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The Act on medical care and treatment for insane or quasi-insane person who have caused serious incidents in Japan went into effect in July, 2005. It is critical to understand the current situation and the issue concerning medical care in this legal system for revision of the Act five years later. Therefore, this research aims to evaluate and analyze the information comprehensively collected from designated inpatient medical institutions and outpatient medical institutions from a technical standpoint.
The subjects of this research are 50 cases from designated inpatient medical institutions and 4 cases from designated outpatient medical institutions who have been registered as the subject of treatment under the Act. Static information at the time of the treatment starts and dynamic information, such as treatment evaluation usually created periodically in routine work, were the specific documentation for this research. From the information, variables required for analysis of improvement of medical care and operational situation of the Act were collected through the use of a database system.
Results and Conclusion
Since the Act was enacted last year, this one year research remains as a short term monitoring targeting a few cases. In this report, evaluation and progress of treatment of the subject will be presented with the information relevant to the mental illness and the judicial system exposed by collected various kinds of data. From this information, we outline the current situation and issues in this legal system and shows the usability of the result from this monitoring research.
Clozapine-induced electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities are common. It has been reported that clozapine-induced EEG abnormalities occur in a dose-dependent manner and correlate with the serum concentration of clozapine (C-CLZ). However, the oppositional results were also reported.
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum level of clozapine and EEG abnormalities.
Twenty-eight patients were recruited in this study, but five patients were excluded because clozapine was discontinued before post-treatment EEG measurement or measurement of C-CLZ. Ultimately, 23 patients (6 males, 17 females) with an average age of 35 years were enrolled. The subjects were divided into EEG normal and abnormal group. C-CLZ and the serum concentration of metabolite of clozapine (N-CLZ) were measured. The correlation between C-CLZ and daily dose of CLZ (D-CLZ), N-CLZ and D-CLZ were evaluated in each group. C-CLZ per D-CLZ (C/D), N-CLZ per D-CLZ (N/D) and the ratio of C-CLZ to N-CLZ (C/N) were compared between the two groups.
74 serum levels were measured. All patients had normal baseline EEGs, and 10 patients later showed EEG abnormalities. There were a significant correlation between C-CLZ and D-CLZ (EEG normal: rs 0.58, p<0.01, EEG abnormal: rs 0.56, p<0.01) and between N-CLZ and D-CLZ (EEG normal: rs 0.53, p<0.01, EEG abnormal: rs 0.57, p<0.01). There were no significant differences between the EEG normal and EEG abnormal groups in C/D, N/D, C/N.
There was no relationship between the serum concentration of clozapine and EEG abnormalities.
Methods for the control of molecular deposition and orientation are critical for the development of organic electronic devices. Here, we show the fabrication of ribbons of the optical material polydiacetylene (PDA) using a controlled evaporative self-assembly method. The ability to form these ribbons is highly dependent on both the side groups on the PDA as well as the solvent used in the preparation. Arrays of ribbons of one type of PDA, poly[1,6-di(N-carbazolyl)-2,4-hexadiyne], with widths on the order of 1–2 µm and lengths of 100s of micrometers, could be successfully obtained with good orientation.
Liposarcomas rarely occur in the parapharyngeal space and only a few case reports exist. For curative therapy of liposarcoma, surgical excision remains the dominant modality. Although a wide surgical margin is important to prevent local recurrence, wide excision is often difficult in the head and neck region.
We report a case of a 19-year-old female with a well-differentiated liposarcoma arising in the parapharyngeal space. We removed the tumour surgically utilising a cervical–parotid approach. The histological diagnosis was well-differentiated sclerosing liposarcoma. There is no recurrence after five years and nine months of follow up.
The patient's age and the tumour site made it difficult for us to make a quantitative diagnosis before the operation. Well-differentiated liposarcoma rarely develop distant metastasis, but often recur locally. The benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy for well-differentiated liposarcoma is still not clear and careful and long-term follow up is necessary.
We examined the potential application of CuIn1-xGaxSe1-ySy (CIGS) film for visible light image sensors. CIGS chalcopyrite semiconductors, which are representative of high efficiency thin film solar cells, have both a high absorption coefficient and high quantum efficiency. However, their dark current is too high for image sensors. In this study, we applied gallium oxide (Ga2O3) as a hole-blocking layer for CIGS thin film to reduce the dark current. The dark current of this hetero-junction was 10-9 A/cm2 at less than 7 V. Moreover, an avalanche multiplication phenomenon was observed at an applied voltage of over 8 V. However, this structure had sensitivity only in the ultraviolet light region due to the much lower carrier density of the Ga2O3 layer. We therefore used a tin-doped Ga2O3 (Ga2O3:Sn) layer deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) for the n-type layer to increase the carrier density. The sensitivity of the visible region was observed in the Ga2O3:Sn/CIGS hetero-junction. We also investigated the influence of the laser frequency of the PLD on the transmittance of Ga2O3:Sn and the quantum efficiency of this hetero-junction. Ga2O3:Sn film deposited at a 0.1-Hz laser repetition rate had higher transmittance than at a 10-Hz repetition rate. The Ga2O3:Sn/CIGS hetero-junction also had a higher quantum efficiency with the lower rate (50%) than with the higher rate (30%).
Lead-free, piezoelectric (Na,K)NbO3-BaZrO3-(Bi,Li)TiO3 films were epitaxially grown onto (100) SrTiO3 substrate via pulsed laser deposition. The effects of post-annealing temperature on the crystal phases, mosaic spread, and chemical composition of the deposited (Na,K)NbO3 and (Na,K)NbO3-BaZrO3-(Bi,Li)TiO3 films were analyzed. Results indicate the epitaxial growth of (Na,K)NbO3-BaZrO3-(Bi,Li)TiO3 films deposited at an oxygen pressure (PO2) of ≥40 Pa and substrate temperature (Ts) of 800°C. The alkaline-deficiency could be suppressed in the (Na,K)NbO3-BaZrO3-(Bi,Li)TiO3 films deposited at PO2 ≥ 70 Pa. AFM profile of the (Na,K)NbO3 post-annealed at 1000°C indicates the epitaxial growth of film with atomically flat step-terrace structure, while that of the (Na,K)NbO3-BaZrO3-(Bi,Li)TiO3 film post-annealed at 1200°C shows relatively smooth surface with step-terrace structure and several cubic crystals. It was also found that the preferential evaporation of alkaline components could be suppressed by annealing under covered substrate condition.
(Na,K)NbO3 is a promising candidate for lead-free piezoelectric materials. (Na1-xKx)NbO3 films (x = 0.3–0.7) were epitaxially grown on a (100)SrTiO3 substrate via pulsed laser deposition. The effects of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure during deposition on the crystallinity of the films were examined: both parameters affected the mosaic spread of the crystallites and the formation of an impurity phase. In this study, the optimum conditions for the preparation of highly crystalline films were a substrate temperature of 800 °C and oxygen pressure of ∼60 Pa. The lattice constants parallel and perpendicular to the substrate surface responded differently to changes in x: the constant parallel to the surface increased with increasing x, while the constant perpendicular to the surface was maximized at x = 0.5. The difference in the dependence of the lattice constants could be explained by the elastic distortion of the lattice.
The development of an iodine immobilization technique that can fix radioactive iodine in waste form for a long period and constrain its leaching into pore water is necessary in order to secure the long-term safety of geological disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. Lead borate glass vitrified at a low temperature is regarded as a promising material for immobilizing the Iodine-129 that is recovered from spent AgI filters generated by reprocessing plants in Japan and which may have a significant effect on the long-term safety of geological disposal.
Batch leaching tests were conducted to understand glass dissolution behavior in various solutions that account for geological disposal conditions. Boron dissolved at the highest rate in all types of solutions to be used as an index element for measuring the glass dissolution rate. On the other hand, lead dissolved in these solutions at a much lower rate. These results are consistent with an electron micro-probe analysis (EPMA) of the altered glass surfaces that indicated the depletion of boron and enrichment of lead near the surfaces.
The altered glass surfaces were further examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM/TEM observation showed formation of a porous altered layer consisting of fine crystallites on the pristine glass and euhedral crystals on the altered layer. XRD analysis indicated that the fine crystallites and euhedral crystals are hydrocerussite, Pb3 (CO3)2(OH) 2, which was predicted by geochemical calculation as the precipitate for the experimental system.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important fruit crop with a long cultivation history in Myanmar. This study evaluated the genetic variation within two economically important traditional varieties, ‘Yin Kwe’ and ‘Sein Ta Lone’, and the relationship between genetic variation and propagation practices. Genetic variation was estimated by genotyping 94 individuals with 12 single sequence repeat markers. ‘Yin Kwe’ (n = 53) showed higher levels of observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.59) and average genetic distance among individuals (Da = 0.29) than did ‘Sein Ta Lone’ (n = 41; Ho = 0.45; Da = 0.09). The differences between the two varieties at the DNA level were significant (Fst = 0.44). The broader genetic background in ‘Yin Kwe’ compared with ‘Sein Ta Lone’ was also demonstrated by neighbour-joining and principal coordinates analyses. Differences in variety uses and propagation practices were determined by interviewing local specialists in Lower Myanmar (southern Myanmar). ‘Yin Kwe’ was often used as a rootstock for ‘Sein Ta Lone’. Clonal propagation by grafting was observed frequently for ‘Sein Ta Lone’ but never for ‘Yin Kwe’. The differences in genetic variation between these two varieties might have been caused by the propagation practices for each variety, which result from their respective uses.
The Bi-based oxide superconducting wire is one of the most promising materials for practical uses such as electric power transmission, electromagnets and so on. For the higher performances required in these applications, it is necessary to increase the critical current (Ic). We have carried out synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysis to improve our manufacturing processes and thus to achieve higher Ic. We have performed in situ X-ray diffraction measurements during the sintering and cooling processes, and observed the decrease of Bi-2223(=(Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox) phase during the cooling process. We have also evaluated the distribution of the crystal orientation in whole wire thickness, by measuring the rocking curves. We have observed that the distribution of the crystal orientation is improved by a refinement of the process conditions.
Delafossite CuYO2 and Ca doped CuYO2 were prepared by thermal decomposition of a metal-citric acid complex. The starting solution consisted of Cu acetate, Y acetate and Ca acetate as the raw materials. Citric acid was used as the chelating agent, and acetic acid and distilled water were mixed as a solvent. The starting solutions were heated at 723 K for 5 h after drying at 353 K. The obtained powders were amorphous and single phase of orthorhombic Cu2Y2O5 was obtained by heat-treated the amorphous powder at a temperature range between 1073 and 1373 K for 3 h in air. Furthermore, Heat-treating the obtained orthorhombic Cu2Y2O5 at above 1373 K in air caused it to decompose into Y2O3, CuO and Cu2O. On the other hand, the sample powder prepared from a starting solution without citric acid, i.e., single phase of orthorhombic Cu2Y2O5 could not be obtained under the same synthesis conditions as that for a solution with citric acid. We were able to obtain delafossite CuYO2 and Ca doped CuYO2 from orthorhombic Cu2Y2O5 under a low O2 pressure atmosphere at above 1223 K. The obtained delafossite CuYO2 composed hexagonal and rhombohedral phases. The color of the CuYO2 powder was light brown and that of Ca-doped CuYO2 was light green. Diffraction peaks in the XRD pattern were slightly shifted by doping Ca for CuYO2, and these peaks shifted toward to a high diffraction angle with an increasing amount of doped Ca. From these results, we concluded that Ca doped delafossite CuYO2 could be obtained by thermal decomposition of a metal-citric acid complex.
The fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) in whole, unbroken eggs was monitored during storage at fixed or changing temperatures after inoculation with 20–47 c.f.u. of SE. Eggs stored at 10°C and 20°C showed little or no bacterial growth over 6 weeks, while egg storage at 30°C increased the percentage of the eggs that contained >106 c.f.u. after 3 weeks. Egg storage at 20°C for 5 days followed by 10°C caused only a few eggs with >106 c.f.u. after 2 weeks, whereas storage at 22–30°C or 27–35°C for 5 days followed by 25°C induced a rapid increase of eggs that contained >106 c.f.u. after 1 or 2 weeks, respectively. Therefore, egg storage at 10°C and 20°C can control SE growth, although the temperature during egg storage and transportation from farm to table should also be taken into consideration.