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In this paper we continue the examination of inventory control in which the inventory is modeled by a diffusion process and a long-term average cost criterion is used to make decisions. The class of such models under consideration has general drift and diffusion coefficients, and boundary points that are consistent with the notion that demand should tend to reduce the inventory level. The conditions on the cost functions are greatly relaxed from those in Helmes et al. (2017). Characterization of the cost of a general (s, S) policy as a function of two variables naturally leads to a nonlinear optimization problem over the ordering levels s and S. Existence of an optimizing pair (s*, S*) is established for these models under very weak conditions; nonexistence of an optimizing pair is also discussed. Using average expected occupation and ordering measures and weak convergence arguments, weak conditions are given for the optimality of the (s*, S*) ordering policy in the general class of admissible policies. The analysis involves an auxiliary function that is globally C2 and which, together with the infimal cost, solves a particular system of linear equations and inequalities related to but different from the long-term average Hamilton‒Jacobi‒Bellman equation. This approach provides an analytical solution to the problem rather than a solution involving intricate analysis of the stochastic processes. The range of applicability of these results is illustrated on a drifted Brownian motion inventory model, both unconstrained and reflected, and on a geometric Brownian motion inventory model under two different cost structures.
Metacognitive training (MCT) for patients with psychosis is a psychological group intervention that aims to educate patients about common cognitive biases underlying delusion formation and maintenance, and to highlight their negative consequences in daily functioning.
In this randomized controlled trial, 154 schizophrenia spectrum patients with delusions were randomly assigned to either MCT + treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone. Both groups were assessed at baseline, and again after 8 and 24 weeks. The trial was completed fully by 111 patients. Efficacy was measured with the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS) Delusions Rating Scale (DRS), and with specific secondary measures referring to persecutory ideas and ideas of social reference (the Green Paranoid Thoughts Scale, GPTS), cognitive insight (the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, BCIS), subjective experiences of cognitive biases (the Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale, DACOBS) and metacognitive beliefs (the 30-item Metacognitions Questionnaire, MCQ-30). Economic analysis focused on the balance between societal costs and health outcomes (quality-adjusted life years, QALYs).
Both conditions showed a decrease of delusions. MCT was not more efficacious in terms of reducing delusions, nor did it change subjective paranoid thinking and ideas of social reference, cognitive insight or subjective experience of cognitive biases and metacognitive beliefs. The results of the economic analysis were not in favour of MCT + TAU.
In the present study, MCT did not affect delusion scores and self-reported cognitive insight, or subjective experience of cognitive biases and metacognitive beliefs. MCT was not cost-effective.
Frith et al (1995) and others have hypothesised that disruptions in the connection between left frontal and temporal areas of the brain are a central deficit in schizophrenia. In this paper we examine whether such connectivity as assessed by EEG coherence is related to level of symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.
For 73 patients with schizophrenia, assessments of the EEG coherence between frontal and temporal regions were carried out under conditions of activation by a mathematical task, and between frontal and occipital regions when performing a visuo-spatial task. We then examined the relationship between these coherence measures and the reality distortion, disorganisation and psychomotor poverty dimensions of symptomatology.
Only left frontal -temporal connectivity was found to have a significant negative relationship to symptomatology. This relationship was, however, specific to reality distortion rather than to symptoms of disorganisation or psychomotor poverty, and may be more characteristic of males than females.
Disruption of frontaltemporal connectivity appears to have a specific relationship to reality distortion symptoms in schizophrenia.
On the basis of Liddle's three-syndrome model of schizophrenia, it was predicted that: (1) symptoms of psychomotor poverty would be particularly correlated with impaired performance on neuropsychological tests likely to reflect functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; (2) disorganisation would be particularly correlated with impaired performance on tests sensitive to medio-basal prefrontal functioning; and (3) reality distortion would be particularly correlated with measures sensitive to temporal lobe functioning.
The above hypotheses were tested on 87 subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of schizophrenia. Patients' symptoms were scored for each of the three syndromes. Patients completed six neuropsychological tests designed to measure impairment in specific areas of the brain.
There was no support for the first two hypotheses. There was, however, evidence of a specific relationship between reality distortion and neuropsychological performance usually considered to be related to left temporal lobe functioning.
Although not directly supporting the first two hypotheses; the results are, in general, consistent with there being different cortical-subcortical circuits associated with each of psychomotor poverty and disorganisation. Temporal lobe functioning appears to have particular significance for the reality distortion syndrome.
We report here the growth and characterization of intersubband quantum well structures based on the GaAs/AlGaAs material system, designed to emit radiation at approximately 7 micrometers. We present transport behavior, infrared photocurrent spectra, and electroluminescence data. First attempts to fabricate a laser structure from this devices encountered difficulties with the electrical properties of the AIGaAs waveguide cladding layers. Thus, we present measurements with different waveguide concepts as doped AlAs cladding layers and doped superlattice cladding structures.
An entomological radar was used to observe insect flight activity at a coastal locality in north-western Tasmania during the spring of 1973. Insects were regularly observed to take off at dusk, and local movements from nearby islands were detected on several occasions. Large-scale southward movements of insects across Bass Strait were also observed and were found to be associated with the warm anticyclonic airflows which occur ahead of a cold front. Light-trap catches indicated that the insects were noctuid moths, with Persectania ewingii (Westw.), Heliothis punctiger Wllgr. and Agrotis munda Wlk. dominant. The movements appear to have originated mainly in Victoria and south-eastern South Australia, but it is tentatively suggested that the ultimate source of the moths was in the region stretching westwards from north-western Victoria and south-western New South Wales towards the shores of the Spencer Gulf, South Australia.
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