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During the COVID-19 pandemic, care for the elderly in the community was greatly limited. Accordingly, the demand for alternative community care have increased to cope with changing situations.
In this study, we tried to find out whether the companion robot improved mood state and related problem in depressive or isolated community dwelling elderly
For 186 community dwelling elderly who have received social welfare service due to depression or social isolation, we provided companion robot that could support their daily living. The robot was equipped with special program that could recognize and respond to the participant’s own emotion. It was part of behavioral activation techniques which is one of powerful treatment for depression. The self-report questionnaires were used to measure changes in cognitive function, depression, suicidality, loneliness, resilience and satisfaction of life. Outcomes were measured before using companion robot and after 3 months, and we compared them.
The elderly using companion robot for 3 months showed improved cognitive function (45.7% to 30.1%), depression (p<0.001), suicidality(p<0.001), and loneliness (p=0.033) in the self-report questionnaire. Resilience(p=0.749) and satisfaction of life (p=0.246) were also improved but not reached significance.
These findings showed that the use of companion robot with emotional recognition coaching program could help improve depression, cognitive function, loneliness and suicidal ideation. In particular, this effect was also useful for those who were diagnosed with depression. Also if we can put more techniques of behavioral activation programs into robot, it could be useful in community care for depressive and isolated elderly.
The suicide rate in the elderly population is the highest of all ages in Korea. Suicide prevention programs specialized in the elderly are scarce.
We evaluated the effect of the suicidal prevention program named “Nae-an-ae” (means to love oneself), which was specifically designed for the conditions of the community dwelling elderly.
The subjects were those who agreed to participate in the Nae-an-ae program among those evaluated as suicide high-risk groups according to the 2021 Jeollanam-do Mental Health Survey. The program consisted of five sessions of simple activities that could be practiced in daily life along with knowledge transfer through education on emotion recognition, stress management, sleep and relaxation, pain and exercise, and depression. This program was conducted by social workers or nurses working at each local community mental health and welfare center. We evaluated the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form Korean Version (GDS-SF), suicidal ideation, satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) and brief resilience scale (BRS) which were measured before and after the program and compared them with the control group.
A total of 276 participated in the program, 226 were in the control group. In the program participating group, the frequency of suicidal ideation was significantly decreased from 36.2% to 11.6% after the program. GDS-SF, SWLS and BRS were significantly decreased in active group than control group.
These findings showed that “Nae-an-ae” program was found to affect not only the control of suicide risk factors such as depression but also positive factors such as life satisfaction and resilience.
Self-compassion (SC) describes an emotionally positive attitude extended toward ourselves when we suffer, consisting of three main components; self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness (Germer & Neff, 2013). SC entails being warm and understanding towards ourselves when encountering pain or personal shortcomings, rather than ignoring them or flagellating ourselves with self-criticism. SC also involves recognizing that suffering and failure are part of the shared human experience rather than isolating. In addition, SC requires taking a mindful approach to one’s feelings and thoughts, without judgment of them.
Self-compassion (SC) involves taking an emotionally positive attitude towards oneself when suffering. Although SC has positive effects on mental well-being as well as a protective role in preventing depression and anxiety in healthy individuals, few studies on white matter (WM) microstructures in neuroimaging studies of SC has been studied.
Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 71 healthy participants with measured levels of SC and its six subscales. Mirroring network as WM regions of interest were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). After the WM regions associated with SC were extracted, exploratory correlation analysis with the self-forgiveness scale, the coping scale, and the world health organization quality of life scale abbreviated version was performed.
We found that self-compassion scale (SCS) total scores were negatively correlated with the fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) in healthy individuals. The self-kindness and mindfulness subscale scores of SCS were also negatively correlated with FA values of the same regions. The FA values of SLF related to SC were found to be negatively correlated with the total scores of self-forgiveness scale, and self-control coping strategy and confrontation coping strategy.
Our findings suggest that levels of SC and its self-kindness and mindfulness components may be negatively associated with DMN-related WM microstructures in healthy individuals. These less WM microstructures may be associated with positive personal attitudes, such as self-forgiveness, self-control and active confrontational strategies.
Subclinical or subthreshold social anxiety (SSA) is associated with significant burden. Up to 20% of general population report subclinical social anxiety symptoms, which can change individual social, work functioning.
However, neural mechanisms of SSA have not been fully investigated in healthy individual yet. This study aimed to examine the relationship between gray matter volumes (GMVs) and SSA.
We enrolled a total of 57 healthy individuals with SSA. The General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Albany Panic and Phobia Scale (APPQ) were evaluated. Freesurfer was applied to investigated the relationship between SSA and GMVs. Multiple regression models with age, sex, and total intracranial volume as covariates were performed. Pearson correlation analyses also investigated the exploratory correlations between the GMVs of the SSA-related regions and other psychological characteristics among healthy individuals.
Freesurfer voxel-wise correlational analyses showed a significant negative correlation between the SA scores of APPQ and gray matter volumes (GMVs) in the fusiform gyrus (FG). In addition, the GMVs in the FG were significantly negatively associated with the total GAD-7, BDI-II, BAI, and APPQ scores. Performance anxiety was significantly correlated with posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and fusiform gyrus.
Our findings suggest that healthy individuals with SSA showed decreased GMVs in the FG and the GMVs of FG were associated with general anxiety and depression symptomatology.
The COVID pandemic caused an unprecedented public health crisis and adversely impacted children’s well-being. It has negatively affected children’s mental health due to social isolation, human losses, and remote learning. Our goal is to learn about the challenges and factors that these children and young adults face upon returning to school and college, which could further decline their mental health. We also need to understand parents’ concerns about this transition to a back-to-school routine.
1) To learn about the mental health challenges for children, adolescents, and young adults returning to school after the beginning of the COVID pandemic.
2) To identify the factors and challenges that parents and caregivers face during the COVID regarding the return of their children to school.
We conducted a literature search using relevant medical subject heading (MeSH) terms in PubMed, PubMed Central, Web of Science, and Medline databases. We identified all published relevant articles until June 4, 2021. After a thorough review of relevant published articles until October 30, 2022, we included 5 articles in our qualitative synthesis.
A cross-sectional study in China measured depression, anxiety, and social support in back-to-school students via PHQ-9, GAD-7, and SSQ, respectively. They found a significant rise in anxiety and depression among these students. This correlation was weak at higher social support. Data collected from 15 children’s hospitals found that students want to participate actively in returning to school and the recovery process as they are concerned about their future, family, and society. Another 2021 cross-sectional study in Texas revealed that parents are concerned about their children’s health and prefer an onsite-virtual hybrid learning setup over in-person learning (Limbers C. A. et al. The Journal of school health 2021; 91(1), 3–8.). Parents in Italy favored school reopening with reduced student numbers (70.1%), social distancing within classes (45.3%), and masks as they were concerned about their children due to COVID (Pierantoni, L et al. 2021; Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992), 110(3), 942–943 ). Fewer White parents were supportive of a mask mandate for students and staff members (62.5%) than parents of ethnicities like Hispanic (79.5%, p= 0.026) and other racial/ethnic groups (66.9%, p = 0.041) (Gilbert, L. K. et al. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 2020; 69(49), 1848–1852).
The return to school after COVID is challenging for students and parents due to the rise in anxiety and depression in children. Social support has been found to be protective of children’s mental health. Future well-designed studies should identify challenges and factors that can help safeguard children’s mental health and develop appropriate policies.
One of the most significant changes to society came with the advent of social media, and with it a cultural shift in whom people consider their actual friends. The cultural influence of entertainment figures is not a new phenomenon; however, there has a revolution in the way celebrities interact with their fans, specifically in the Korean Pop (Kpop) industry. In contrast with musicians who release an album and then disappear into mysterious obscurity, Kpop stars constantly interact with fans through meet and greets, live streams, variety tv shows, and most importantly, through social media. With a concomitant rise in parasocial interactions and relationships, Kpop blurs the line between what constitutes pathological delusions and healthy fan activity.
• To learn the assessment and management of patients with anorexia nervosa
• To understand changes in management to address suicidality in patients with anorexia nervosa
• To understand influences by media in perpetrating certain body types in impressionable adolescents
Patient is a 19 year-old Hispanic female with a Past Psychiatric History of Bipolar Disorder, who was brought in by EMS due for agitation and disorganized behavior. Patient presented manic, labile, and her delusions extended to beliefs that the Kpop group EXO has been communicating with her through morse code in their videos, and that certain members would wink at her through the computer screen in real time. The patient’s BMI at the time of admission was 15.4, and she continued to compare her own body to Kpop idols.
Patient shared a lifetime mix of both shame and trauma concerning her eating habits, with multiple incidents that may have contributed to her fear of eating, and simultaneously into her becoming obsessed with the Kpop group (“2018 and COVID were a miracle for me. I got closer to EXO”). Patient denies looking ugly or fat and seems mostly satisfied with her current appearance.
With social isolation growing due to the pandemic, online parasocial relationships are becoming an increasingly normal part of people’s lives. We discuss a case where an unhealthy obsession with Kpop contributed to body dissatisfaction, and the precipitating factors that lead to these circumstances, as well as the challenges that are present in helping these adolescents and young adults in coping with social media use. As such, it is important to discuss the challenges faced by psychiatrists who must be sufficiently aware of the ever-changing face of contemporary cultural landscape when forming an accurate diagnosis.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects about 9.4% (6.4 million) children in the United States. Pharmacological treatment, including stimulants, is a known therapy for ADHD. However, its possible subtherapeutic effectiveness, residual symptoms, and adverse effects have prompted us to explore the current evidence of Yoga as an add-on therapy that has shown synergistic effects in recent studies.
1) We aim to assess Yoga’s efficacy as an add-on treatment for ADHD.
2) Assess the current evidence of Yoga as an add-on therapy for ADHD.
We searched PubMed, PubMed Central, Medline, Web of Science, and Biosis databases with the keywords “Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity” (MeSH) and “ADHD” in the context of “Yoga” (MeSH). Identified 4 relevant studies that were published until September 30, 2022.
A study by Jensen et al. found improvement in impulsivity, hyperactivity, and restlessness in the ADHD with medications patient group after 20 Yoga sessions. Study utilized Conners’ Parents Rating Scales and found improvement in the Yoga group on Oppositional, Global Index Emotional Lability, Global Index Total, Global Index Restless/Impulsive, and ADHD Index scale, changes associated with the number of sessions (Jensen et al. J Atten Disord 2004; 7 205-216). In another study, children with ADHD showed significant improvement after 8 weeks of 16 Yoga sessions in accuracy rate and reaction time in the Visual Pursuit Test and Determination Test (Chou et al. Peer J 2017; 5 e2883). A nine-year-old male case showed improvement in inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms on Vanderbilt Assessment Scales from parents and teachers after 6 months of Yoga practice (Gunaseelan et al. Cureus 2021; 5, e2883). Another 6-week Yoga intervention randomized trial in pre-school ADHD children showed significant improvement in hyperactivity and inattention with fewer distractibility errors of omission and faster reaction time (Cohen et al. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2018; 39 200).
The results suggest that Yoga has beneficial effects as an adjunct treatment to pharmacotherapy in ADHD for reducing hyperactivity and inattentiveness. Additionally, studies indicate its effectiveness in managing stress, anxiety, energy levels, and impulse control by staying focused with the help of breath and mind control. To explore the full spectrum of benefits and effectiveness of Yoga as an add-on therapy for ADHD patients, we recommend robust well-design future studies.
The impacts of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on mental health have been relatively severe.
This study examined the influence of the COVID-19 especially on depression and suicidal ideation in community-dwelling elderly in Korea.
Data were employed from a survey on elderly mental health in Jeollanam-do (southwest province in Korea). A total of 2,423 elderlies were recruited from 22 counties in Jeollanam-do between April and October 2021. We used self-reported questionnaires, including sociodemographic factors, COVID-19 related stress, suicidal ideation, Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form Korean Version (GDS-SF). Logistic regression was performed to examine the factors on depression and suicidal ideation
Of the 2423 subjects, 622 (25.7%) reported depressive symptoms and 518 (21.4%) reported suicidal ideation. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that living alone, poor perceived health status, the worry of COVID-19 infection and restriction of daily activity due to COVID-19 pandemic were significantly associated with depression. Male sex, poor perceived health status, disability in house chores and depressive symptom are risk factors for suicidal ideation.
These findings showed that increased risk factor for depression and suicidal ideation in community dwelling elderly during COVID-19 pandemic. We confirmed that feelings of isolation and negative perception of health were risk factors on depression in community dwelling elderly in the context of the COVID –19 pandemic. Also male, poor self-perceived health status, difficulty of independent living and worry and depression are increased the risk of suicidal ideation among the elderly.
In modern society, mental health in the workplace is increasingly considered an im-portant issue and a major political agenda. Many studies have reported negative mental health risk factors or psychopathologies such as depression, anxiety, and suicidal inclination among workers. Accordingly, there are ongoing debates on the importance of establishing a system to screen and treat psychopathologies, such as the assessment of depression and anxiety. However, the absence of psychopathology or negative psychiatric factors does not guarantee good mental health. Mental health is a more comprehensive and complex concept. According to the World Health Organization, mental health is the state in which an individual can cope with routine stressors in life, work productively, and contribute to their organizations. Hence, it is needed to directly measure workers’ mental health in terms of happiness and life satisfaction.
To comprehensively investigate workers’ mental health, we explored factors associated with happiness and life satisfaction among workers using nationally representative data.
We performed multiple regression analysis, with happiness and life satisfaction set as the outcome measures, and sociodemographic factors and work-related factors as the predictive variables.
A total of 7,797 participants (4,428 men [56.8%]) with a mean age of 46.58 years (SD = 13.50) were included in the analysis. Job satisfaction (β = 0.154, p < 0.001) and self-rated health (β = 0.175, p < 0.001) were the most strongly associated with happiness. Organizational commitment, region of work, average monthly income, education level, and number of guaranteed leaves were also strongly associated with happiness and life satisfaction. Life satisfaction had the highest adjusted R2 at 0.423. The adjusted R2 for happiness and the ladder approach were 0.283 and 0.213, respectively. The variance inflation factor was below 10, and residuals were below 0.1 for all predictor variables.
Our results indicated that personal and work-related factors were associated with the happiness and life satisfaction of workers. Among work-related factors, subjective, intrinsic rewards such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment were more strongly associated than external rewards such as average monthly income or guaranteed vacations. These findings may be useful foundational data in devising policies and interventions to promote workers’ happiness and life satisfaction.
People with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit negative cognitions, predictive of PTSD severity. The Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI) is a widely used instrument measuring trauma-related cognitions and beliefs with three subscales: negative thoughts of self (SELF), negative cognitions about the world (WORLD), and self-blame (BLAME).
The current study attempted to validate the use of the PTCI in people with serious mental illness (SMI), who have greater exposure to trauma and elevated rates of PTSD, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and examining convergent and divergent correlations with relevant constructs.
Participants were 432 individuals with SMI and co-occurring PTSD diagnosis based on the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, who completed PTCI and other clinical ratings.
CFAs provided adequate support for Foa’s three-factor model (SELF, WORLD, BLAME), and adequate support for Sexton’s four-factor model that also included a COPE subscale. Both models achieved measurement invariance at configural, metric and scalar levels for three diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, bipolar and major depression, as well as for ethnicity (White vs Black), and gender (male vs female). Validity of both models was supported by significant correlations between PTCI subscales, and self-reported and clinician assessed PTSD symptoms and associated symptoms.
Findings provide support for the psychometric properties of the PTCI and the conceptualization of Sexton’s four-factor and Foa’s three-factor models of PTCI among individuals diagnosed with SMI (Foa et al., 1999).
Students may need to decide whether to invest limited resources evenly across all courses and thus end with moderate grades in all, or focus on some of the courses and thus end with variable grades. This study examined which pattern of grades is perceived more favorably. When judging competency, people give more weight to positive than negative information, in which case heterogeneous grades would be perceived more favorably as they have more positive grades than homogeneous moderate grades. Furthermore, high school students are told to demonstrate their passion in college applications. Nonetheless, people generally overweigh negative information, which can result in a preference for a student with homogeneous grades lacking extremely negative grades. The college admissions decisions in particular may also involve emphasis on long-term stable, consistent, and responsible character, which the homogeneous grades may imply. Study 1 found that laypeople, undergraduate students, and admissions officers preferred to admit a student with homogeneous grades to a college than a student with heterogeneous grades even when their GPAs were the same. Study 2 used a heterogeneous transcript signaling a stereotypic STEM or humanities student, and found that while undergraduate students were more split in their choices, laypeople and admissions officers still preferred a student with homogeneous grades. Study 3 further replicated the preference for a student with homogeneous grades by using higher or lower average GPAs and wider or narrower range of grades for the heterogeneous grades. Possible reasons and limitations of the studies are discussed.
The choice of terms used to describe ‘foods to limit’ (FTL) in food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) can impact public understanding, policy translation and research applicability. The choice of terms in FBDG has been influenced by available science, values, beliefs and historical events. This study aimed to analyse the terms used and definitions given to FTL in FBDG around the world, including changes over time and regional differences.
A review of terms used to describe FTL and their definitions in all current and past FBDG for adults was conducted, using a search strategy informed by the FAO FBDG website. Data from 148 guidelines (96 countries) were extracted into a pre-defined table and terms were organised by the categories ‘nutrient-based’, ‘food examples’ or ‘processing-related’.
National FBDG from all world regions.
Nutrient-based terms (e.g. high-fat foods) were the most frequently used type of term in both current and past dietary guidelines (91 %, 85 %, respectively). However, food examples (e.g. cakes) and processing-related terms (e.g. ultra-processed foods) have increased in use over the past 20 years and are now often used in conjunction with nutrient-based terms. Regional differences were only observed for processing-related terms.
Diverse, and often poorly defined, terms are used to describe FTL in FBDG. Policymakers should ensure that FTL terms have clear definitions and can be integrated with other disciplines and understood by consumers. This may facilitate the inclusion of the most contemporary and potentially impactful terminology in nutrition research and policies.
We summarize what we assess as the past year's most important findings within climate change research: limits to adaptation, vulnerability hotspots, new threats coming from the climate–health nexus, climate (im)mobility and security, sustainable practices for land use and finance, losses and damages, inclusive societal climate decisions and ways to overcome structural barriers to accelerate mitigation and limit global warming to below 2°C.
We synthesize 10 topics within climate research where there have been significant advances or emerging scientific consensus since January 2021. The selection of these insights was based on input from an international open call with broad disciplinary scope. Findings concern: (1) new aspects of soft and hard limits to adaptation; (2) the emergence of regional vulnerability hotspots from climate impacts and human vulnerability; (3) new threats on the climate–health horizon – some involving plants and animals; (4) climate (im)mobility and the need for anticipatory action; (5) security and climate; (6) sustainable land management as a prerequisite to land-based solutions; (7) sustainable finance practices in the private sector and the need for political guidance; (8) the urgent planetary imperative for addressing losses and damages; (9) inclusive societal choices for climate-resilient development and (10) how to overcome barriers to accelerate mitigation and limit global warming to below 2°C.
Social media summary
Science has evidence on barriers to mitigation and how to overcome them to avoid limits to adaptation across multiple fields.
Consumption of unpasteurised milk in the United States has presented a public health challenge for decades because of the increased risk of pathogen transmission causing illness outbreaks. We analysed Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System data to characterise unpasteurised milk outbreaks. Using Poisson and negative binomial regression, we compared the number of outbreaks and outbreak-associated illnesses between jurisdictions grouped by legal status of unpasteurised milk sale based on a May 2019 survey of state laws. During 2013–2018, 75 outbreaks with 675 illnesses occurred that were linked to unpasteurised milk; of these, 325 illnesses (48%) were among people aged 0–19 years. Of 74 single-state outbreaks, 58 (78%) occurred in states where the sale of unpasteurised milk was expressly allowed. Compared with jurisdictions where retail sales were prohibited (n = 24), those where sales were expressly allowed (n = 27) were estimated to have 3.2 (95% CI 1.4–7.6) times greater number of outbreaks; of these, jurisdictions where sale was allowed in retail stores (n = 14) had 3.6 (95% CI 1.3–9.6) times greater number of outbreaks compared with those where sale was allowed on-farm only (n = 13). This study supports findings of previously published reports indicating that state laws resulting in increased availability of unpasteurised milk are associated with more outbreak-associated illnesses and outbreaks.
The majority of pediatric medications are dosed according to weight and therefore accurate weight assessment is essential. However, this can be difficult in the unpredictable and peripatetic prehospital care setting, and medication errors are common. The Handtevy method and the Broselow tape are two systems designed to guide Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers in both pediatric patient weight estimation and medication dosing. The accuracy of the Handtevy method of weight estimation as practiced in the field by EMS has not been previously examined.
The primary objective of this study was to examine the field performance of the Handtevy method and the Broselow tape with respect to prehospital patient weight estimation.
This was a retrospective chart review of trauma and non-trauma patients transported by EMS to the emergency department (ED) of a quaternary care children’s hospital from January 1, 2021 through June 30, 2021. Demographic data, ED visit information, prehospital weight estimation, and medication dosing were collected and analyzed. Scale-based weight from the ED was used as the standard for comparison.
A total of 509 patients <13 years of age were included in this study. The EMS providers using the Broselow method estimated patient weight to within +/-10% of ED scale weight in 51.3% of patients. When using the Handtevy method, the EMS providers estimated patient weight to within +/-10% of ED scale weight in 43.7% of patients. When comparing the Handtevy versus Broselow method of prehospital weight estimation, there was no significant association between method and categorized weight discrepancy (over, under, or accurate estimates – defined as within 10% of ED scale weight; P = .25) or percent weight discrepancy (P = .75). On average, prehospital weight estimation was 6.33% lower than ED weight with use of the Handtevy method and 6.94% lower with use of the Broselow method.
This study demonstrated no statistically significant difference between the use of the Handtevy or Broselow methods with respect to prehospital weight estimation. While further research is necessary, these results suggest similar field performance of the Broselow and Handtevy methods.
In March 2018, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, California Department of Public Health, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health and Pennsylvania Department of Health initiated an investigation of an outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) infections. Sixty infections were identified in California, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maine, Nevada and Ohio. The infections were linked to a no-rinse cleansing foam product (NRCFP), produced by Manufacturer A, used for skin care of patients in healthcare settings. FDA inspected Manufacturer A's production facility (manufacturing site of over-the-counter drugs and cosmetics), reviewed production records and collected product and environmental samples for analysis. FDA's inspection found poor manufacturing practices. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed a match between NRCFP samples and clinical isolates. Manufacturer A conducted extensive recalls, FDA issued a warning letter citing the manufacturer's inadequate manufacturing practices, and federal, state and local partners issued public communications to advise patients, pharmacies, other healthcare providers and healthcare facilities to stop using the recalled NRCFP. This investigation highlighted the importance of following appropriate manufacturing practices to minimize microbial contamination of cosmetic products, especially if intended for use in healthcare settings.
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are common following traumatic stress exposure (TSE). Identification of individuals with PTSS risk in the early aftermath of TSE is important to enable targeted administration of preventive interventions. In this study, we used baseline survey data from two prospective cohort studies to identify the most influential predictors of substantial PTSS.
Self-identifying black and white American women and men (n = 1546) presenting to one of 16 emergency departments (EDs) within 24 h of motor vehicle collision (MVC) TSE were enrolled. Individuals with substantial PTSS (⩾33, Impact of Events Scale – Revised) 6 months after MVC were identified via follow-up questionnaire. Sociodemographic, pain, general health, event, and psychological/cognitive characteristics were collected in the ED and used in prediction modeling. Ensemble learning methods and Monte Carlo cross-validation were used for feature selection and to determine prediction accuracy. External validation was performed on a hold-out sample (30% of total sample).
Twenty-five percent (n = 394) of individuals reported PTSS 6 months following MVC. Regularized linear regression was the top performing learning method. The top 30 factors together showed good reliability in predicting PTSS in the external sample (Area under the curve = 0.79 ± 0.002). Top predictors included acute pain severity, recovery expectations, socioeconomic status, self-reported race, and psychological symptoms.
These analyses add to a growing literature indicating that influential predictors of PTSS can be identified and risk for future PTSS estimated from characteristics easily available/assessable at the time of ED presentation following TSE.