To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Phased Array Feed (PAF) technology is the next major advancement in radio astronomy in terms of combining high sensitivity and large field of view. The Focal L-band Array for the Green Bank Telescope (FLAG) is one of the most sensitive PAFs developed so far. It consists of 19 dual-polarization elements mounted on a prime focus dewar resulting in seven beams on the sky. Its unprecedented system temperature of ~17 K will lead to a 3 fold increase in pulsar survey speeds as compared to contemporary single pixel feeds. Early science observations were conducted in a recently concluded commissioning phase of the FLAG where we clearly demonstrated its science capabilities. We observed a selection of normal and millisecond pulsars and detected giant pulses from PSR B1937+21.
To determine the impact of an environmental disinfection intervention on the incidence of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).
A multicenter randomized trial.
In total,16 acute-care hospitals in northeastern Ohio participated in the study.
We conducted a 12-month randomized trial to compare standard cleaning to enhanced cleaning that included monitoring of environmental services (EVS) personnel performance with feedback to EVS and infection control staff. We assessed the thoroughness of cleaning based on fluorescent marker removal from high-touch surfaces and the effectiveness of disinfection based on environmental cultures for C. difficile. A linear mixed model was used to compare CDI rates in the intervention and postintervention periods for control and intervention hospitals. The primary outcome was the incidence of healthcare-associated CDI.
Overall, 7 intervention hospitals and 8 control hospitals completed the study. The intervention resulted in significantly increased fluorescent marker removal in CDI and non-CDI rooms and decreased recovery of C. difficile from high-touch surfaces in CDI rooms. However, no reduction was observed in the incidence of healthcare-associated CDI in the intervention hospitals during the intervention and postintervention periods. Moreover, there was no correlation between the percentage of positive cultures after cleaning of CDI or non-CDI rooms and the incidence of healthcare-associated CDI.
An environmental disinfection intervention improved the thoroughness and effectiveness of cleaning but did not reduce the incidence of healthcare-associated CDI. Thus, interventions that focus only on improving cleaning may not be sufficient to control healthcare-associated CDI.
Supernova remnants (SNRs) are powerful particle accelerators. As a supernova (SN) blast wave propagates through the circumstellar medium (CSM), electrons and protons scatter across the shock and gain energy by entrapment in the magnetic field. The accelerated particles generate further magnetic field fluctuations and local amplification, leading to cosmic ray production. The wealth of data from Supernova 1987A is providing a template of the SN-CSM interaction, and an important guide to the radio detection and identification of core-collapse SNe based on their spectral properties. Thirty years after the explosion, radio observations of SNR 1987A span from 70 MHz to 700 GHz. We review extensive observing campaigns with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), and follow-ups with other radio telescopes. Observations across the radio spectrum indicate rapid changes in the remnant morphology, while current ATCA and ALMA observations show that the SNR has entered a new evolutionary phase.
With improvements in early survival following congenital heart surgery, it has become increasingly important to understand longer-term outcomes; however, routine collection of these data is challenging and remains very limited. We describe the development and initial results of a collaborative programme incorporating standardised longitudinal follow-up into usual care at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and University of Michigan (UM).
We included children undergoing benchmark operations of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Considerations regarding personnel, patient/parent engagement, funding, regulatory issues, and annual data collection are described, and initial follow-up rates are reported.
The present analysis included 1737 eligible patients undergoing surgery at CHOP from January 2007 to December 2014 and 887 UM patients from January 2010 to December 2014. Overall, follow-up data, of any type, were obtained from 90.8% of patients at CHOP (median follow-up 4.3 years, 92.2% survival) and 98.3% at UM (median follow-up 2.8 years, 92.7% survival), with similar rates across operations and institutions. Most patients lost to follow-up at CHOP had undergone surgery before 2010. Standardised questionnaires assessing burden of disease/quality of life were completed by 80.2% (CHOP) and 78.4% (UM) via phone follow-up. In subsequent pilot testing of an automated e-mail system, 53.4% of eligible patients completed the follow-up questionnaire through this system.
Standardised follow-up data can be obtained on the majority of children undergoing benchmark operations. Ongoing efforts to support automated electronic systems and integration with registry data may reduce resource needs, facilitate expansion across centres, and support multi-centre efforts to understand and improve long-term outcomes in this population.
Spectroscopic observation between 3-14 μm of 3 stars in the TW Hya Association were obtained using the Aerospace Corporation Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS) on the NASA IRTF telescope. The targets observed were TW Hya, HR 4796A, and HD 98800. Both of the late-type stars, TW Hya and HD 98800, exhibit a strong 10 μm silicate emission band. The strong emission indicates the presence of small dust grains close to the star, at angular distances not currently accessible to coronagraphic techniques. The spectral structure due to crystalline material that is present in some young early-type stars (HD 163296, HD 31648, etc.) is not apparent in these two objects. For HR 4796A, the dust emission is weak.
This study evaluated dosimetric parameters for cervical high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment using varying dose prescription methods.
This study includes 125 tandem-based cervical HDR brachytherapy treatment plans of 25 patients who received HDR brachytherapy. Delineation of high-risk clinical target volumes (HR-CTVs) and organ at risk were done on original computed tomographic images. The dose prescription point was defined as per International Commission in Radiation Units and Measurements Report Number 38 (ICRU-38), also redefined using American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) 2011 criteria. The coverage index (V100) for each HR-CTV was calculated using dose volume histogram parameters. A plot between HR-CTV and V100 was plotted using the best-fit linear regression line (least-square fit analysis).
Mean prescribed dose to ICRU-38 Point A was 590·47±28·65 cGy, and to ABS Point A was 593·35±30·42 cGy. There was no statistically significant difference between planned ICRU-38 and calculated ABS Point A doses (p=0·23). The plot between HR-CTV and V100 is well defined by the best-fit linear regression line with a correlation coefficient of 0·9519.
For cervical HDR brachytherapy, dose prescription to an arbitrarily defined point (e.g., Point A) does not provide consistent coverage of HR-CTV. The difference in coverage between two dose prescription approaches increases with increasing CTV. Our ongoing work evaluates the dosimetric consequences of volumetric dose prescription approaches for these patients.
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause bacteraemia, meningitis, and complications during pregnancy. In July 2012, molecular subtyping identified indistinguishable L. monocytogenes isolates from six patients and two samples of different cut and repackaged cheeses. A multistate outbreak investigation was initiated. Initial analyses identified an association between eating soft cheese and outbreak-related illness (odds ratio 17·3, 95% confidence interval 2·0–825·7) but no common brand. Cheese inventory data from locations where patients bought cheese and an additional location where repackaged cheese yielded the outbreak strain were compared to identify cheeses for microbiological sampling. Intact packages of imported ricotta salata yielded the outbreak strain. Fourteen jurisdictions reported 22 cases from March–October 2012, including four deaths and a fetal loss. Six patients ultimately reported eating ricotta salata; another reported eating cheese likely cut with equipment also used for contaminated ricotta salata, and nine more reported eating other cheeses that might also have been cross-contaminated. An FDA import alert and US and international recalls followed. Epidemiology-directed microbiological testing of suspect cheeses helped identify the outbreak source. Cross-contamination of cheese highlights the importance of using validated disinfectant protocols and routine cleaning and sanitizing after cutting each block or wheel.
Pre-storage drying-transfer operations and early stage storage expose cladding to higher temperatures and much higher pressure-induced tensile hoop stresses relative to normal operation in-reactor and pool storage under these conditions. Radial hydrides precipitate during cooling and could provide an additional embrittlement mechanism as the cladding temperature decreases below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. To simulate this behavior, unirradiated Zircaloy-4 samples were hydrided by a gas charging method to levels that encompass the range of hydrogen concentrations observed in current used fuel. Mechanical testing was carried out by the ring compression test (RCT) method at various temperatures to evaluate the sample’s ductility for both as-hydrided and post-hydride reorientation treated specimens. As-hydrided samples with higher hydrogen concentration (>800 ppm) resulted in lower strain before fracture and reduced maximum load. Increasing RCT temperatures resulted in increased ductility of the as-hydrided cladding. A systematic radial hydride treatment was conducted at various pressures and temperatures for the hydrided samples with H content around 200 ppm. Following the radial hydride treatment, RCTs on the hydride reoriented samples were conducted and exhibited lower ductility compared to as-hydrided samples.
Nanostructured Al3+ doped Ni0.75Zn0.25Fe2-xAlxO4 (x = 0.0,0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8, and 1.0) ferrites were synthesized via wet chemical method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetization measurements have been used to investigate the structural and magnetic properties of spinel ferrites calcined at 950 °C .With the doping of Al3+, the particle size of Ni0.75Zn0.25Fe2-xAlxO4 first increased to 47 nm at x = 0.4 and then decreased down to 37 nm at x = 1. Saturation magnetization decreased linearly with Al3+ due to magnetic dilution. The coercive field showed an inverse dependence on the particle size of ferrites.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
We have investigated the structural and electrical properties of as-prepared and rapid thermal oxynitride films on C+ implanted solid phase epitaxially grown SiC. The oxynitride was grown using N2O. The C concentration of the samples was estimated to be 1, 2 and 5 at. %. From the infrared spectra, samples with 1 and 2 at. % carbon showed that the carbon was substitutionally incorporated into the silicon. No precipitation of SiC was detected. However, for the 5 at. % C sample, some precipitation was observed as indicated by a broad peak at ∼800 cm−1. The oxynitride films showed the Si-O-Si stretching mode at ∼1100 cm−1. The shoulder at 980–1067 cm−1 was due to the O-Si-N bond. The peak at 830 cm−1 was due to the Si-N and Si-C bonds and C-O complex vibrational mode was observed at 663 cm−1. Electrical characterization of the oxynitride films was carried out using the MOS capacitor structure. The interface state density was found to range between 5.7×1011 to 3.35×1012 cm−2eV−1 and increased with an increase in the C concentration. The electrical breakdown field was found to be in the range of 5–7 MV cm−1 and reduced with an increase in C concentration. The charge-to-breakdown value was measured and decreased with an increase in C concentration.
The Chemical Engineering Department at Christian Brothers University (CBU) offers an introductory courses on materials at the sophomore level followed by a course on polymer science and engineering at the senior level complete with laboratory. Students desiring further exposure to materials processing are connected with local polymeric materials companies where they work as interns. These students have the opportunity to be involved in undergraduate materials research in the CBU Polymer Laboratory with the author funded by the university or local polymer companies. Their works are acknowledged in terms of student paper presentations at local or regional research seminars. In 1998, CBU Engineering School's research involvement with the polymeric materials industry was expanded when local polymer company personnels were allowed to conduct proprietary research at the institution's Polymer Engineering Laboratory with the help of paid undergraduate chemical engineering students. Recently the Chemical Engineering Department at CBU initiated collaborative research with the engineering school of a local university and a local biomaterials company. In order to meet the growing needs of packaging engineers in this area, local companies (polymer and others) that have packaging departments and the School of Engineering at CBU recently joined forces to develop a packaging teaching and training program for students as well as employees of these companies. This program would include packaging materials and engineering. The details of Phase I and Phase II of this joint venture are described in the main body of the paper that follows.
Images of monolayer coverages of C60 on gold substrates, using scanning tunneling microscopy, reveal intermolecular arrangement and intramolecular features. In this paper we concentrate on the interpretation of these internal features, present a model showing that they arise from local charge density variations of high-lying π orbitals on approximately every other carbon atom, and discuss also other possible mechanisms for this effect.
We have measured the stress and the electrical resistivity of Ta-Si-N films deposited in an rf magnetron system by reactive sputtering of Ta5 Si3 target in an Ar-N2 mixture. The stress was determined by measuring the curvature of thin Si substrates with a stylus instrument. The atomic composition was established from backscattering spectra. The resistivity was derived from four-point probe measurements. The stress, the resistivity, and the atomic composition were studied as a function of various processing parameters (total pressure, gas composition). The stress is always compressive and can be changed from 0.38 - 1.48 GPa by such means. The resistivity is principally a function of the nitrogen composition and rises as the nitrogen amount increases. The results are compared with those reported for other amorphous metallic alloys.
Single crystals of the silicate neptunite were irradiated with 600 keV Ar2+ and 1.5 MeV Kr+ and analysed by transmission electron microscopy. Amorphization was observed in a surface layer several hundred angstroms thick following Ar2+ irradiations up to 5.0×l013 Ar/cm2, yet the Ar2+ ions travelled an average of 1/2 μm in depth. The microstructure of the amorphous surface layer depends on the ion fluence, but the amorphous layer thickness remained constant. At the highest fluence, a narrow region below the amorphous layer shows a brittle-to-ductile strain transition, due to tensional volume-expansion of the adjacent ductile amorphous layer. With 1.5 MeV Kr1+, amorphization of the electron transparent region was completed after a fluence of 1.7×l014 Kr+/cm2, and no further damage was observed up to 5.1×1015 Kr+/cm2. However, following a low fluence of 2.0×1011 Kr+/cm2, a single crystal of neptunite became a polycrystalline aggregate (grain size 10 nm) within 7 days of room temperature aging.
We have utilized a scanning photoemission spectromicroscope with sub-micron spatial resolution to observe microscopic Fermi level pinning on the cleaved GaAs(110) surface. We present micrographs which identify pinning that is highly localized to the vicinity of a single linear cleavage step. This extends previous work utilizing scanning Kelvin probe and imaging photoelectron microscopy conducted at lower spatial resolution. A sub-monolayer coverage of In uniformly pins the surface, thus allowing us to observe only the image contrast mechanism resulting from topography. From this one can determine the spatial extent of defects near a cleavage step. Initial observations indicate that Fermi level pinning can extend from a cleavage step over the range of 2 μm. This indicates the additional presence of defects at the adjacent surfaces of the step.
Fundamentally new families of carbon single walled nanotubes are proposed. These nanotubes, called graphynes, result from the elongation of covalent interconnections of graphite-based nanotubes by the introduction of yne groups. Similarly to ordinary nanotubes, armchair, zig-zag, and chiral graphyne nanotubes are possible. We present here results for the electronic properties of graphyne based tubes obtained from tight-binding and ab initio density functional methods.
In this work the Si interstitial contribution of F+ implants in crystalline Si is quantified by the analysis of extended defects and B diffusion in samples implanted with 25 keV F+ and/or 40 keV Si+. We estimate that approximately 0.4-0.5 Si interstitials are generated per implanted F+ ion, which is in good agreement with the value resulting from the net separation of Frenkel pairs obtained from MARLOWE simulations. The damage created by F+ implants in crystalline Si may explain the presence of extended defects in F-enriched samples and the evolution of B profiles during annealing. For short anneals, B diffusion is reduced when F+ is co-implanted with Si+ compared to the sample only implanted with Si+, due to the formation of more stable defects that set a lower Si interstitial supersaturation. For longer anneals, when defects have dissolved and TED is complete, B diffusion is higher because the additional damage created by the F+ implant has contributed to enhance B diffusion.