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The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
Several interesting phenomena involving ultra-soft X-rays and synthetic multilayer crystals were studied as a result of the on-going process of improving the Rigaku Mode] 3630 Wafer Analyzer for the measurement of BPSG (1000-2500 Å) and other thin films.1-3 These phenomena can be divided into four categories; “ghost” peaks, diffraction from the substrate, fluorescence from the multilayer and higher order lines from the multilayer. Each of these is a potential snurce nf error in the measurement of ultra-soft X-rays, Fortunately, as will be shown, each can be readily dealt with.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics and meteorological conditions. We used HFMD surveillance data of all 47 prefectures in Japan from January 2000 to December 2015. Spectral analysis was performed using the maximum entropy method (MEM) for temperature-, relative humidity-, and total rainfall-dependent incidence data. Using MEM-estimated periods, long-term oscillatory trends were calculated using the least squares fitting (LSF) method. The temperature and relative humidity thresholds of HFMD data were estimated from the LSF curves. The average temperature data indicated a lower threshold at 12 °C and a higher threshold at 30 °C for risk of HFMD infection. Maximum and minimum temperature data indicated a lower threshold at 6 °C and a higher threshold at 35 °C, suggesting a need for HFMD control measures at temperatures between 6 and 35 °C. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of maximum and minimum temperatures rather than the average temperature, to estimate the temperature threshold of HFMD infections. The results obtained might aid in the prediction of epidemics and preparation for the effect of climatic changes on HFMD epidemiology.
CRL2688 is suggested to be one of the proto-planetary nebulae which are probably at a stage in which the central star is evolving from the red giant phase with rapid mass loss (Zuckerman 1978). The bipolar shape in both the optical and H2 emission indicates that a dense toroid of dust and gas obscures the star and surrounds the optical emission. The toroid is probably responsible for channelling the mass loss to the polar directions (Ney et al. 1975, Morris 1981, Beckwith et al. 1984). We present the results of mapping observations of CO (J = 1-0) emission from the expanding molecular envelope (Zuckerman et al. 1976, Lo et al. 1976, Knapp et al. 1982, Thronson et al. 1983) of the bipolar reflection nebula CRL2688 using the Nobeyama 45-m telescope with a 1.5″ resolution at a 7″.5 observing spacing.
We report on the formation of shallow junctions with high activation in both n+/p and p+/n Ge junctions using ion implantation and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA). The shallowest junction depths (Xj) formed for the n+/p and p+/n junctions were 7.6 nm and 6.1 nm with sheet resistances (Rs) of 860 ohms/sq. and 704 ohms/sq., respectively. By reducing knocked-on oxygen during ion implantation in the n+/p junctions, Rs was decreased by between 5% and 15%. The lowest Rs observed was 235 ohms/sq. with a junction depth of 21.5 nm. Hall measurements clearly revealed that knocked-on oxygen degraded phosphorus activation (carrier concentration). In the p+/n Ge junctions, we show that ion implantation damage induced high boron activation. Using this technique, Rs can be reduced from 475 ohms/sq. to 349 ohms/sq. These results indicate that the potential for forming ultra-shallow n+/p and p+/n junctions in the nanometer range in Ge devices using FLA is very high, leading to realistic monolithically-integrated Ge CMOS devices that can take us beyond Si technology.
An extensive survey of [CII] line emission has been made with a balloon-borne infrared telescope. It has been found that the emission is diffuse and ubiquitously distributed in general interstellar space.
In 1986, a large avalanche destroyed 11 houses and killed 13 people at Maseguchi, Japan. Previous attempts to model the avalanche were based on the assumption that it was a powder avalanche consisting of snow particles suspended by air turbulence. In this paper, the avalanche is modelled as a dry flowing avalanche with a dense core of flowing material at the base. It is suggested that for a comprehensive explanation of the observed damage and the characteristics of the avalanche deposit, the assumption that the avalanche was a flowing avalanche is more appropriate. The comparison of model results from a flowing versus a powder avalanche is of general interest for avalanche zoning and design of structures in avalanche-threatened areas.
Spectroscopic observations of CII line emission at 157.7 μm have been made of the Galactic Center region with a Fabry-Perot spectrometer onboard a balloon telescope. Strong emission has been detected ubiquitously in a wide area extending between ± 0.7° in galactic longitude. A ring-like structure is suggested from the double lobed distribution of the emission around the Galactic Center.
The distribution of H2O masers in the Sgr B2 core was observed with a 2.5′×2.5′ wide field and with 540 km s−1 total velocity coverage by the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. Thirty-nine resolved maser spots were detected with a relative positional accuracy of 0.3″, which are clustered into four separate regions. In Sgr B2 north, the cluster lies at the edge of the continuum ridge. One of the maser spots shows strong and wide velocity-spread emission, suggesting it may correspond to a center of star forming activity. In Sgr B2 main, the strong maser spots are projected just on the face of a compact HII region, and are red-shifted relative to the central velocity of the HII region. There are two possibilities to interpret our results in Sgr B2 (M). One is that the H2O maser spots are distributed around the HII region and are infailing to the HII region. The other is that the H2O maser sources are associated with the cloud in the foreground of the HII region.
We report NH3 observations of the Sgr A complex region including Sgr A West and the 20 km/s and 50 km/s molecular clouds (M–0.13–0.08 and M–0.02–0.07) using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array and the 45m telescope. NH3(1,1) and (2,2) lines were simultaneously observed to estimate the kinetic temperature. Our results suggest strong interaction between the molecular clouds and the continuum sources in the Sgr A complex. The interaction with continuum sources might be an important factor in determining the physical conditions of molecular gas in the galactic center region.
The cosmic/galactic chemical evolutions have been modeled with the early metal enrichment by Type II supernovae (SNe II) and the delayed enrichment of Fe by Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). However, the exact nature of SN Ia progenitors have been obscure. Here we present the currently most plausible scenario of the progenitor binary systems of SNe Ia. This scenario involves strong winds from accreting white dwarfs, which introduces important metallicity effects, namely, low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia. Resultant predictions for the Galactic/cosmic chemical evolution and the cosmic SNe Ia rate are presented. Another importance of identifying the SN Ia progenitors lies in the use of SNe Ia as a “standard candle” to determine cosmological parameters. To examine whether the “evolution” of SNe Ia with redshift and metallicity is significant, we discuss how the metallicity affects the properties of the C+O white dwarfs such as the C/O ratio, and find the metallicity dependence is rather weak.
An elongated ERO with R - K′ = 7.5 behind the cluster A851 at z=0.4 was found to lie at z = 1.5 both by the photometric redshift and by a cross correlation method of its H-band SED with local E/SO spectra. the luminosity profile is well represented by a seeing convolved exponential disk, and the lack of redshifted H-alpha emission indicates that it has a dynamically relaxed disk with an old stellar population. Gravitational lensing of the cluster is not strong enough to stretch the image and cannot convert the de Vaucouleurs law into an exponential law.
The region south of the reflection nebula NGC1333 in Perseus is an active star forming region including numerous Herbig-Haro objects and at least 5 protostar candidates with molecular outflows and far-infrared emission. It has been actively studied in various wave bands (e.g. Aspin et al 1994 and references therein). We observed this region with ASCA with the primary objective to detect X-rays from the protostars embedded deep in the molecular cloud.
PKS 1830-211 is a strong, flat-spectrum compact double source with a component spacing of 1 arcsecond. Observations of PKS 1830-211 were made with the Japanese domestic VLBI network at 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHz bands in sessions between December 1991 and November 1994. The Usuda 64 m (ISAS) and Kashima 34 m (CRL) telescopes were used for all observations, and were used in conjunction with the Mizusawa 10 m (NAO) for observations in 1994. In addition, the total flux was measured with the Usuda 64 m at both bands. Data was recorded using K3 and K4 formatters and recorders, and correlated with NAOCO (the New Advanced One-unit COrrelator of the National Astronomical Observatory).
Since the real Universe is clumpy and inhomogeneous even at rather large scale such as 100 Mpc, we may wonder whether the isotropic and homogeneous Friedmann model is valid when we compare some cosmological parameters with the observed values. The observed Hubble parameter H0 or the density parameter Ω0 might be deviated from the theoretically expected ones from the Friedmann model. In fact, the density parameter Ω0 seems to vary depending on the observational methods and the distance scales. Furthermore, our Universe seems to possess a fractal property in the galaxy distributions at least at scale up to 10 Mpc.
The detection by EGRET of gamma-rays from more than 50 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) allowed us to expect these objects to be the sources of extragalactic cosmic rays at very high energy. The TeV gamma-rays from nearby BL Lac objects of the AGNs examined were detected by the Whipple Observatory collaboration. In this paper, we present the results given by the Tibet air shower array on the search for 10 TeV gamma-ray emission from 18 relatively nearby AGNs with redshifts of z < 0.07.
The Mitaka correlator is an FX-type correlator with 10-station inputs, which is designed for space VLBI and will be used for VSOP mainly. We report here the capabilities of the correlator, the results of model comparisons and the preliminary results of fringe test between the satellite HALCA and Japanese ground telescopes.
On February 12, 1997 the world’s first dedicated VLBI spacecraft, HALCA, was successfully launched as the space borne element of the VSOP mission. This paper describes the calibration observations that have been undertaken so far with this spacecraft.
Cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry in spontaneous gravity wave radiation from a co-rotating vortex pair is investigated in an
-plane shallow water system. The far field of gravity waves is derived analytically by analogy with the theory of aeroacoustic sound wave radiation (Lighthill theory). In the derived form, the Earth’s rotation affects not only the propagation of gravity waves but also their source. While the results correspond to the theory of vortex sound in the limit of
, there is an asymmetry in gravity wave radiation between cyclone pairs and anticyclone pairs for finite values of
. Anticyclone pairs radiate gravity waves more intensely than cyclone pairs due to the effect of the Earth’s rotation. In addition, there is a local maximum of intensity of gravity waves from anticyclone pairs at an intermediate
. To verify the analytical solution, a numerical simulation is also performed with a newly developed spectral method in an unbounded domain. The novelty of this method is the absence of wave reflection at the boundary due to a conformal mapping and a pseudo-hyperviscosity that acts like a sponge layer in the far field of waves. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with the analytical results even for finite values of
for both cyclone pairs and anticyclone pairs.
Preparation of a sigma-CrFe single-phase specimen was achieved by arc melting of pure Fe and Cr, cold rolling, and subsequent annealing at 973 K or 1073 K in vacuum. Cold rolling before annealing is effective for the annealing-induced formation of sigma-CrFe from the bcc solid-solution phase. The phase stability and the structural change from sigma-CrFe to a bcc solid-solution phase under fast electron irradiation were investigated by in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation in the temperature range between 22 K and 473 K by using an ultra-high voltage electron microscope (UHVEM). The phase transition of sigma-CrFe by fast electron irradiation was found to occur at a particular temperature.