To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Growth of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) was observed in situ in a transmission electron microscope. Bi liquid particles were dispersed on the substrates of diamond or SiO2. Introduction of oxygen up to ∼5 × 10−4 Pa resulted in formation of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) whiskers. The growth mechanism of the whisker was discussed in terms of a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. It is suggested that the liquid droplet of Bi acts as a physical catalyst for growth of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) whiskers.