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Using a fluid theory approach, this article provides a comparative study on the evolution of nonlinear waves in dusty plasmas, as well as other plasma environments, viz electron-ion, and electron-positron plasmas. Where applicable, relevance to satellite measurements is pointed out. A range of nonlinear waves from low frequency (ion acoustic and ion cyclotron waves), high frequency (electron acoustic and electron cyclotron waves) in electron-ion plasmas, ultra-low frequency (dust acoustic and dust cyclotron waves) in dusty plasmas and in electron-positron plasmas are discussed. Depending upon the plasma parameters, saw-tooth and bipolar structures are shown to evolve.
Plants, animals and microorganisms are being manipulated to improve their characteristics for commercial purposes. Some manipulated organisms will be grown under containment and only released to the environment accidentally and, usually, in relatively small numbers. Others, such as crop plants, will be grown on a large scale in the open environment. There is concern that modified organisms may become pests, or will produce pests as a result of mating with other organisms in the environment.
This paper will discuss some of the issues involved in deciding whether genetically modified plants should be released to the environment or not.
Thyroid hormones are important in the development of the fetus and the placenta as well as in maintaining maternal wellbeing. Thyroid disorders are common in the population as a whole, particularly in women, and therefore are common during pregnancy and the puerperium. Biochemical derangement of thyroid function tests are present in approximately 2.5–5% of pregnant women.
This study aimed to describe the transmission dynamics, the serological and virus excretion patterns of Nipah virus (NiV) in Pteropus vampyrus bats. Bats in captivity were sampled every 7–21 days over a 1-year period. The data revealed five NiV serological patterns categorized as high and low positives, waning, decreasing and increasing, and negative in these individuals. The findings strongly suggest that NiV circulates in wild bat populations and that antibody could be maintained for long periods. The study also found that pup and juvenile bats from seropositive dams tested seropositive, indicating that maternal antibodies against NiV are transmitted passively, and in this study population may last up to 14 months. NiV was isolated from the urine of one bat, and within a few weeks, two other seronegative bats seroconverted. Based on the temporal cluster of seroconversion, we strongly believe that the NiV isolated was recrudesced and then transmitted horizontally between bats during the study period.
Decades of work by a wide variety of techniques were required to establish unambiguously the essential role of simple – and sometimes not so simple – “point” defects in mediating bulk diffusion in crystalline solids. Amorphous solids present new problems for establishing basic diffusion mechanisms. Most experimental techniques which work well for study of diffusion in crystalline solids are useless for study of amorphous materials because of their inherent nonequilibrium structures. A survey of some current results also gives a strong impression that more complex basic mechanisms than simple point defects may be required to account for volume diffusion in these materials.
Skin carriage of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex was not detected among a representative sample of 102 US Army soldiers stationed in Iraq. This observation refutes the hypothesis that preinjury skin carriage serves as the reservoir for the Acinetobacter infections seen in US military combat casualties.
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