To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
An antenna in geostationary orbit was used for VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz, in combination with ground antennas in Australia and Japan. 23 of the 25 observed sources were detected on orbiter-ground baselines, with baseline lengths as large as 2.15 earth diameters. Brightness temperatures between 1012 K and 4 × 1012 K were measured for 10 sources.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
On February 12, 1997 the world’s first dedicated VLBI spacecraft, HALCA, was successfully launched as the space borne element of the VSOP mission. This paper describes the calibration observations that have been undertaken so far with this spacecraft.
The preliminary results of an mm-VLBI survey of spectral index on active galactic nuclei (AGN) are presented which suggest that their activities are only in the central regions. The difference in central activities may correspond to their different stages of evolution. We found a strong concentration to α = 0 for quasar and a spread distribution for HPQ.
A systematically peculiar molecular composition has been found in a nearby starburst galaxy M 82. Molecules related to grain surface formation and to production reactions favorable at high-temperature are deficient in M 82 among nearby galaxies with rich gas. These molecules are SO, SiO, NH3, HNCO, CH3OH, and CH3CN. Possible reasons for this peculiarity are discussed.
InGaN films have been grown on GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The “composition pulling effect” during the initial InGaN growth stages has been studied as a function of the lattice mismatch between the InGaN and the underlying epitaxial layer. The crystalline quality of the InGaN is good near the InGaN/GaN interface and the composition is close to that of GaN. However, with increasing InGaN film thickness, the crystal quality deteriorates and the indium mole fraction increases. The composition pulling effect becomes stronger with increasing lattice mismatch. It is suggested that indium atoms are excluded from the InGaN lattice during the early growth stages to reduce the deformation energy from the lattice mismatch. TEM observations of the InGaN/GaN structure reveal that the degradation of the crystalline quality of InGaN films grown on GaN is caused by pit formation which arises from edge dislocations propagating through the InGaN film from the underlying GaN.
The effects of the pulsed green laser annealing at ambient nitrogen for two different heights-CNWs grown on silicon substrate were investigated on the crystallinity and morphology using Raman spectroscopy, SEM, TEM and XPS. For the 1μm height-CNWs, the peak intensity of D-band spectra decreased as the laser energy density increased up to 1.3Jcm-2, ID/IG ratio decreased from 2.5 to 0.7. The crystallinity of CNWs was improved by the laser irradiation. For the 1μm height-CNWs irradiated above 1.5Jcm-2, the height of CNWs decreased gradually as the laser energy density increased, it was clarified that the surfaces of CNWs were vaporized by the laser irradiation. For the 20μm height-CNWs, the peak intensity of D band spectra also decreased until the laser energy density increased up to 0.8Jcm-2, ID/IG ratio decreased from 1.6 to 0.5. From the TEM observation of CNWs irradiated at 0.8 Jcm-2, it was confirmed that the laser irradiation changed CNWs to be highly oriented crystal structure. However above 0.8Jcm-2, the crystallinity was deteriorated due to the vaporization of CNWs as the same as the 1μm height-CNWs. The pulsed green laser annealing is effective to improve the crystallinity of CNWs on optimal laser energy density for both height-CNWs, the higher laser energy densities vaporized the CNWs and changed the morphology and crystallinity of CNWs.
For realizing the proof of mass production capablity or a move toward a GW/a production, 16%-efficiency project has been started setting the target of each parameter as V∝: 0.685 V/cell, FF: 0.735 and Jsc: 31.8mA/cm2. Up to FY2008, the target of each parameter independently has been achieved expect the efficiency. All of our research by adjusting the two resistance (Rsh and Rs) in the monolithically integrated 30cm×30cm-sized circuits. To improve the FF, double buffer structure with CBD-Zn(O,S,OH)x and MOCVD-ZnO is proposed and the thickness is adjusted by optimizing the Rs and the Rsh. As the result, FF of over 0.7 has been achieved for the first time in our CIS R&D since FY 1993.
The gel fiber formation was studied for the spinnable silica sols prepared from a mixture of TEOS, H2O, EtOH and HNO3 ( 1 : 2 : 2 : 0.01, in mole ratio). The effect of polysiloxane molecular size in the spinning sol on spinnability indicated that the tough skeleton of gel, which is preferable for fabrication of high-strength fiber without breakage, was formed by the selective connection of large size polymers (about 106 in M.W.) during the spinning. It was also found that the smaller size polymers in gel fiber continued to react with water in the atmosphere after the spinning, and attached to the skeleton to strengthen the fiber.
The technique of radiolytic decomposition of water leading to hydrogen production was demonstrated to explore a new field in the utilization of radioactive platinum group metals recovered from high level radioactive waste (HAW) and radioactivity of HAW. The radiation photocatalytic method is based on the technique to decompose water on platinized semiconductor particles under UV-light irradiation which has been widely investigated to develop an alternative energy source. In this study gamma radiation from Co-60 source was applied to produce hydrogen instead of UV-light and a significant amount of hydrogen evolved from catalyst-water suspension. Our preliminary experiments proved a possibility of converting the energy of radiation ionization into chemical energy (hydrogen) by the radiation photocatalytic method.
Concentration and origin of defect states in p-type nitrogen-doped ZnSe (p-ZnSe:N) grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) are discussed by means of timeresolved photoluminescence and deep level transient spectroscopy. Thermal annealing, which is a useful tool for realizing p-type conductivity, results in deep defect states which seem to be associated with Zn vacancies and with nitrogen acceptors. By lowering the annealing temperature, the trap concentrations can be successfully reduced without seriously sacrificing the acceptor activation efficiency, although further reduction of Zn vacancies is pointed out as a remaining requirement for the improvement of quality of MOVPE-grown p-type layers.
Solid solution films of the σ-Fe2O3-FeTiO3 series are one of the candidates for noble half-metallic oxides. They were epitaxially formed on σ-Al2O3(001) single crystalline substrates by O2 -reactive evaporation method. The Fe2−x TixO3+σ films prepared at higher Ts=973 K and with larger Ti content x≤0.4 had the ilmenite structure with R3 symmetry. Other films at lower Ts or with smaller x possessed the corundum structure with R3c. Only the films with R3 symmetry had large ferrimagnetic moments, though the observed spontaneous magnetization was less than half of the ideal value expected from the fully ordered structure. Room temperature resistivity of intermediate composites dropped to 10−lΔcm due to the formation of the mixed valence states between Fe2+ and Fe3+. However the Fe2+ content of the films was rather small as compared with stoichiometric Fe2−xTixO3. The Ti-rich films had large oxygen nonstoichio netry of about σ=0.3.
PtRu bimetallic nanoparticles supported on carbon nanoparticle (PtRu/C) catalysts were synthesized with radiation irradiation. The samples were structural analyzed by techniques of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that PtRu/C catalysts which prepared by an electron beam irradiation had more homogeneous atomic arrangement than that prepared by a gamma-ray irradiation. We found a clear correlation between the atomic structure and the catalytic activity of PtRu/C catalysts. These results supported the bi-functional mechanism.
The dependence of the spontaneous emission lifetime of excitons in InGaN/GaN quantum disks (QDs) on the crystalline orientation is calculated. For 1-nm-thick QDs, it is found that the lifetime in the conventional c-oriented QDs is ten times as long as that in QDs tilted by 30° and 90°, and that the difference is pronounced by increasing the QDs thickness. This is totally due to the presence of the electric field in strained InGaN. Taking into account our preceding study, in which it was revealed that GaN on GaAs(114) was titled by 30°, we propose the use of GaAs(114) as a substrate for nitride light emitting devices to improve the optical transition probability.
In this study, the pn hetero-interface between Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer and Cu(InGa)(SSe)2 (CIGSS) surface layers is discussed in order to achieve the fill factor (FF) over 0.73 and the circuit efficiency of 16 % on aperture area of over 800 cm2. Two resistances, i.e. shunt resistance (Rsh) and series resistance (Rs), in the circuits are employed as a yardstick to evaluate the interface quality. Since there are no realistic yardsticks on the Rs, the difference between Voc and optimum-power voltage (Vop) (i.e. Voc-Vop [V/cell]) is applied as a simple tool to evaluate the Rs. It is emphasized that it is important to reduce the Rs mainly correlated to the buffer deposition process and, as a result, the interface quality. We consider the Rs is dependent on the remaining Zn(OH)2 concentration in the Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer deposited by a chemical-bath deposition (CBD) technique. As an approach to make the Rs minimize and the Rsh maximize simultaneously, adjusting the thickness of a CBD-Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer and a non-doped ZnO layer deposited by a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique has been effective to reduce the remaining Zn(OH)2 concentration. Determining the optimized deposition procedure to achieve the FF over 0.700 consistently, the circuit efficiency of 15.3 % with aperture area of 856 cm2 and the FF of 0.717 has been achieved.
To examine the usefulness of a three-dimensional model for surgical navigation of cholesteatoma.
Materials and method:
A three-dimensional model was prototyped using selective laser sintering. Based on detailed computed tomography data, powder layers were laser-fused and accumulated to create a three-dimensional structure. The computed tomography threshold was adjusted to simultaneously replicate bony structures and soft tissues.
The cholesteatoma, major vessels and bony structures were well replicated. This laser-sintered model was used to aid surgery for recurrent cholesteatoma. The cholesteatoma, which extended from the hypotympanum through the styloid process sheath and the internal carotid artery sheath, was removed safely via a minimal skin incision.
The laser-sintered model was useful for surgical planning and navigation in a cholesteatoma case involving complex bony structures and soft tissue.
This paper summarizes research activities in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for evaluation of the radiation effects on selected terrestrial and aquatic organisms as well as the ecosystems. Seven organisms, conifers, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, daphnia and Medaka are presently selected to study. For the estimation of possible radiation dose, transfers of radionuclides and related elements from medium to organisms are evaluated. Dose-effect relationships of acute gamma radiation on the survival, growth, and reproduction of selected organisms have been studied. Studies on the effect of chronic gamma radiation at low dose rate were also started. In order to understand the mechanism of radiation effects and to find possible indicators of the effects, information of genome- and metagenome-wide gene expression has been collected. Evaluation of ecological effects of radiation is more challenging task. Study methods by using three-species microcosm were established, and an index for the holistic evaluation of effects on various ecological parameters was proposed. The microcosm has been simulated as a computer simulation code. Developments of more complicated and practical model ecosystems have been started. The Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) has been applied on soil bacterial community in order to evaluate the radiation effects on soil ecosystems.
We present an overview of recent astrometric results with VERA. Since 2004, we have been conducting astrometry of tens of Galactic maser sources with VERA, and recently obtained trigonometric parallaxes for several sources, with distances ranging from 180 pc to 5.3 kpc. In this paper, we briefly summarize the results for Galactic star-forming regions, including S269, Orion-KL, NGC 1333, ρ-oph, NGC 281 and others.