model and experimental results, it is shown that the particles exhibiting a levitation height that is independent of RF voltage indicate the sheath edge – the boundary between the quasineutral bulk plasma and the sheath. Therefore, both of these simple and inexpensive, yet effective, methods can be applied across a wide range of experimental parameters in any ground-based RF plasma chamber to gain useful information regarding the sheath, which is needed for interpretation of dusty plasma experiments.
A radiochemical 71Ga−71 Ge experiment to determine the integral flux of neutrinos from the sun has been constructed at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the USSR. Measurements have begun with 30 tonnes of gallium. The experiment is being expanded with the addition of another 30 tonnes. The motivation, experimental procedures, and present status of this experiment are presented.
A report on the results obtained from the chlorine radiochemical solar neutrino experiment in the Homestake mine, Lead, SD. Over the period 1970-1988 a neutrino capture rate of 2.3 ± 0.3 SNU was observed. This rate is discussed in relation: to the theoretical standard solar model, the results from the Kamiokande II experiment, and variations in the solar neutrino flux.
We have used times of maximum light for SX Phe, obtained by ourselves and other workers over 55 years to study the behaviour of the fundamental and first overtone radial pulsation modes of the star. We find (1/P0)dP0/dt to be (+2.53 ± 0.05) × 10−8 yr−1 and (1/P1)dP1/dt to be (−1.60 ± 0.03) × 10−7 yr−1, which differ significantly from the value +1.9 × 10−9 yr−1 expected if the changes are due to standard evolution of the star. The residuals in O–C from a quadratic fit cannot be explained by a light–time effect in a binary. There is some evidence that the amplitudes of the two modes change slowly with time.
We have prepared FexNi1−x multilayers on Cu(111) in order to learn how to control the structure and magnetism of these thin alloy films, which are relevant to the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect used in magnetic disk drive heads. Using the Spectromicroscopy Facility (220.127.116.11) on Undulator Beamline 7.0 at the Advanced Light Source, we have measured X-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) signals from both Fe and Ni 3p lines for fourteen different thin Ni-Fe alloy films on Cu(111), with Fe concentration ranging from 9% to 84% and for a variety of film thicknesses. The Curie temperature for all of these samples was in the range 200K to 500K. For many of these films, the Curie temperature was considerably lower than was previously seen for similar films deposited on Cu(100). For a particular Fe concentration x, the Curie temperature increases with alloy film thickness. For a specific film thickness, the Curie temperature has a maximum near x≍0.4.
The ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technique has been employed to make aluminum oxide optical coatings. Deposition variables include aluminum oxide evaporant to oxygen ion beam flux ratios, substrate temperature, and ion energy. Characterization included optical ellipsometry, ion beam analysis, and adhesion tests. Films deposited with the aid of ions exhibited the highest refractive indices and best adhesion to their substrates.