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Terminal heat stress leads to sizeable yield loss in late-sown wheat in tropical environments. Several synthetic compounds are known to counteract plant stress emanating from abiotic factors. A field experiment was conducted in Sabour (eastern India) during 2013–2016 to investigate the field efficacy of two synthetic compounds, calcium chloride (CaCl2) and arginine, for improving grain yield of two contrasting wheat cultivars (DBW 14 and K 307) facing terminal heat stress. For this, foliar spray of 18.0 mM CaCl2 at booting (CCB) or anthesis (CCA), 9.0 mM CaCl2 at both booting and anthesis (CCB+A), 2.5 mM arginine at booting (ARGB) or anthesis (ARGA) and 1.25 mM arginine at both booting and anthesis (ARGB+A) treatments along with no-spray and water-spray treatments were evaluated in late-sown wheat. The highest grain yield was recorded in treatment CCB+A, followed by CCA and ARGB+A. However, the effect of these compounds was marginal on grain yield when applied only at the booting stage. Grains/ear and thousand-grain weight were found to be the critical determinants for yield in late-sown wheat. During the anthesis to grain filling period, flag-leaf chlorophyll degradation and increase in relative permeability in no-spray treatment were 34–36% and 29–52%, respectively, but these values were reduced considerably in CCB+A treatment followed CCA. Thus, foliar spray of 9.0 mM CaCl2 both at booting and anthesis stages may be recommended for alleviating the negative impacts of terminal heat stress in late-sown wheat and improving its productivity (>13%).
Salmonellosis is a leading cause of hospitalisation due to gastroenteritis in Australia. A previous source attribution analysis for a temperate state in Australia attributed most infections to chicken meat or eggs. Queensland is in northern Australia and includes subtropical and tropical climate zones. We analysed Queensland notifications for salmonellosis and conducted source attribution to compare reservoir sources with those in southern Australia. In contrast to temperate Australia, most infections were due to non-Typhimurium serotypes, with particularly high incidence in children under 5 years and strong seasonality, peaking in summer. We attributed 65.3% (95% credible interval (CrI) 60.6–73.2) of cases to either chicken meat or eggs and 15.5% (95% CrI 7.0–19.5) to nuts. The subtypes with the strongest associations with nuts were Salmonella Aberdeen, S. Birkenhead, S. Hvittingfoss, S. Potsdam and S. Waycross. All five subtypes had high rates of illness in children under 5 years (ranging from 4/100 000 to 23/100 000), suggesting that nuts may be serving as a proxy for environmental transmission in the model. Australia's climatic range allows us to conduct source attribution in different climate zones with similar food consumption patterns. This attribution provides evidence for environment-mediated transmission of salmonellosis in sub-tropical regions.
Weed management is the major challenge to the success of boro rice (rice grown during Dec–Jan to May–Jun, also known as summer rice) in Southern Asia. Herbicide seems to be a cost effective and strategic tool from an agronomic view point to control weeds; however, herbicide application can potentially interfere with soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). A field study was conducted in 2012/13 and 2013/14 to evaluate the performance of sole and combined application of different pre-emergence herbicides in comparison to manual weeding in boro rice. Lowest weed density, biomass and highest weed control efficiency (~83%) were recorded with the pyrazosulfuron ethyl, causing higher grain yield (6.7 Mg ha−1 in 2012/13 and 4.5 Mg ha−1 in 2013/14) than treatments with chlorimuron + metsulfuron-methyl, bensulfuron methyl + pretilachlor, butachlor fb 2,4D, butachlor and cono-weeder. Among, the herbicidal treatments butachlor caused lower grain yield and higher weed density and biomass when compared to the others. Although grain yield was highest in weed-free treatments but net returns and (B:C) benefit cost ratio was highest for pyrazosulfuron ethyl due to high cost of hand weeding. After 15 days of herbicide application, lowest microbial biomass carbon was recorded with bensulfuron methyl + pretilachlor, whereas lower values of dehydrogenase and fluorescein diacetate activities were observed with the application of chlorimuron + metsulfuron-methyl at 15 days after herbicide application. Our results suggest that pyrazosulfuron ethyl is one broad-spectrum and economically effective herbicide for controlling weeds as an alternative to labour consuming hand weeding in boro rice cultivation.
In most mental illnesses, onset occurs before the age of 25 and the earliest stages are critical. The youth bear a large share of the burden of disease associated with mental illnesses. Yet, Canadian youths with mental health difficulties face delayed detection; long waiting lists; inaccessible, unengaging services; abrupt transitions between services; and, especially in remoter regions, even a complete lack of services. Responding to this crisis, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research announced a 5-year grant that was awarded to ACCESS, a pan-Canadian network of youths, families, clinicians, researchers, policymakers, community organisations and Indigenous communities. Using strategies developed collaboratively by all stakeholders, ACCESS will execute a youth mental healthcare transformation via early detection, rapid access and appropriate, high-quality care. The project includes an innovative, mixed-methods service research component. Similar in many respects to other national youth mental health initiatives, ACCESS also exhibits important differences of scale, scope and approach.
Large areas of rainfed lowlands of Asia annually experienced flash flooding during the rice-growing season, which is an important abiotic stress that adversely affect grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop. Submergence stress is a common environmental challenge for agriculture sustainability in these areas because lack of high-yielding, flood-tolerant cultivars. In this study, IR64-Sub1 and IR64 were compared for their tolerance to submergence at active tillering (AT), panicle initiation (PI) and heading (H) stages with nitrogen and phosphorus application time. We evaluated the role of cultivars, stage of submergence and N and P application on phenology, leaf senescence (LS), photosynthetic (Pn) rate, yield attributes and yield. Under non-submerged conditions, no difference was observed in phenology, Pn rate and yield of both cultivars. Submergence substantially reduced biomass, Pn rate, yields attributes and yield across cultivars with more drastic reduction in IR64. Submergence at H stage proves to be most detrimental. Nitrogen application after desubmergence with basal P improved the Pn rate resulting in significantly higher yield and yield components. Nitrogen application before submergence resulted in increased LS and ethylene accumulation in shoots leading to drastic reduction in growth, Pn rate and yield. Crop establishment and productivity could therefore be enhanced in areas where untimely flooding is anticipated by avoiding N application before submergence and applying N after desubmergence with basal P (phosphorus).
This Summary for Policymakers presents key findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX). The SREX approaches the topic by assessing the scientific literature on issues that range from the relationship between climate change and extreme weather and climate events (‘climate extremes’) to the implications of these events for society and sustainable development. The assessment concerns the interaction of climatic, environmental, and human factors that can lead to impacts and disasters, options for managing the risks posed by impacts and disasters, and the important role that non-climatic factors play in determining impacts. Box SPM.1 defines concepts central to the SREX.
The character and severity of impacts from climate extremes depend not only on the extremes themselves but also on exposure and vulnerability. In this report, adverse impacts are considered disasters when they produce widespread damage and cause severe alterations in the normal functioning of communities or societies. Climate extremes, exposure, and vulnerability are influenced by a wide range of factors, including anthropogenic climate change, natural climate variability, and socioeconomic development (Figure SPM.1). Disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change focus on reducing exposure and vulnerability and increasing resilience to the potential adverse impacts of climate extremes, even though risks cannot fully be eliminated (Figure SPM.2). Although mitigation of climate change is not the focus of this report, adaptation and mitigation can complement each other and together can significantly reduce the risks of climate change. [SYR AR4, 5.3]
Here we discuss proteomic analyses of whole cell preparations of the mosquito stages of malaria parasite development (i.e. gametocytes, microgamete, ookinete, oocyst and sporozoite) of Plasmodium berghei. We also include critiques of the proteomes of two cell fractions from the purified ookinete, namely the micronemes and cell surface. Whereas we summarise key biological interpretations of the data, we also try to identify key methodological constraints we have met, only some of which we were able to resolve. Recognising the need to translate the potential of current genome sequencing into functional understanding, we report our efforts to develop more powerful combinations of methods for the in silico prediction of protein function and location. We have applied this analysis to the proteome of the male gamete, a cell whose very simple structural organisation facilitated interpretation of data. Some of the in silico predictions made have now been supported by ongoing protein tagging and genetic knockout studies. We hope this discussion may assist future studies.
The dynamics of surface fluctuations in thin supported polystyrene films have been investigated using x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) in reflection geometry. The results from the films thicker than four times of the radius of gyration (Rg) of polystyrene show the behavior of the capillary waves expected in viscous liquid. However, thinner films show a deviation indicating the need to account for viscoelasticity. Theoretical considerations with viscoelastic liquid model has been performed by introducing frequency dependent viscosity and compared with Fredrickson’s brush model (Macromolecules, 25, 2882 (1992)). The theory has been extended to the surface and interfacial modes in a bilayer film system. The results will be discussed in terms of surface tension, viscosity, and shear modulus.
Five polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were identified in Labeo dero
(Hamilton Buchanan), through cross-species amplification. Thirty-one primers developed
for three cyprinids were tested in the study. The genetic variation detected
at each polymorphic microsatellite locus was analysed. Significant genotype
heterogeneity indicated that the samples are not drawn from same genepool.
The identified microsatellite loci exhibited promise for use in fine scale
population structure analysis of L. dero.
A field experiment in an alluvial sandy loam saline soil was conducted during the winter (rabi) season from 1997–98 to 1999–2000 at the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hisar, to study the effect of saline drainage water (EC=3.6 –7.4) on five (rabi) forage crops: oat (Avena sativa), rye grass (Lolium rigidum), senji (Indian clover) (Melilotus indica) berseem (Egyptian clover) (Trifolium alexandrinum) and shaftal (Persian clover) (Trifolium resupinatum). All the crops were established using canal water as pre-sowing irrigation and the various irrigation strategies were imposed subsequently. Irrigation with canal water resulted in a 115% increase in forage yield compared with the saline drainage water. The results suggested that alternate irrigation with saline drainage water increased the yields of all the forage crops compared with using saline drainage water only. Further, alternate irrigation, starting with canal water, was superior to alternate irrigation starting with saline drainage water because less salt was added in total. Oat produced the largest green-forage yield (32.3 t ha-1) in the first year while rye grass gave its maximum in the second (34.6 t ha-1) and third years (37.0 t ha-1). Persian clover performed better than did Egyptian clover in all the three years. Interaction between species and irrigation treatments was significant. In comparison with canal irrigation water, there was a 36 %, 42 %, 54 %, 68 %, and 85 % yield reduction in rye grass, oat, Persian clover, Egyptian clover and senji, respectively when only saline drainage water was used for irrigation reflecting their relative tolerances of salinity. Yields declined linearly for all crops with increases in the quantity of salt applied.
We suggest a diversity-dependent strategy, based on Principle Component Analysis, for selecting distinct accessions/parents for breeding from a soybean germplasm collection comprising of 463 lines, characterized and evaluated for 10 qualitative and eight quantitative traits. A sample size of six accessions included all the three states, namely low, medium and high of the individual quantitative traits, while a sample of 16–19 accessions included all the 60–64 distinct states of qualitative as well as quantitative traits. Under certain assumptions, the paper also develops an expression for estimating the size of a target population for capturing maximum variability in a sample three accessions.
Scheelite mineralization in the granulite-facies supracrustal sequences of the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India is reported. The supracrustal sequences where the mineralization is found comprise granulite-grade metasediments which underwent metamorphism at ∼550 Ma. The mineralization is assumed to have formed by late-stage metasomatism that overprinted the regional metamorphism of the country rock (garnet-biotite gneiss) and occurs along a quartz vein that intrudes the regional foliation. The paragenetic data from the vein demonstrate unambiguously a separate cycle of hydrothermal activity, resulting in metasomatism and mineralization. Scheelite is found in both the altered host rock along the foliation plane and in the quartz vein. Fluid inclusions preserved in the vein suggest that the mineralizing fluids were saline-aqueous in composition, while those in the country rocks were predominantly CO2-rich. The mineral chemistry and bulk-rock chemical composition of the mineralized domain reveal the unusual enrichment of Ca in the mineralised zone with the depletion of K. We propose that fluid discharging from a crystallizing deep-seated magma, mixing with deep circulating Ca-bearing palaeo-groundwater gave rise to the deposition of scheelite. The scheelite mineralization and the quartz vein emplacement occurred after the Pan-African regional metamorphism.
There is considerable controversy surrounding the optimum treatment of advanced hypopharyngeal cancers. Curative radiotherapy with surgical salvage in reserve is an accepted protocol as is also a combined treatment of surgery and radiotherapy. The present study is a retrospective analysis of the survival results of 195 cases treated in a single centre. The combined surgery and radiotherapy group comprised a greater number of pyriform fossa and post-cricoid tumours whereas, the curative radiotherapy group had a higher proportion of posterior pharyngeal wall tumours. Actuarial two-year disease-free survival rates were significantly better with combined treatment when results of stage III and IV lesions (164 patients) of all sites are taken together, as compared to those obtained with curative radiotherapy without salvage (p = 0.000) or radiotherapy with surgical salvage for residual/recurrent tumours (p = 0.0021).
Lithium niobate single crystal is an excellent material for various optical applications such as frequency conversion, optical switches, optical modulators and others. An automatic diameter control Czochralski crystals growth system has been designed and fabricated. A brief description of the entire system along with software developed has been described. With optimized growth parameters, pure and Fe/Mn doped crystals have been successfully grown using this system. Preliminary characterizations of these crystals have also been presented.
Blood pressure presentation mode and personality
are likely to influence biofeedback outcome. Thirty-six
normotensive subjects were randomly assigned to visual
or auditory continuous systolic feedback. “Distracting
speech” and “broad band noise” were also
superimposed and the effect on the biofeedback response
was investigated. Psychological influence was also investigated.
Systolic pressure reductions of 4 ± 4.3 mmHg (visual,
p = .04) and 5 ± 5.5 mmHg (visual + auditory,
p = .03) were achieved compared with auditory
feedback (2 ± 4.7 mmHg), which was less effective.
The addition of noise or speech had no effect on the systolic
response, but speech adversely affected diastolic reduction
(p = .04). Mood (p = .003) was associated
with systolic lowering, whereas increased trait anxiety
(p = .06) and expectation (p = .03) had
trends for opposite effects. Increased anger-hostility,
state-anxiety, and expectation (p = .06) had links
with systolic raising capability. We conclude that feedback
modality and psychological characteristics have implications
for studies investigating blood pressure manipulation capability.
Molecular materials comprised of inorganic:organic composites are of considerable interest in photonics, optoelectronics and biophotonics. We report broad band lasing and tunable filters in sol-gel processed poly (p-phenylene vinylene) PPV: Silica composites. Optical power limiting in near IR wavelength region is also reported in dye doped PPV: silica multiphasic nanocomposites. For making hybrid inorganic: organic composites the reverse micelle mediated synthesis technique has been exploited to synthesize dye encapsulated metal oxide particles, thiocresol capped CdS clusters, Cul and AgI nanoparticles. These particles were dispersed in polymeric matrix for applications in photoconductivity and photorefractive measurements.
In this work the effect of grain size and magnetic switching volume on media noise due to intergranular coupling for CoCrTaPt/Cr thin film media deposited at substrate temperature of 160 and 260°C are investigated. The film deposited at substrate temperature of 260°C showed weaker intergranular interaction and lower media noise compared to the film deposited at 160°C. The magnetic switching volume (V*) is an important consideration for thermal stability and media noise in high density recording media. The magnetic switching volume V* for the film deposited at 160 and 260°C was calculated to be 3.7 x 10-18 and 3.2 x 10-18 cm3 respectively. The magnetic switching volume is correlated to the average Co-alloy grain size, media noise and the interactions between the grains.
Background: Calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (CaMPDE) has been extensively studied and characterized in normal mammalian tissues; however very little is known about this enzyme in human brain tumors. It has been established that high levels of this enzyme exist in non-central nervous system tumors, PDE inhibitors or cAMP analogues have been used to treat them. This study has examined the levels of CaMPDE in glioblastoma multiforme from six patients and has compared these to the levels of CaMPDE in four patients with normal cerebral tissue. In addition, an enzyme immune assay method (EIA) was developed in this study for the detection of CaMPDE in human cerebral tissue. This method is proposed to be used as an adjunct to the spectrophotometric method presently utilized. This would be beneficial in cases where small tissue samples, for example in stereotactic biopsy, are available. Methods: The CaMPDE activity and corresponding levels of expression in cerebral tissue from temporal lobectomies and both surgical extraction or stereotactic biopsy in patients with primary tumors were determined by spectophotometric and EIA, respectively. The EIA was developed from the production of a polyclonal antibody against bovine brain 60 kDa CaMPDE isozyme. Cross reactivity of the antibody with human was confirmed using transblot and immunohistochemistry. Results: Utilising the EIA, there was found to be significant reduction in both catalytic activity (p < 0.001) and in quantitative protein expression (p < 0.001) in glioblastoma multiforme from patients when compared to normal cerebral cortex. Immunoblotting experiments and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that CaMPDE in glioblastoma multiforme failed to react with a polyclonal antibody raised against bovine brain 60 kDa CaMPDE isozyme, whereas the enzyme from normal tissue reacted with antibody. Conclusions: Contrary to other studies on non-CNS tumors, the catalytic activity and the protein expression of CaMPDE is reduced in glioblastoma multiforme. The EIA method is a more sensitive in detecting CaMPDE than in the spectrophotometric method, especially when a small amount of tissue is available. Immunohistochemistry and the EIA may be useful in the future to use as markers for other types of brain tumors and not for glioblastoma multiforme as demonstrated.
We observe by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) the structure of polystyrene chains in semi-dilute solutions confined in model porous medium, Vycor. The size of the free polymer chains in solution is always larger than the pore diameter, 70 Å. The use of a suitable mixture of hydrogenated and deuterated solvents and polymers enables us to directly measure the form factor of one single chain among the others. The penetration of the chain in the porous media is almost complete for the concentration (Φ = 20%) and the range of molecular weights (35000 <M< 800000) used. The measured radius of gyration of confined chains is always smaller than the radius of gyration of free chains in the equivalent bulk solution.