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The Endangered proboscis monkey Nasalis larvatus is endemic to the island of Borneo. Habitat loss is a major threat to this species, and an understanding of long-term demographic trends is crucial for its conservation. We assessed the population trends and group sizes of proboscis monkeys over 10 years in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Comparisons of observed populations between 2004 and 2014 revealed significantly reduced group sizes, which is probably a result of forest fragmentation. Three long-term studies over 34–73 months in specific areas showed fluctuating estimated densities in each area, but no overall population increase or decrease. Riparian forests are the most important habitat for these monkeys, and one reason for the relatively stable population could be that there were only minor losses of forest along rivers during 2004–2014 because protected areas have been established in the region in 2005. However, proboscis monkey habitat remains under threat in areas allocated for oil palm, and protection of these areas is paramount to maintaining this population.
In this paper, a study on a fusion reactor core is presented in heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF), including the heavy-ion beam (HIB) transport in a fusion reactor, an HIB interaction with a background gas, the reactor cavity gas dynamics, the reactor gas backflow to the beam lines, and an HIB fusion reactor design. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of about 30–40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ~50 to operate an HIF fusion reactor with a standard energy output of 1 GW of electricity. In a fusion reactor, the HIB charge neutralization is needed for a ballistic HIB transport. Multiple mechanical shutters would be installed at each HIB port at the reactor wall to stop the blast waves and the chamber gas backflow, so that the accelerator final elements would be protected from the reactor gas contaminant. The essential fusion reactor components are discussed in this paper.
The present basis for the ephemeris of Mars in the National Ephemerides is the theory of S. Newcomb (1898) as amended by the corrections of Ross (1917). These amendments by Ross, however, are empirical in nature and therefore the present ephemeris of Mars does not have a strictly gravitational basis. In order to provide a gravitationally consistent basis for the ephemeris of Mars, Clemence (1949, 1961) constructed a new general perturbation theory based on the final elements of Mars as derived by Newcomb for the epoch 1850. To test the adequacy and accuracy of this new theory, Clemence compared it against 87 observations from 1802-1839 and 1931-1950. This provided provisional values of the constants (without secular variation) for his new theory. These provisional elements and Clemence's theory were used to produce a heliocentric ephemeris of Mars for the period 1800-2000 (Duncombe and Clemence 1960, Duncombe 1964).
Our aim was to determine if stapes surgery is useful for treating inflammatory ear diseases.
Materials and methods:
Thirteen patients underwent single-stage or staged surgery for stapes fixation due to tympanosclerosis alone or with cholesteatoma. Operative criteria were: no tympanic membrane retraction, perforation or adhesion; middle-ear cavity with aeration >1 year; a fixed stapes. Computed tomography was used to analyse the relation between operative success and pre-operative pneumatisation.
Success rate at six months was 75 per cent. Hearing results were stable with little deterioration and no complications. Patients with poor pneumatisation had good results (with improved air–bone gap) only after staged surgery. Well-aerated ears heard better even with single-stage surgery.
Pre-operative computed tomography and intra-operative findings are necessary to determine the pneumatisation status of tympanic mastoid cavities. If criteria approved, poorly pneumatised patients underwent staged surgery. Stapedectomy achieved good hearing results for inflammatory middle-ear disease with stapes fixation.
The aim of this study was to determine whether allergic rhinitis can induce structural changes in the synapse formation in the hippocampus of BALB/c mice immunocytochemically.
Allergic rhinitis was induced in mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of ovalbumin administered with a one-week interval. After two weeks, the sensitised mice were challenged with an intra-nasal injection of ovalbumin for two weeks. To analyse the hippocampal synaptic structures, sections were immunostained with antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (for γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic terminals), synaptophysin (for glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic terminals) and spinophilin (for dendritic spines). The number of nasal rubbing movements was significantly greater in the allergic rhinitis mice than in the control mice. However, the expression patterns of the four above-mentioned synaptic markers in the hippocampus showed no detectable difference between the allergic rhinitis and control mice.
Results and Conclusion:
These data indicate that the synaptic structure in the hippocampus might remain unaltered in allergic rhinitis patients.
We investigated electronic structure of one-dimensional biradical molecular chain which is constructed by exploiting the covalency between organic molecules of a diphenyl derivative of s-indacenodiphenalene (Ph2-IDPL). To control the crystallinity, we used gas deposition method. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) revealed developed band structure with wide dispersion of the one-dimensional biradical molecular chain.
NEWAGE is a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment with a gaseous
time-projection chamber. We improved the direction-sensitive dark matter limits by our
underground measurement. In this paper, R&D activities sinse the first underground
measurement are described.
The orthorhombic-tetragonal YBa2Cu3O7-δ phase boundary in the δ-T diagram was determined by the detailed isobar TG measurement under the oxygen partial pressures of 1 to 0.01 atm. The phase boundary was found not to be located at 5 = const, but to have a slope of dδ/dT∼−4.7 × 10-4K-1. Using the same method, the transformation temperatures of a series of lanthanide substituted systems were measured at 1 atm. O2. The transformation temperature increased with increasing the atomic number of the lanthanide element. All these experimental results are well explained in terms of the order-disorder transformation caused by the repulsion energy between the nearest neighbor oxygen atoms on the Cu plane sandwiched by Ba planes.
The surprisingly high Tc for the superconductivity of alkali doped C60 has spurred wide interest in understanding its mechanism [1–7]. We first report the superconductive properties of CsxRbyC60 which has a Tc as high as 33 K when x=2 and y=1 in the feed [4, 5]. SQUID measurements show that in this material the coherence length is 45 A and the penetration depth about 1, 800 A . It has now been proven that the observed increase in the Tc with the size of the alkali dopant is due to the increase in the lattice constant . This is most likely due to the changes in the density of states at the Fermi level. The other important parameter according to BSC theory is the phonon which mediates the electron-electron coupling. In the second part of this paper we present recent results which show that the Tc is indeed strongly influenced by this parameter . The isotope effect is unexpectedly strong on the Tc.
Real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) method was applied to study thermal cleaning process of silicon surfaces for epitaxial growth by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV-CVD). For the first time, in-situ observation of oxide decomposition process under Si2H6 ambience was carried out. The substrates with thin oxide formed by wet chemical treatment were heated up by infrared heater under UHV or under Si2H6 ambience in an UHV-CVD chamber and the oxide decomposition processes were observed by RTSE. Ellipsometric parameters Psi and Delta increase with the progress of oxide decomposition process and become constant with the completion of the decomposition. It was found that the oxide decomposition process consists of two phases and rate-determing processes are different in each phase. It was also found that Si2H6 lowers the activation energies of oxide decomposition process in each phase.
We have confirmed that grain boundaries are related to leakage problems in Ta2O5/SiON capacitors for high dielectric DRAMs. XRD studies using an intensity ratio of (200) to (001) showed that the crystallographic structure of Ta2O5 film was strongly dependent on preparation conditions. As the (200) oriented grains grew faster than the other grains, it became important to control its grain growth in forming uniform grain boundaries. TEM observation has shown that Ta2O5 film with a high intensity ratio of (200) to (001) was made up of large size grains and had SION interface intruding into grain boundaries. By using the current-mode AFM, we could monitor leakage current directly through grain boundaries on Ta2O5 film.
Directional information should play a significant role
for a firm detection of the galactic dark matter.
We developed a prototype three-dimensional gaseous tracking device
for a direction-sensitive dark matter direct detection.
We investigated the performance of the prototype detector and demonstrated
a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment in a
We set the first limit
on the spin-dependent WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)-proton cross s
ection by a direction-sensitive method.
The FSBA (Flexible Shaft Backing Assemblies) has been developed
for a 20-high Sendzimir mill. This new shape control actuator was
supported by a shape analysis model based on the distribution of
geometrical moment of inertia in the roll axial direction. The shape
control range was doubly extended by the introduction of FSBA. It
was confirmed on an industrial mill that quarter buckles are suppressed
under a wide range of rolling conditions by shape control with
FSBA and concave rolls.
Three species of the callianassid genus Nihonotrypaea occur in the Ariake Sound estuarine system, southern Japan; they consist of two tidal-flat species (N. harmandi; N. japonica) and one boulder-beach species (N. petalura), with maximum population densities of 1440, 343, and 12 ind m−2, respectively. Nihonotrypaea harmandi and N. petalura are distributed along the coastline from the outermost part of the sound to the open sea, while N. japonica occurs in the middle part of the sound. Nihonotrypaea japonica has an extended reproductive period from late winter to autumn, while those of the other species are from late spring or summer to autumn. Interspecific comparisons were made for recently laid egg size (as volume) and clutch size (as number of eggs per female). Only in N. japonica was a seasonal egg size variation observed, being significantly larger in winter to spring (mean=0.106 mm3) than in summer (0.080 mm3). By contrast, clutch size was significantly smaller in winter to spring, resulting in nearly the same clutch volume per female (product of the mean egg volume and clutch size) between the seasons. Among the three species, the egg size was ordered as N. japonica (overall mean volume through the seasons=0.092 mm3)>>N. petalura (0.057 mm3)>N. harmandi (0.054 mm3). The clutch size was ordered as N. harmandi>N. petalura≈N. japonica. The clutch volume was ordered as N. japonica≈N. harmandi>N. petalura. The smallest clutch volume value for N. petalura female showed an opposite trend to the relative size of the major cheliped found in a previous study.