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The nonlinear evolution of electron Weibel instability in a symmetric, counterstream, unmagnetized electron–positron e−/e+ plasmas is studied by a 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The magnetic field is produced and amplified by the Weibel instability, which extracts energy from the plasma anisotropy. A weakly relativistic drift velocity of 0.5c is considered for two counterstreaming e−/e+ plasma flows. Simulations show that in a homogeneous e−/e+ plasma distribution, the magnetic field amplifies exponentially in the linear regime and rapidly decays after saturation. However, in the case of inhomogeneous e−/e+ plasma distribution, the magnetic field re-amplifies at post-saturation. We also find that the amount of magnetic field amplification at post-saturation depends on the strength of the density inhomogeneity of the upstream plasma distribution. The temperature calculation shows that the finite thermal anisotropy exists in the case of an inhomogeneous plasma distribution which leads to the second-stage magnetic field amplification after the first saturation. Such density inhomogeneities are present in a variety of astrophysical sources: for example, in supernova remnants and gamma-ray bursts. Therefore, the present analysis is very useful in understanding these astrophysical sources, where anisotropic density fluctuations are very common in the downstream region of the relativistic shocks and the widely distributed magnetic field.
For historic property types such as archaeological sites and historic buildings, data recovery is often the main part of mitigation plans offered by federal agencies with undertakings that will destroy part or all of a cultural resource. In theory, by extracting important information before destruction, we recover some part of a historic resource's cultural value. In some situations, however, data recovery is impossible or otherwise undesirable, and “creative” or off-site mitigation measures are necessary to mitigate adverse effects. In such circumstances, the Washington State Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation has accepted funding from federal agencies to create, implement, and enhance an online digital information system for cultural resources. This article describes the Washington Information System for Architectural and Archaeological Records Data (WISAARD) and provides an example of a federal agency funding WISAARD development as creative mitigation for the transfer of archaeological sites out of federal ownership. We discuss the benefits of such systems and address how their development meets preservation goals established by the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To develop feasible screening methods for activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) with point of care applicability. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Current knowledge establishes the relevance of G6PD as a critical therapeutic determinant for effective antimalarial therapy due to the occurrence of mutations that lead to post-treatment severe adverse effects. We present our findings on development of cost effective point-of-care screening methodologies to ascertain G6PD deficiency. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Using Patient Cohort Explorer and data from the Department of Pathology, we established the prevalence of G6PD deficiency at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS as high as 11.8% (African-American males in all population, n = 2518). Next, for selection of potential target groups, we set up a protocol for recruitment of volunteers based on ethnic background, parental ethnicity, and medical history. G6PD activity was evaluated using point of care methods [Trinity Biotech test or CareSTART Biosensor], and Gold Standard quantitative spectrophotometric assay (LabCorp). Determinations in >20 subjects have showed comparable concordance. If used with a conservative interpretation of the signal, the Trinity Biotech test showed superior potential for use in the field relative to the CareSTART Biosensor. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We established the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in our medical center. We have also setup tests for point-of-care assessment of G6PD. Pending evaluation of the relative tests performance, we will be in position to screen individuals and select them for a prospective clinical trial to evaluate the safety of antimalarial agents on scope of G6PD deficiency.
A new species of chionelasmatid sessile vent barnacle, Eochionelasmus coreana sp. nov., is described and illustrated on the basis of specimens collected from the Solitaire hydrothermal vent field in the Central Indian Ridge of the Indian Ocean. This new species is morphologically very similar to E. ohtai, the type species of the genus Eochionelasmus. However, it differs from E. ohtai in its distribution, the status of the notch on the maxillule, and the positions of rl1 and cl1 on whorls of the imbricating plates. In addition, a molecular phylogenetic tree indicated that the chionelasmatid Eochionelasmus was closely related to the waikalasmatid Waikalasma with high supporting values rather than the other chionelasmatid Chionelasmus. The new species is not only the first record of a sessile vent barnacle from outside of the Pacific Ocean, but is also the first sessile barnacle from the Indian Ocean.
Varicocele is the most common surgically correctable factor identified in infertile men. The negative impact of varicocele on testicular function, semen parameters and fertility potential have been well recognized for decades. Despite this, the role of varicocele repair in managing infertility remains controversial, especially since the advent of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). This chapter details the current status of varicocele in male infertility. We describe the anatomy, pathophysiology and diagnostics of varicocele and discuss the methods of repair. We then take a critical look at the efficacy and clinical utility of varicocele repair in infertile couples, with an emphasis on clinical benefits for couples undergoing ART.
There are two major forms of long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system, which require activation of either N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) or metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). In synapses in the perirhinal cortex we have directly compared the Ca2+ signalling mechanisms involved in NMDAR-LTD and mGluR-LTD. Whilst both forms of LTD involve Ca2+ release from intracellular stores the Ca2+ sensors involved are different; NMDAR-LTD involves calmodulin, whilst mGluR-LTD involves the neuronal Ca2+ sensor (NCS) protein NCS-1. In addition, there is a specific requirement for IP3 and PKC as well as protein interacting with C-kinase (PICK-1) in mGluR-LTD. NCS-1 binds directly to PICK1, via its BAR domain, in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Furthermore, the NCS-1-PICK1 association is stimulated by activation of mGluRs, but not NMDARs, and introduction of a PICK1 BAR domain fusion protein specifically blocks mGluR-LTD. Thus, NCS-1 is a component of a novel mechanism involved in mGluR-LTD.
There have been many changes in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
It is necessary to develop guidelines that can more aptly respond to cultural issues and specifics in different countries.
The Korean Medication Algorithm for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was firstly published in 2002, with updates in 2006 and 2010. This third update reviewed the experts' consensus of opinion on the pharmacological treatments of bipolar disorder.
The newly revised questionnaire composed of 55 key questions about clinical situations including 223 sub-items was sent to the experts.
Combination of mood stabilizer (MS) and atypical antipsychotic (AAP) was the first-line treatment option in acute mania. For the management of severe psychotic bipolar depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of AAP and LTG, combination of MS, AAP and AD or LTG, combination of AAP and AD, and combination of AAP, AD and LTG was the first-line treatments. Combination of MS and AAP was the treatment of choice for management of mixed features. Combination of MS and AAP, MS or AAP monotherapy was the first-line options for management of maintenance phase after manic episode. For maintenance treatment after bipolar I depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of MS and LTG, combination of AAP and LTG, MS or LTG monotherapy, and combination of MS, AAP and LTG were the first-line options.
Despite the limitations of expert consensus guideline, KMAP-BP 2014 may reflect the current patterns of clinical practice and recent researches.
This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the factors associated with bipolar disorder in pregnant female, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, suicidal idea and sleep.
A total of 84 pregnant female were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ).
Nineteen participants (22.6%) had positive K-MDQ scores, suggesting the present of bipolarity. Positive EPDS group had twenty subjects (25%) who had depressive symptoms. The diathesis of bipolar disorder was associated with marital dissatisfaction, social conflict, depression and sleep. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the only poor sleep was a risk of bipolarity.
Pregnant female with bipolarity were more depressed and sleep problems than those without bipolarity. The results showed that the most important factor of influencing bipolarity was sleep.
This study aimed to explore thedifference in emotional recognition of musical auditory stimulation and artfulvisual stimulation between helathy people and patients with schizophrenia.
20 songs and 20 paintings thatcontained sad or cheerful emotions were presented to 123 patients withschizophrenia and 224 healthy people as control group. The subjects were askedto tell about their emotions that they had felt from each musical auditorystimulation and artful visual stimulation. To measure such emotions, the Emotional Empathy Scale was used. The level of psychopathology in patientsgroup were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Formal Thought Disorder Rating Scale.
The correct answer rate to musical auditoryand artful visual stimulation of the patient group was significantly lower than that of thecontrol group. Thepatient group showed lower emotional empathic ability compared to the controlgroup. In the patient group, the correct answer rate to musical and artfulstimulation showed a negative correlation with score with Formal ThoughtDisorder Rating Scale.
Patients with schizophrenia have difficulties inprecise emotional recognition to auditory and visual stimulations, and this isassociated with lowered empathic ability and thinking disorder of patients withschizophrenia. If an psychosocial rehabilitation program or psychotherapy isimplemented to patients with schizophrenia, it is deemed to be necessary to make a mediation to improve the emotional recognition and expression ability of patients with schizophrenia.
This study was aimed to discover the correlation between those getting tattoos and their psychopathology relating to their delinquent behavior and emotional problems.
Date for this study was collected from 19-year-old men who were receiving a physical examination for conscription at the Korea Military Manpower Administration. 400 data sheets were collected among them. All of sjubjects were evaluated on the following measures: sociodemographic variants, Juvernile delinquency scale, State-trait anger expression inventory, Beck depression inventory, State-triat anxiety inventory, and Positive affect and negative affect schedule.
In comparison with those without tattooes, those with a tattoo scored higher in the scales that were related to delinquency, anger, depression, and negateive emotion. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between the number of tattoos and the scores for the Juvenile delinquent tendency and behavior scale as well as on the State-triat anxiety scale.
Those with tattoos had experienced anger, anxiety, and depression more strongly in comparison with those without tattoos. These reults recommended that tattooed males should be evaluated more on their regrading psychopathology compared to those without tattoos.
: Human impulsivity is a complex multidimensional construct encompassing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Previous animal studies have suggested that striatal dopamine receptors play a critical role in impulsivity. in this study, we investigated the relationship between self-reported cognitive impulsiveness and dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subdivisions in healthy subjects using high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]raclopride.
Twenty-one participants completed 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution PET scans with [11C]raclopride. The trait of impulsiveness was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Partial correlation analysis was performed between BIS-11 scores and D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions, controlling for the confounding effects of temperament characteristics that are conceptually or empirically related to dopamine, which were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory.
The analysis revealed that the non-planning (p = 0.004) and attentional (p = 0.007) impulsiveness subscale scores on the BIS-11 had significant positive correlations with D2/3 receptor availability in the pre-commissural dorsal caudate. There was a tendency toward positive correlation between non-planning impulsiveness score and D2/3 receptor availability in the post-commissural caudate.
These results suggest that cognitive subtrait of impulsivity is associated with D2/3 receptor availability in the associative striatum that plays a critical role in cognitive processes involving attention to detail, judgment of alternative outcomes, and inhibitory control.
Several cross-sectional studies, but no prospective studies, have reported an association between an abnormal lipid profile and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that an abnormal lipid profile might predict risk for developing PTSD. In this prospective study, we analyzed data from 237 antidepressant-naïve severely injured patients who participated in the Tachikawa Cohort of Motor Vehicle Accident Study. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels at baseline were significantly lower in patients with PTSD than those without PTSD at 6 months after motor vehicle accident (MVA) and were inversely associated with risk for PTSD. In contrast, triglycerides (TG) at baseline were significantly higher in patients with PTSD than in those without PTSD at 6 months post-MVA and were positively associated with risk for PTSD. There was no clear association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or total cholesterol and risk for PTSD. In conclusion, low HDL-C and high TG may be risk factors for PTSD. Determining lipid profiles might help identify those at risk for PTSD after experiencing trauma.
The aim of this study was to monitor changes of prescription trends for bipolar disorder in inpatient settings in one university hospital.
A retrospective chart review was performed and data of 188 cases (2009–2012) and 118 cases (1998–2001) with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder were collected. Data on demographic variables, duration of hospitalization, kinds of psychotropic medications and the patterns of prescription over each four-year period were analyzed.
The proportion of patients with manic episode was decreased, whereas those of mixed and depressive episodes were increased. The use of lithium was decreased with the increased use of valproate. Increased use of lamotrigine in depressive episode was prominent. The use of combination treatment with mood stabilizers and antipsychotics was almost same level in both periods. The use of typical antipsychotics was significantly decreased and that of atypical antipsychotics was increased. Especially, the use of quetiapine showed great increase. In bipolar depression, the use of antidepressant was increased.
Data showed that quetiapine monotherapy had favorable effect on acute manic symptoms and well tolerated. Also this result suggests that quetiapine monotherapy may improve the self-perceived quality of sleep without any daytime impairment following sleep in acute manic patients.
Despite the advance in pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), poor treatment adherence to pharmacotherapy for PTSD is a critical issue.
We intended to evaluate the predictors of premature discontinuation of psychiatric outpatient treatment after discharge for noncombat-related PTSD.
This study aimed to examine the sociodemographic and disease-related variables associated with the premature discontinuation of psychiatric outpatient treatment after discharge among patients with non-combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who were discharged with a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Fifty-five percent of subjects prematurely discontinued outpatient treatment within 6 months of discharge. Comparing sociodemographic variables between the 6-month non-follow-up group and 6-month follow-up group, there were no variables that differed between the two groups. However, comparing disease-related variables, the 6-month follow-up group showed a longer hospitalization duration and higher Global Assessment of Function score at discharge. The logistic regression analysis showed that a shorter duration of hospitalization predicted premature discontinuation of outpatient treatment within 6 months of discharge.
The duration of psychiatric hospitalization for posttraumatic stress disorder appeared to influence the premature discontinuation of outpatient treatment after discharge.
This study examined the prescribing patterns for medications to treat bipolar disorder in outpatient-based psychiatric practice focusing on atypical antipsychotics.
Retrospective chart review of patients admitted to a university hospital with a primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder in a period from January 2008 to December 2012 was conducted. We reviewed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition diagnosis and detailed clinical information at index episode. Psychotropic medications were grouped into six categories; atypical antipsychotics, typical antipsychotics, lithium, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and minor tranquilizers. Severity, rapid cycling type, psychiatric comorbidity and disease duration were computed focusing on atypical antipsychotics.
In 344 patients who were prescribed major psychotropic medications, atypical antipsychotics were prescribed in 70.9% of subjects, anticonvulsants in 73.3%, lithium in 36.9%, antidepressants in 41.9%, and typical antipsychotics in 0.9% of subjects. About 12.5% of subjects were treated with the monotherapy. Atypical antipsychotics prescription was favored in subjects with manic and mixed episodes or severe episode. Prescribing trend is independent of rapid cycling type. Prescription of antidepressants were more frequent in subjects who were recently diagnosed as bipolar disorder or prescribed new medications or existed psychiatric comorbidity.
The development of bipolar disorder's psychopharmacology has been reflected in the prescription pattern of psychotropic medications in Korea. This study suggests that atypical antipsychotics have played major role in treatment of bipolar disorder.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of the suicidal ideation and associated factors with self-reported suicidal ideation within the last 12 months among Korean adolescents.
A total of 1533 adolescents were recruited from middle schools (age range: 13-14 years) in Korea. According to existence of suicidal ideation, they were divided 2 group – suicidal ideation group and non-suicidal ideation group, and the differences between groups in terms of various characteristics, including depression (Kovacs’ Children’s Depression Inventory), school and family factors, and health related conditions.
A total of 501 (32.7%) middle school students reported suicidal ideation, and the rate of suicidal attempt was 6.9% (n=106). The associated factors of suicidal ideation were female (OR= 2.42, p<0.001), below average academic achievement (OR=1.43, p=0.007), perceived low parental support (OR=2.09, p=0.001), depression (OR=3.25, p<0.001), current alcohol use (OR=2.37, p=0.003), self reported poor health (OR=1.54, p =0.043), and school bullying (OR=1.91, p =0.005).
These results may have important implications for the strategies and specified intervention in preventing suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents.
The acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear underlies the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, including PTSD. Women have higher lifetime prevalence and greater risk of PTSD than men. Such sex differences may be attributed to a combination of genetic and hormonal factors. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene encodes an enzyme that metabolizes catechol compounds, including dopamine. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism affects the enzymatic activity of dopamine and has been associated with altered fear memory performance. Besides, when estrogen secretion is elevated, women show a greater extinction of conditioned fear than men. Here, we investigated the relationship between the COMT genotype and sex in the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. In a 3-day cued fear conditioning experiment, acquisition and extinction performance of 75 healthy men (21.8 years) and 45 healthy women in follicular phase (21.2 years) were examined. Visual cues and electric shocks were used as the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus, respectively. Subjects with Met/Met homozygotes showed less fear acquisition (p < .0001). Female Val carriers showed more extinction (p = .009) and less reconsolidation (p < .0001) than male Val carriers. Women with Val/Val homozygotes were less affected by a reinforcing stimulus than men with Val/Val homozygotes (p = .0001). These findings suggest a clear interaction between the COMT gene and sex in fear memory function, and that women have a greater tolerance for aversive experiences than men. Higher estrogen levels mediate increased dopaminagic activity, potentially optimizing the prefrontal function known to contribute to the fear-related symptomatology of PTSD.
We evaluated the difference in sleep skills between patients with and without need of hypnotics after sleep CBT.
Total 131 insomnia patients' sleep disturbances were assessed by visual analogue scales. Patients received 9 sessions of sleep CBT and were prescribed hypnotics for prn during 3 months. Sleep CBT was focused on the sleep hygiene and sleep stimulus-control guidelines. Sleep hygiene guidelines were Limit the time spent in bed (SH1), Get regular exercise (SH2), Avoid light at night (SH3), Avoid heavy meals or drinking (SH4), Quiet, dark, and comfortable bedroom (SH5), Avoid caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine (SH6), Relaxing bedtime routine (SH7),Llight bedtime snack (SH8), Remove the bedroom clock (SH9). Sleep stimulus-control guidelines were Go to bed only when sleepy (SSC1), Use the bed for sleeping or sex (SSC2), Get out of bed when unable to sleep (SSC3), Get up at the same time (SSC4), Avoid napping (SSC5). Each sleep skill state was evaluated by Likert scale, and they were compared between before and after CBT. Patients were divided into two groups: still need of hypnotics and no need of hypnotics after 3 months.
Forty-six (35.1%) patients replied they needed not hypnotics any more, but 85 (64.9%) patients replied they still needed hypnotics after CBT. Sleep VAS (25.26±8.52 vs. 32.64±8.95, p<0.001), SH2 (3.67±0.92 vs. 2.76±1.06, p=0.030), SH7 (4.08±0.55 vs. 2.76±0.76, p<0.001) were different in two groups.
Among several CBT skills, regular moderate exercise in daytime and a relaxing bedtime routine seem to be key components.