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Brazil today has a legal market that allows for foreign lawyers and foreign firms, but existing regulations are restrictive. Foreign lawyers cannot practice domestic law or litigation, nor can Brazilian‐licensed lawyers working for foreign firms or partnering with foreign lawyers. This was not always the case, however. Until 1963, there was little regulation of the legal profession. Beginning in 1913, elite US lawyers traveled to Brazil, with some even becoming prominent domestic practitioners. They partnered with local elite lawyers (who maintained their domestic privileges) and served as key brokers for US businesses seeking market entry. Drawing on the elite theory literature, and on ethnographies, interview data, and over 1,000 pages of rare Portuguese and English archival sources, this study's thesis is that sophisticated US and Brazilian legal elites capitalized on the lack of regulation to advance their financial interests, and in the process transformed Brazil's corporate legal sector.
Introduction: Online medical education resources are widely used in emergency medicine (EM), but strategies to assess quality remain elusive. We previously derived the Medical Education Translational Resources: Impact and Quality (METRIQ) 8 instrument to evaluate quality in medical education blog posts. Methods: As part of a subsequent validation study (The METRIQ Blog Study), a mixed-methods usability analysis was performed to obtain user feedback on the quality assessment instrument in order to improve its clarity and reliability. Participants in the METRIQ Study were first asked to rate five blog posts using the METRIQ-8 Score. They then evaluated the METRIQ-8 instruments ease of use and likelihood of being recommended to others using a 7-point Likert scale and free text comments. Participants were also asked to flag and comment on items within the score that they felt were unclear. Global usability ratings were summarized using median scores or percent rated unclear. We used ANOVA to test associations between ease of use and demographic factors. A thematic analysis was performed on the comments. Results: 309 EM medical students, residents, and attendings completed the survey. Global ratings were generally very favorable (median 2 [IQR 2-3], with 7 being the lowest score) for ease of use and likelihood of recommendation, and did not vary by participants country of origin, frequency of blog use, or learner level. Participants stated that the score was structured, systematic, and straightforward. They found it useful for junior learners and for guiding blog creation. Four questions in the score (questions 2, 4, 5, and 7) were identified by 10% of subjects to be unclear. Thematic analysis of comments identified suggested four main themes for improving the score: adding clearer definitions with marking rubrics; shortening the 7-point scale; adding items evaluating blog post presentation and utility; and, rephrasing the wording of certain questions for clarity. Conclusion: A mixed methods usability analysis of the METRIQ-8 instrument for assessing blog quality was globally well received by EM medical students, residents, and attendings. Qualitative analyses revealed multiple areas to improve the instruments clarity and usability. The METRIQ score is a promising instrument for evaluating the quality of blogs; further development and testing is needed to improve its utility.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
To estimate the proportion of products meeting Indian government labelling regulations and to examine the Na levels in packaged foods sold in India.
Nutritional composition data were collected from the labels of all packaged food products sold at Indian supermarkets in between 2012 and 2014. Proportions of products compliant with the Food Safety Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) regulations and labelled with Na content, and mean Na levels were calculated. Comparisons were made against 2010 data from Hyderabad and against the UK Department of Health (DoH) 2017 Na targets.
Eleven large chain retail stores in Delhi and Hyderabad, India.
Packaged food products (n 5686) categorised into fourteen food groups, thirty-three food categories and ninety sub-categories.
More packaged food products (43 v. 34 %; P<0·001) were compliant with FSSAI regulations but less (32 v. 38 %; P<0·001) reported Na values compared with 2010. Food groups with the highest Na content were sauces and spreads (2217 mg/100 g) and convenience foods (1344 mg/100 g). Mean Na content in 2014 was higher in four food groups compared with 2010 and lower in none (P<0·05). Only 27 % of foods in sub-categories for which there are UK DoH benchmarks had Na levels below the targets.
Compliance with nutrient labelling in India is improving but remains low. Many packaged food products have high levels of Na and there is no evidence that Indian packaged foods are becoming less salty.
Tuberculosis is a global health problem that is especially prevalent in developing countries such as India. Recently, atypical presentation has become more common and a high index of suspicion is essential. This study analysed the various presenting symptoms and signs of tuberculous otitis media and the role of diagnostic tests, with the aim of formulating criteria for the diagnosis.
A total of 502 patients underwent tympanomastoidectomy over a two-year period. Microbiological and histopathological examinations and polymerase chain reaction analysis of tissue taken during tympanomastoidectomy were performed.
A total of 25 patients (5 per cent) were diagnosed with tuberculous otitis media. Severe mixed hearing loss, facial palsy, labyrinthine fistula, post-aural fistula, perichondritis and extradural abscess were noted.
There seems to be a resurgence in tuberculous otitis media in India. Microbiological, histopathological and polymerase chain reaction tests for tuberculosis are helpful for its diagnosis.
Acromelic dysplasias are a group of skeletal dysplasias characterised by short-limbed short stature with other distinctive phenotypic features including small hands and feet and stiff joints. Geleophysic dysplasia is an acromelic dysplasia that is associated with characteristic facial features, progressive cardiac valvular thickening, and tracheal stenosis. Owing to overlapping clinical features with other types of short-limbed skeletal dysplasias, it is important to make a precise diagnosis as they have different cardiac morbidity and mortality. We present the cases of three patients with geleophysic dysplasia and progressive mitral valve disease to emphasise the natural history of this disorder and provide guidance regarding cardiac health supervision in these individuals.
Introduction: The use of free open access medicine, particularly open educational resources (OERs), by medical educators and learners continues to increase. As OERs, especially blogs and podcasts, rise in popularity, their ease of dissemination raises concerns about their quality. While critical appraisal of primary research and journal articles is formally taught, no training exists for the assessment of OERs. Thus, the ability of educators and learners to effectively assess the quality of OERs using gestalt alone has been questioned. Our goal is to determine whether gestalt is sufficient for emergency medicine learners (EM) and physicians to consistently rate and reliably recommend OERs to their colleagues. We hypothesized that EM physicians and learners would differ substantively in their assessment of the same resources. Methods: Participants included 31 EM learners and 23 EM attending physicians from Canada and the U.S. A modified Dillman technique was used to administer 4 survey blocks of 10 blog posts per subject between April and August, 2015. Participants were asked whether they would recommend each OER to 1) a learner or 2) an attending physician. The ratings reliability was assessed using single measures intraclass correlations and their correlations amongst the groups were assessed using Spearman’s rho. Family-wise adjustments were made for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni technique. Results: Learners demonstrated poor reliability when recommending resources for other learners (ICC= 0.21, 95% CI 0.13-0.39) and attending physicians (ICC = 0.16, 95% CI=0.09-0.30). Similarly, attendings had poor reliability when recommending resources for learners (ICC= 0.27, 95% CI 0.18-0.41) and other attendings (ICC=0.22, 95% CI 0.14-0.35). Learners and attendings demonstrated moderate consistency between them when recommending resources for learners (rs=0.494, p<.01) and attendings (rs=0.491, p<.01). Conclusion: Using a gestalt-based rating system is neither reliable nor consistent when recommending OERs to learners and attending physicians. Learners’ gestalt ratings for recommending resources for other learners and attendings were especially unreliable. Our findings suggests the need for structured rating systems to rate OERs.
We observed short duration, narrow band Type IIIb radio bursts that occur just before the onset of a normal Type III burst. These observations were made with a multichannel radiometer with a center frequency of 25 MHz, time constant of 10 milliseconds and frequency resolution of 100 KHz. The average half power duration of a typical element of a Type III burst was determined. It was found to be very similar to the time profile of a normal Type III burst, i.e., sharp rise and exponential type decay. The duration of the exciter, tE, and the decay time constant, τ, determined from the average time profile were 0.88 and 0.31 seconds, respectively. The corresponding quantities for the associated Type III bursts are 6.0 and 2.1 seconds, respectively. It is interesting to note that the ratios
are the same, and equal to 0.98. We found that there is no difference between the time profile of a Type III burst associated with a Type IIIb burst and that of an isolated Type III burst. We also found that the two quantities ‘tE’ and ‘ τ ’ are positively correlated in the case of isolated Type III bursts. The linear correlation coefficient is 0.70. This correlation seems to break down in the case of Type III bursts associated with Type IIIb bursts. We looked for a relation between durations of the elements of the Type IIIb bursts and that of the associated Type III bursts, and found that the two quantities are positively correlated. Lastly, we would like to point out that the elements of Type IIIb bursts observed by us are more intense than the associated Type III burst.
Zn1.98Mn0.02P2O7 was synthesized by the wet chemical route. The purity of the phase and the oxidation state of manganese ion were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Structural phase transition in α-Zn2P2O7 was investigated by high-temperature XRD (HTXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and EPR studies. There is a distinct signature of phase transitions between 390 and 400 K in our powder sample by EPR and HTXRD. There was a sharp reduction in the volume of unit cell, while going from alpha to beta phase; with discontinuity in 405 K, which confirmed the transition to be of first order. Similarly, the effect of temperature on zero-field splitting parameter (D) also showed that there is a sudden jump (discontinuity) in the value at around 400 K (phase transition temperature) confirming the transition to be of first order. DSC studies corroborated these findings.
HOW IS THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT, UNDER ITS CONSTITUtionally democratic system, dealing with the suspected terrorists that it captures and detains? That is the core question this chapter seeks to address. In Part 1, we offer a brief summary on the structure of the regular Indian criminal justice system. As India's regular courts are considered by many to be broken and incapable of providing justice in a timely manner, the state has opted to construct alternative fora to dispose of criminal matters more expeditiously, including, for our purposes, terrorism-related cases. In Part 2, we provide background on how special courts established under different antiterrorism statutes in India have evolved over the years, including a discussion of the Terrorism and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA) of 1985 and the 2002 Prevention of Terrorist Activities Act (POTA). As we suggest, the special courts under these laws were in fact not so special. Because the lawyers, judges, norms, and even physical facilities were frequently the same as found in the regular courts, there was a great blurring between these two fora. Eventually, both TADA and POTA were repealed, with the latter occurring in the fall of 2004.
In Part 3, we discuss how the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks reignited the call for sweeping measures to be enacted. The result was the passage of two statutes, the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) and the National Investigation Agency Act (NIAA), both of which helped establish the most recent set of NIAA special courts, which we analyze in detail. Finally, in Part 4, we outline the challenges these latest courts present to India's democracy. We rely on various cases and data that show a conflation and tension among these NIAA courts, other denoted special courts, the regular judiciary, and India's democratic system of government. We conclude by arguing that in order for special terrorism courts to serve a constructive purpose in India, there must be clarification on the jurisdiction of these fora, which, we believe, would strengthen the government's justification for maintaining such institutions.
The formation of supersonic, radiatively cooled plasma jets with applications to
laboratory astrophysics has been an active area of research on the MAGPIE generator. One
of the ways of producing astrophysically-relevant jets in the laboratory is by using the
ablation of plasma from a radial foil Z-pinch. In this configuration a ~1.4 MA, 250
ns current pulse is introduced into an aluminium disk with a thickness of 15
μm. The ablated plasma from the foil converges on the axis, producing a
steady and collimated jet with a typical axial velocity of ~100 km/s. The setup
allows for the addition of argon above the foil for jet-ambient interaction studies. The
interaction is characterised by the formation of several shock features, which are
presented and discussed from experimental data and numerical simulations.
Properties of radiatively cooled supersonic plasma jets formed by ablation of thin Al
foils driven by 1.4 MA, 250 ns current pulse are presented. The jets are highly collimated
with half-opening angles of ~2°. Measurements of the flow velocity (~60
km/s) and plasma temperature (~15 eV) in the jet with Thomson scattering diagnostic
give internal Mach number of M ~ 3, suggesting additional collimation of the jet by
toroidal magnetic fields.
Rotavirus is a common viral cause of severe diarrhoea. For the underlying cause of rotavirus seasonality, the meteorological factor has been suspected, whereas quantitative correlation between seasonality and meteorological factor has not been fully investigated. In this study, we investigated the correlation of temporal patterns of the isolation rate of rotavirus with meteorological condition (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall) in Kolkata, India. We used time-series analysis combined with spectral analysis and least squares method. A 1-year cycle explained underlying variations of rotavirus and meteorological data. The 1-year cycle for rotavirus data was correlated with an opposite phase to that for meteorological data. Relatively high temperature could be associated with a low value of isolation rate of rotavirus in the monsoon season. Quantifying a correlation of rotavirus infections with meteorological conditions might prove useful in predicting rotavirus epidemics and health services could plan accordingly.
Nonlinear optical effects are revealed when strong light fields interact with matter. It has been shown that nanomaterials exhibit properties which are very different from the bulk, and in many cases, the nonlinear optical (NLO) efficiency of nanomaterials is found to be higher in comparison. Recently there has been substantial interest in developing novel NLO media for various applications. Even though several organic as well as inorganic materials have been studied in this connection, only a limited number of NLO reports exist for oxide nanomaterials. Therefore, in this paper we present results of NLO measurements recently conducted in our laboratory in three different oxide nanosystems. It is found that oxide nanomaterials are generally robust, and exhibit good NLO efficiencies, which make them potential candidates for photonic and optoelectronic applications.
Copper indium diselenide (CIS) based solar cells are one among the promising thin film solar cells. Most of the processes reported for the preparation of CIS directly or indirectly involve Se vapor or H2Se gases which are extremely toxic to health and environment. In this work, we report the preparation of CIS thin films by stacked layers of Glass/In/Se/Cu2Se and Glass/In/Se/Cu2Se/Se. For this, first indium (In) thin film was thermally evaporated on glass substrate on which selenium (Se) and copper selenide (Cu2Se) thin films were deposited sequentially by chemical bath deposition. Selenium thin films were grown from an aqueous solution containing Na2SeSO3 and CH3COOH at room temperature, triple deposition for 7, 7 and 10 min from consecutive baths. Copper selenide thin films were deposited at 35 °C for 1 hour from an aqueous bath containing CuSO4, Na2SeSO3 and NH4OH. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns of the thin films formed at 400 °C from the precursor layer containing extra selenium layer showed the presence of chalcopyrite CuInSe2, without any secondary phase. Morphology of all the samples was analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Optical band gap was evaluated from the UV-Visible absorption spectra of these films and the values were 1.1 eV and 1 eV respectively for CIS thin films formed at 400 °C from the selenium deficient and selenium rich precursor layers. Electrical characterizations were done using photocurrent measurements. Thus preparation of a CuInSe2 absorber material by a non-toxic selenization process may open up a low cost technique for the fabrication of CIS based solar cells.