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The exhibition and aetiology of abnormal behaviour in the equine is a coping response to a sub-optimal environment (McBride and Cuddeford, 2001). Physical prevention of performance of these behaviours could however lead to compromised welfare so alternative welfare enhancement methods have been sought as alternatives. Nicol (1999) indicated that the cause of weaving as a specific stereotypic behaviour is related to the management of the stabled horse. Enrichment devices have been successful in reducing abnormal behaviour and fostering increased expression of more normal behaviours in many animal species but studies have remained limited in relation to the equine. By strategic placement of mirrors in the stable the current study aimed to reduce the stabled horses need to perform stereotypic weaving behaviour without the use of physical restraint in order to enhance the welfare outcome.
Four horses, two males and two females were housed individually in 10*12m loose boxes and provided with straw bedding.
Over fifteen per cent of domesticated horses exhibit a form of stereotypic behaviour (Luescher, McKeown and Halip, 1991). These behaviours can represent or develop into health and welfare disequilibrium and crib–biting and weaving are two of the most commonly performed behaviours of this type. As these behaviours have been described as having no obvious function (Mason, 1991), procedures concerned with their ultimate prevention have been promoted within the equine industry. The aim of this study was to review the success of the physical, pharmacological, dietary, environmental and surgical methods available to horse owners for the prevention of equine stereotypies.
A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed between riding schools, trekking centres and livery yards throughout the Northern counties of England along with horse owning BSc Equine students at Myerscough College, Lancashire. Of the total, 200 were distributed by post and the remainder researcher administered.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Progressive inefficacy of chemoprophylactic therapy to control gastro-intestinal (GI) nematode infection in sheep has been a major contributory factor in stimulating research into the development of alternative means of internal parasite control. This research aims to investigate the possibilities for selecting UK sheep for increased genetic resistance to naturally acquired GI nematode parasite infections.
Our current knowledge of the basic characteristics of CVs, such as their distance and luminosity, are largely based on observations of optically bright (V < 16 mag) systems. This has tended to favour the more luminous members (Mv ~ 7 … 10 mag) lying nearby in the Galactic plane (z < 400 pc;). In order to alleviate this bias, Howell & Szkody (1990) compiled a list of ~90 CVs that were faint enough and were at high galactic latitude to potentially place them well outside the Galactic plane, in the halo. We have obtained infrared J and K band images of a number of the CVs listed by Howell & Szkody (1990) in order to establish whether these systems are truely at large distances, or are instead a population of intrinsically faint objects lying relatively nearby. The distances were determined using Bailey’s method (1982) and incorporated the recent SK calibrations by Ramseyer (1994).
The first observations by a worldwide network of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors offer a unique opportunity for the astronomical community. At design sensitivity, these facilities will be able to detect coalescing binary neutron stars to distances approaching 400 Mpc, and neutron star–black hole systems to 1 Gpc. Both of these sources are associated with gamma-ray bursts which are known to emit across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Gravitational wave detections provide the opportunity for ‘multi-messenger’ observations, combining gravitational wave with electromagnetic, cosmic ray, or neutrino observations. This review provides an overview of how Australian astronomical facilities and collaborations with the gravitational wave community can contribute to this new era of discovery, via contemporaneous follow-up observations from the radio to the optical and high energy. We discuss some of the frontier discoveries that will be made possible when this new window to the Universe is opened.
Herbicides inhibit biochemical and physiological processes or both with lethal consequences. The target sites of these small molecules are usually enzymes involved in primary metabolic pathways or proteins carrying out essential physiological functions. Herbicides tend to be highly specific for their respective target sites and have served as tools to study these physiological and biochemical processes in plants (Dayan et al. 2010b).
The new 1 m f/4 fast-slew Zadko Telescope was installed in June 2008 about 70 km north of Perth, Western Australia. It is the only metre-class optical facility at this southern latitude between the east coast of Australia and South Africa, and can rapidly image optical transients at a longitude not monitored by other similar facilities. We report on first imaging tests of a pilot program of minor planet searches, and Target of Opportunity observations triggered by the Swift satellite. In 12 months, 6 gamma-ray burst afterglows were detected, with estimated magnitudes; two of them, GRB 090205 (z = 4.65) and GRB 090516 (z = 4.11), are among the most distant optical transients imaged by an Australian telescope. Many asteroids were observed in a systematic 3-month search. In September 2009, an automatic telescope control system was installed, which will be used to link the facility to a global robotic telescope network; future targets will include fast optical transients triggered by high-energy satellites, radio transient detections, and LIGO gravitational wave candidate events. We also outline the importance of the facility as a potential tool for education, training, and public outreach.
As a linguistic medium, oral tradition conveys rich and specific detail about past events but is also subject to alteration in the course of transmission between generations. As a source for indigenous history, spoken heritage is characteristically specific in geographic attribution and thus definitive of cultural landscapes, but it is temporally under-defined because it is unconstrained by calendrical dates. We consider these qualities in relation to Tlingit oral accounts that refer to Xak-wnoowú, an 850-year-old fort in the Glacier Bay region of southeastern Alaska. The site is narratively linked to the origins of Tlingit warfare and of the Kaagwaantaan clan, and remains a landmark of historical consciousness for contemporary descendants. We apply archaeological and geological evidence to date and verify key oral narratives, finding substantial convergence with scientific data and a complementarity of perspective that potentiates fuller understandings of both Tlingit history and environmental change during the Little Ice Age. We conclude that the historicity of oral tradition—a topic of wide current debate—is clearly demonstrated at Xakwnoowú, although instances of chronological compression are revealed by the analysis.
Images of monolayer coverages of C60 on gold substrates, using scanning tunneling microscopy, reveal intermolecular arrangement and intramolecular features. In this paper we concentrate on the interpretation of these internal features, present a model showing that they arise from local charge density variations of high-lying π orbitals on approximately every other carbon atom, and discuss also other possible mechanisms for this effect.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been employed to examine the role of dislocations in the superplastic deformation of a duplex stainless steel. In particular, matrix, grain boundary and interphase interface dislocation distributions have been documented after testing in region II. It is concluded that dislocation activity is of importance during superplastic flow and both loop sources and dislocation pile-ups have been observed. The presence of highly distorted dislocation arrays also suggests that grain and interphase boundary sliding is intimately linked to the motion of grain and interphase boundary dislocations. Finally, it is argued that dislocation multiplication in interphase interfaces can involve the operation of loop sources.
Diamond based power device structures such as resistor, capacitor, Schottky diode, p-n diode, thyristor, and field emitters are being investigated. Diamond resistors similar to standard thick film components in form and dimension were fabricated of polycrystalline diamond film. Using PECVD (plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition) processing to achieve diamond dielectric layers, high power, high energy density capacitors have been built. Despite grain boundaries and defects of polycrystalline diamond film, electronic devices such as field-effecttransistors and Schottky diodes have been developed. We have fabricated micro-patterned microtip arrays with this versatile new diamond technology as electron emitters. This paper will review diamond technology and results of this work.
Unpredictable variations in meat toughness in the British pig herd remain a concern to the meat industry. Whilst genetics is clearly important, 50% of this variability can be accredited to environmental factors, such as stress. At slaughter the levels of calpastatin (encoded by the CAST gene), a specific inhibitor protein that regulates the calpain proteinases largely responsible for postmortem tenderization, are strongly related to meat toughness. Down-regulation of CAST expression in the days before slaughter therefore provide a practical opportunity to reduce toughness. There are at least three CAST gene promoters (1xa, 1xb and 1u) containing transcription factor motifs sensitive to β-adrenergic stimulation, which can be induced by physiological stress (Parr et al., 2004). The 1u promoter is the predominant form in porcine muscle and the resulting CAST mRNA transcripts are increased in animals treated with the β-agonist clenbuterol (Sensky et al., 2004) or in cells treated with the analogue dibutyryl cAMP (db cAMP) (Sensky et al., 2005). In this study, the functionality of the 1u promoter is further dissected by truncation studies and mutation of potential cAMP responsive elements (CRE).
Female twin pairs were identified from birth records, and their families invited to participate in a prospective study of the determinants of alcohol problems in women. We investigated sampling biases arising because of failure to locate families, or non-cooperation of families. Out of 2644 families with a live-born pair (born between July 1975 and December 1986) who survived beyond infancy, contact was established and a brief screening interview completed with 90% (N = 2380). Fewer than 6% of located families declined to participate in the initial screening interview. Predictors of failure to locate a family or to obtain a screening interview were identified from information recorded in birth records, and from neighborhood characteristics identified from 1990 US Census block group data for the family residence when the twins were born. African-American families were under-represented in the final sample, but this effect was barely significant when other variables were controlled for. Under-represented were families where the mother was 19 or younger at the birth of the twins, where the mother herself was born out-of-state, or where information about biological father was not reported in the birth record. Non-participating families on average came from neighborhoods with a higher proportion of residents living in poverty, and with a higher proportion of African-American residents. Sampling biases were however small. The unusual cooperativeness in research of families with twins persists.
A total of 158 women presenting with clinical eating disorders have been investigated using a self-report questionnaire and subsequent interview concerning their recollections of sexual experiences with adults before the age of 16 and later adverse sexual experiences. About a third reported events in childhood and over half described some adverse experiences. It may be that these experiences are relevant to the subsequent illness in some cases, but greater certainty must await further research. In the meantime, inquiring about such matters would seem to be advisable in the assessment and therapy of eating-disordered patients.
Toxocara canis larvae were cultured in vitro in medium containing [35S-]methionine for six days. The medium and the larval tissues were analysed for biosynthetically labelled polypcptides by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Immunoprecipitates with positive and negative human antiserum were similarly analysed, using Staphylococcus aureus to absorb immunocom plexes. The larvae secrete biosynthctically labelled polypeptides into the medium, with three major polypcptides of molecular weights between 99 and 110 x 103 the major constituents. Both of these react strongly with human IgG in human positive scra. Many polypeptidcs become labelled in the larval tissue, but only one polypeptidc with similar molecular weight to the ES antigens, strongly reacted with human IgG.