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The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
To assess the effect of topical betahistine on Eustachian tube function in subjectively abnormal subjects in a hyperbaric chamber.
Active and passive Eustachian tube function was examined using tympanometry in a pressure chamber.
Active Eustachian tube function was tested against the negative middle ear pressure induced by increasing the chamber pressure to +3 kPa. One voluntary swallow decreased middle-ear pressure by a mean of 1.36 kPa. Passive Eustachian tube function was tested by measuring spontaneous Eustachian tube openings as the chamber pressure dropped from +10 kPa to ambient. Four distinct patterns of Eustachian tube behaviour were seen, three of which indicated Eustachian tube dysfunction. Betahistine had no positive effect on Eustachian tube opening, although previous animal studies had suggested a beneficial effect.
Topical betahistine had no effect on Eustachian tube function. Combining a hyperbaric chamber with tympanometry proved ideal for evaluating Eustachian tube function.
Metal carbonyls are important for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metals and alloys and formation of high surface area metallic particles which have potential applications as catalysts. Rhodium carbonyl [Rh6(CO)16] produces high surface area metallic particles whose structure has been reported as monoclinic (I2/a) with lattice dimensions, a=17.00(±0.03)Å, b=9.78(±0.02)Å, c=17.53(±0.03)Å and β=121°45' ± 30' at room temperature. Generally, metal carbonyl crystals dissociate under vacuum as carbonyl gas and decompose to metallic crystals and carbon monoxide at higher temperatures. However, the behavior of rhodium carbonyl crystals is different; they decompose directly to metallic rhodium without the formation of rhodium carbonyl gas in vacuum. Several residual fine grains of rhodium metal are found after the decomposition in vacuum at relatively low temperatures. The metallic samples of rhodium were obtained from vapor pressure experiments using torsion Knudsen-effusion apparatus. X-ray diffraction analyses performed on these grains showed severely broadened Bragg reflections indicative of small particle size and/or lattice microstrain. In this study, a comparison of lattice strains and domain sizes obtained by integral breadth and Fourier methods has been made. In addition a comparison of the lattice strains and domain sizes has been made between the Cauchy, Gaussian, Cauchy-Gaussian and Aqua integral breadth methods.
Environmental and biological factors contribute to sleep development during infancy. Parenting plays a particularly important role in modulating infant sleep, potentially via the serotonin system, which is itself involved in regulating infant sleep. We hypothesized that maternal neglect and serotonin system dysregulation would be associated with daytime sleep in infant rhesus monkeys. Subjects were nursery-reared infant rhesus macaques (n = 287). During the first month of life, daytime sleep-wake states were rated bihourly (0800–2100). Infants were considered neglected (n = 16) if before nursery-rearing, their mother repeatedly failed to retrieve them. Serotonin transporter genotype and concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were used as markers of central serotonin system functioning. t tests showed that neglected infants were observed sleeping less frequently, weighed less, and had higher 5-HIAA than non-neglected nursery-reared infants. Regression revealed that serotonin transporter genotype moderated the relationship between 5-HIAA and daytime sleep: in subjects possessing the Ls genotype, there was a positive correlation between 5-HIAA and daytime sleep, whereas in subjects possessing the LL genotype there was no association. These results highlight the pivotal roles that parents and the serotonin system play in sleep development. Daytime sleep alterations observed in neglected infants may partially derive from serotonin system dysregulation.
The English auxiliary system exhibits many lexical exceptions and subregularities, and considerable dialectal variation, all of which are frequently omitted from generative analyses and discussions. This paper presents a detailed, movement-free account of the English Auxiliary System within Sign-Based Construction Grammar (Sag 2010, Michaelis 2011, Boas & Sag 2012) that utilizes techniques of lexicalist and construction-based analysis. The resulting conception of linguistic knowledge involves constraints that license hierarchical structures directly (as in context-free grammar), rather than by appeal to mappings over such structures. This allows English auxiliaries to be modeled as a class of verbs whose behavior is governed by general and class-specific constraints. Central to this account is a novel use of the feature aux, which is set both constructionally and lexically, allowing for a complex interplay between various grammatical constraints that captures a wide range of exceptional patterns, most notably the vexing distribution of unstressed do, and the fact that Ellipsis can interact with other aspects of the analysis to produce the feeding and blocking relations that are needed to generate the complex facts of EAS. The present approach, superior both descriptively and theoretically to existing transformational approaches, also serves to undermine views of the biology of language and acquisition such as Berwick et al. (2011), which are centered on mappings that manipulate hierarchical phrase structures in a structure-dependent fashion.
In order to reduce ammonia emissions from pig housing systems, the Council of Europe proposes the use of part slatted flooring in preference to fully slatted flooring, but the effects of such changes on the health and welfare of pigs in the UK has not been defined. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different floor types on the emission of ammonia, behaviour and welfare, physical performance and respiratory and enteric health of growing/finishing pigs. This involved three replications of five treatments: 1) UK fully-slatted, 2) UK fully–slatted with rubber matting over 50% of the slats, 3) UK fully–slatted with “structural” modifications which involved “paving” over 50% of the floor and partitioning off the slurry channel beneath the solid floor, 4) UK part–slatted, and 5) novel Dutch partslatted with UK pig stocking density. Groups of 10 pigs (balanced for gender) weighing approximately 40kg were on–test for 10 weeks.
Recently, many superflares on solar-type stars were discovered as white-light flares (WLFs). A correlation between the energies (E) and durations (t) of superflares is derived as t∝E0.39, and this can be theoretically explained by magnetic reconnection (t∝E1/3). In this study, we carried out a statistical research on 50 solar WLFs with SDO/HMI to examine the t-E relation. As a result, the t-E relation on solar WLFs (t∝E0.38) is quite similar stellar superflares, but the durations of stellar superflares are much shorter than those extrapolated from solar WLFs. We present the following two interpretations; (1) in solar flares, the cooling timescale of WL emission may be longer than the reconnection one, and the decay time can be determined by the cooling timescale; (2) the distribution can be understood by applying a scaling law t∝E1/3B−5/3 derived from the magnetic reconnection theory.
We have developed high affinity Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) for neurotransmitters such as dopamine, noradrenaline and caffeine. These polymer particles are mixed within the bulk of screen-printed ink allowing masss-producible bulk modified MIP Screen-Printed Electrodes (MIP-SPEs) to be realised. We have explored different SPE supporting surfaces, such as polyester, tracing paper and household-printing paper. The performance of those MIP-SPEs is studied using the Heat-Transfer Method (HTM), a patented thermal method. With the combination of screen-printing techniques and thermal detection, it is possible to develop a portable sensor platform that is capable of low-cost and straightforward detection of biomolecules on-site. In the future, this unique sensor architecture holds great promise for the use in biomedical devices.
Long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish have been associated with lower risk of CVD. Fish may also contain methylmercury, which may attenuate the inverse associations of the long-chain n-3 PUFA. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not fully known. We evaluated the associations of the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) and hair Hg with resting heart rate (HR), peak HR during cycle ergometer exercise and HR recovery after exercise. A total of 1008 men from the population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, aged 42–60 years and free of CVD, were studied. After multivariate-adjustments in ANCOVA, higher serum total long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was associated with lower resting HR (extreme-quartile difference 2·2 beats/min; 95 % CI 0·2, 4·1, Ptrend across quartiles=0·02), but not with peak HR or HR recovery. Associations were generally similar when EPA, DPA and DHA were evaluated individually, except for DPA, which was also associated with better HR recovery after exercise (extreme-quartile difference 2·1 beats/min; 95 % CI 0·1, 4·2, Ptrend=0·06). Higher hair Hg content had a trend towards lower peak HR after adjusting for the long-chain n-3 PUFA (Ptrend=0·05), but it only slightly attenuated the associations of the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA with HR. These findings suggest that higher serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentrations are associated with lower resting HR in middle-aged men from Eastern Finland, which may partially explain the potential cardioprotective effect of fish intake.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Tissue engineered tracheal grafts (TETG) could provide a life-saving cure for children with long segment airway defects. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a novel and promising technique used to evaluate TETG performance. This pilot study examines the correlation of objective CFD simulations with subjective respiratory symptoms in a TETG large animal model. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Three-dimensional geometries of 1 TETG implanted sheep trachea were reconstructed from serial fluoroscopic images, allowing analysis with CFD simulations. Peak flow velocity (PFV) and peak wall shear stress (PWSS) across the graft as well as changes secondary to stenting were determined. CFD metrics were compared with respiratory symptoms seen on exam. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Two weeks after implantation, the animal developed respiratory distress, which correlated with PFV and PWSS elevations. Although the intraluminal graft appearance changed minimally after dilation, PFV and PWSS decreased across the graft (4.5–0.8 m/s and 0.9–0.1 Pa, respectively). Long-term TETG stenting with dilation returned PFV and PWSS to baseline (0.8–0.3 m/s and 0.1–0.01 Pa, respectively), which correlated with immediate symptom resolution. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: CFD is a noninvasive modality, which allows the evaluation of airflow metrics of symptomatic TETG recipients. This diagnostic tool will permit planned interventions and graft design optimization.
To assess the level of all-hazards disaster preparedness and training needs of emergency department (ED) doctors and nurses in Hong Kong from their perspective, and identify factors associated with high perceived personal preparedness.
This study was a cross-sectional territory-wide online survey conducted from 9 September to 26 October, 2015.
The participants were doctors from the Hong Kong College of Emergency Medicine and nurses from the Hong Kong College of Emergency Nursing.
We assessed various components of all-hazards preparedness using a 25-item questionnaire. Backward logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with perceived preparedness.
A total of 107 responses were analyzed. Respondents lacked training in disaster management, emergency communication, psychological first aid, public health interventions, disaster law and ethics, media handling, and humanitarian response in an overseas setting. High perceived workplace preparedness, length of practice, and willingness to respond were associated with high perceived personal preparedness.
Given the current gaps in and needs for increased disaster preparedness training, ED doctors and nurses in Hong Kong may benefit from the development of core-competency-based training targeting the under-trained areas, measures to improve staff confidence in their workplaces, and efforts to remove barriers to staff willingness to respond. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 329–336)
Here we report on the material chemistry following crystallization in the presence of water vapor of chlorinated formamidinium lead-triiodide (NH2CH = NH2PbI3−xClx) perovskite films. We found in-situ exposure to water vapor reduces, or possibly eliminates, the retention of chlorine (Cl) inside NH2CH = NH2PbI3−xClx crystals. There is a strong tendency toward Cl volatility, which indicates the sensitivity of these materials for their integration into solar cells. The requisite for additional efforts focused on the mitigation of water vapor is reported. Based on the in situ results, hot casting (<100 °C) in dry conditions demonstrates improved film coverage and Cl retention with efficiencies reaching 12.07%.
This study explores the effect of high dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) levels (high ARA) compared with low dietary ARA levels (control) on the general metabolism using zebrafish as the model organism. The fatty acid composition of today’s ‘modern diet’ tends towards higher n-6 PUFA levels in relation to n-3 PUFA. Low dietary n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio is a health concern, as n-6 PUFA give rise to eicosanoids and PG, which are traditionally considered pro-inflammatory, especially when derived from ARA. Juvenile zebrafish fed a high-ARA diet for 17 d had a lower whole-body n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio compared with zebrafish fed a low-ARA (control) diet (0·6 in the control group v. 0·2 in the high-ARA group). Metabolic profiling revealed altered levels of eicosanoids, PUFA, dicarboxylic acids and complex lipids such as glycerophospholipids and lysophospholipids as the most significant differences compared with the control group. ARA-derived hydroxylated eicosanoids, such as hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids, were elevated in response to high-ARA feed. In addition, increased levels of oxidised lipids and amino acids indicated an oxidised environment due to n-6 PUFA excess in the fish. To conclude, our results indicate that an ARA-enriched diet induces changes in complex lipids and immune-related eicosanoids and increases levels of oxidised lipids and amino acids, suggesting oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.
One case of hospital-acquired listeriosis was linked to milkshakes produced in a commercial-grade shake freezer machine. This machine was found to be contaminated with a strain of Listeria monocytogenes epidemiologically and molecularly linked to a contaminated pasteurized, dairy-based ice cream product at the same hospital a year earlier, despite repeated cleaning and sanitizing. Healthcare facilities should be aware of the potential for prolonged Listeria contamination of food service equipment. In addition, healthcare providers should consider counselling persons who have an increased risk for Listeria infections regarding foods that have caused Listeria infections. The prevalence of persistent Listeria contamination of commercial-grade milkshake machines in healthcare facilities and the risk associated with serving dairy-based ice cream products to hospitalized patients at increased risk for invasive L. monocytogenes infections should be further evaluated.
Large volumes of data and multiple computing platforms are now universal components of paediatric cardiovascular medicine, but are in a constant state of evolution. Often, multiple sets of related data reside in disconnected “silos”, resulting in clinical, administrative, and research activities that may be duplicative, inefficient, and at times inaccurate. Comprehensive and integrated data solutions are needed to facilitate these activities across congenital heart centres. We describe methodology, key considerations, successful use cases, and lessons learnt in developing an integrated data platform across our congenital heart centre.
(Proc. Astron. Soc. Australia). The Hα-flare on 1968 August 23d23h45m was followed by a short-lived type II burst. The radio spectrograph record obtained at Culgoora is shown in Figure 1. The type II burst was of split-band structure with unusual spectral features in each component of the split band. The most remarkable one is an absorption feature between 23h52m02s and 23h52m10s: suppression of the bright type II emission along an ‘inverted U’ (between 120 and 85 MHz).
(Solar Phys.). An exceptional variety of positions and polarizations was found for two type I storms and numerous sporadic bursts observed during 15 consecutive days with the Culgoora radio-heliograph at 80 and 160 MHz.
Since they were first interpreted, moving type IV bursts have been attributed to synchrotron radiation from electrons with energy ∼3 MeV radiating in weak magnetic fields (∼1 G) high in the solar corona. In this paper a description is given of 80 MHz radioheliograph observations of an outburst in which it was possible to isolate the moving type IV source and demonstrate that its circular polarization was strong (∼80%). Hence it is shown that the energy of the radiating electrons cannot exceed 6 = 105eV.