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The present study undertaken in the largest coastal lagoon of Asia, Chilika, deals with monthly monitoring of benthic foraminifera assemblages in terms of distribution pattern, diversity and variations in taxonomic composition spanning over a period of 20 months. In total, 13 species of benthic foraminifera represented by eight families were identified in the lagoon. The stations in the Southern sector of the lagoon showed relatively low foraminifera abundance yet high diversity whereas higher abundance and lower diversity were observed in stations located in the Central sector which indicates the spatial patterning of the assemblage. Live foraminifera abundance was sparse in the study area indicating the stressed nature of the lagoon environment. The dissolved nutrient concentration of bottom water reflected significant seasonal variation. The stressed nature of the lagoon is further indicated by the dominance of the genus Ammonia across the inner sectors of the lagoon, a genus known to inhabit impacted habitats. Overall these data can serve as a baseline proxy for understanding palaeontological assemblages of foraminifera in similar shallow-water settings globally.
We construct two classes of the magnetohydrostatic equilibria of the axisymmetric flux tubes with twisted magnetic fields in the stratified solar atmosphere that span from the photosphere to the transition region. We built the models by incorporating specific forms of the gas pressure and poloidal current in the Grad-Shafranov equation. This model gives both closed and open field structure of the flux tube. The other open field model we construct is based on the self-similar formulation, where we have incorporated specific forms of the gas pressure, poloidal current and two different shape functions. We study the homology of the parameter space that is consistent with the solar atmosphere and find that the estimation of the magnetic structure inside the flux tubes is consistent with the observation and simulation results of the magnetic bright points.
The coronal field typically reorganizes itself to attain a force-free field configuration. We have evaluated the power law index of the energy distribution f(E) = f0E−α by using a model of relaxation incorporating different profile functions of winding number distribution f(w) based on braided topologies. We study the radio signatures that occur in the solar corona using the radio data obtained from the Gauribidanur Radio Observatory (IIA) and extract the power law index by using the Statistic-sensitive nonlinear iterative peak clipping (SNIP) algorithm. We see that the power law index obtained from the model is in good agreement with the calculated value from the radio data observation.
This paper presents the requirements and needs for establishing a benchmarking protocol that considers representation characteristics, supported cognitive criteria, and enabled reasoning activities for the systematic comparison of function modeling representations. Problem types are defined as reverse engineering, familiar products, novel products, and single-component systems. As different modeling approaches share elements, a comparison of modeling approaches on multiple levels was also undertaken. It is recommended that researchers and developers of function modeling representations collaborate to define a canonically acceptable set of benchmark tests and evaluations so that clear benefits and weaknesses for the disparate collection of approaches can be compared. This paper is written as a call to action for the research community to begin establishing a benchmarking standard protocol for function modeling comparison purposes. This protocol should be refined with input from developers of the competing approaches in an academically open environment. At the same time, the benchmarking criteria identified should also serve as a guide for validating a modeling approach or analyzing its failure.
Polarization measurement of the background stars in the region of dark globules is important to study the magnetic field geometry and grants characteristics in the globule. These parameters are important for the formation and evolution of dark globules. We made Polarimetric observations of stars in three nearby dark clouds - B5, L134 and Heiles Cloud 2. Polarization measurements of stars in the region of B5 were made with ‘MINIPOL’ (Frecker and Serkowski, 1976) on 61″ telescope of University of Arizona. Observations for the stars in the region of L134 and Heiles Cloud 2 were made using PRL Polarimeter (Deshpande et al. 1985) on 1 meter telescope of Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. Results are presented and discussed here. Figure 1 shows the polarization vectors projected on the sky plane for the above globules.
Benthic foraminifera live in a wide variety of marine habitats, from marshes to abyssal plains. Both epifaunal and infaunal adaptations are present. The distribution of species is controlled by a complex of abiotic and biotic variables of the environment, usually resulting in a depth-zonation of assemblages on continental margins.
The composition of the substrate may have a direct or indirect influence on the constitution of the assemblage. Laboratory studies and field observations demonstrate the effects of temperature and salinity variations, particularly on nearshore species. Many calcareous species have algal or chloroplast symbionts; their distribution is partly controlled by light tolerance.
Benthic foraminifera are omnivorous and feed mainly by the pseudopodia. Large supply of nutrients, as in areas of upwelling or water mixing, may give rise to large blooms of opportunistic species.
Marine marshes of diverse geographic locations support some common species. Deep bathyal or abyssal species are widespread, but dominance patterns are apparently associated with identifiable water masses, although causal relations are unclear.
The UK has one of the largest systems of immigration detention in Europe.. Those detained include asylum-seekers and foreign national prisoners, groups with a higher prevalence of mental health vulnerabilities compared with the general population. In light of little published research on the mental health status of detainees in immigration removal centres (IRCs), the primary aim of this study was to explore whether it was feasible to conduct psychiatric research in such a setting. A secondary aim was to compare the mental health of those seeking asylum with the rest of the detainees.
Cross-sectional study with simple random sampling followed by opportunistic sampling. Exclusion criteria included inadequate knowledge of English and European Union nationality. Six validated tools were used to screen for mental health disorders including developmental disorders like Personality Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Intellectual Disability, as well as for needs assessment. These were the MINI v6, SAPAS, AQ-10, ASRS, LDSQ and CANFOR. Demographic data were obtained using a participant demographic sheet. Researchers were trained in the use of the screening battery and inter-rater reliability assessed by joint ratings.
A total of 101 subjects were interviewed. Overall response rate was 39%. The most prevalent screened mental disorder was depression (52.5%), followed by personality disorder (34.7%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (20.8%). 21.8% were at moderate to high suicidal risk. 14.9 and 13.9% screened positive for ASD and ADHD, respectively. The greatest unmet needs were in the areas of intimate relationships (76.2%), psychological distress (72.3%) and sexual expression (71.3%). Overall presence of mental disorder was comparable with levels found in prisons. The numbers in each group were too small to carry out any further analysis.
It is feasible to undertake a psychiatric morbidity survey in an IRC. Limitations of the study include potential selection bias, use of screening tools, use of single-site study, high refusal rates, the lack of interpreters and lack of women and children in study sample. Future studies should involve the in-reach team to recruit participants and should be run by a steering group consisting of clinicians from the IRC as well as academics.
There have been no systematic reviews that investigated the heritability of the two-factor model of psychopathy: interpersonal-affective and behavioral. Our review aimed, first, to examine the heritability of general psychopathic traits and, second, if genetic influences were suggested, to determine the heritability of various traits related to the interpersonal-affective and behavioral factors of psychopathy.
A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from the PsycINFO, Embase, Global Health, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases (January of 1980 to December of 2015) in order to identify eligible literature that reported on the heritability of psychopathy-related traits. Papers were also found via manual examination and reference tracking. Papers were subjected to exclusion criteria and quality appraisal. We identified a total of 24 studies.
Our results were grouped into three categories: general, interpersonal-affective, and behavioral. All these areas demonstrated modest to high heritability. The highest heritability values were found in studies investigating callous-unemotional behaviors.
Heritability was found for all the psychopathic traits. Future research should include endophenotypic approaches that explore gene–environment correlations, which could aid in identification of the behavioral phenotype that is most amenable to early intervention by way of moderation of genetic risk.
The Proterozoic Sushina Hill Complex is the only agpaitic complex, reported from India and is characterized by a eudialyte-rinkite-bearing nepheline syenite. The complex is considered a ‘metamorphosed agpaitic complex'. This study describes the mineral assemblages formed during successive stages of evolution from magmatic to hydrothermal stages and low-temperature subsolidus re-equilibration assemblage. The primary-late magmatic assemblage is characterized by albite, orthoclase, unaltered nepheline, zoned diopside-hedenbergite, rinkite, late magmatic eudialyte and magnesio-arfvedsonite formed at ∼700°C with maximum aSiO2 of 0.60. In contrast, a deuteric assemblage (400-348°C) is represented by aegirine-jadeite-rich clinopyroxene, post-magmatic eudialyte, sodalite, analcime and the decomposition assemblages formed after eudialyte with decreasing aSiO2 (0.52-0.48). A further low-temperature subsolidus assemblage (≤250°C) represented by late-forming natrolite could be either related to regressive stages of metamorphism or a continuum of the subsolidus processes. Considering the P/T range of the greenschist - lower-amphibolite facies of metamorphism it is evident that the incorporation of a jadeite component within pyroxene is related to a subsolidus process between ∼400°C and 348°C in a silica deficient environment. We emphasize that the deuteric fluid itself acted as an agent of metamorphism and the decomposition assemblage formed after eudialyte is retained even after metamorphism due to the convergence of subsolidus and metamorphic domains. The formation of jadeite-rich aegirine is not considered to result from metamorphism. Overall it is near-impossible to discern any bona fide metamorphic textures or mineral assemblages in these syenites which appear to preserve a relict mineralogy regardless of their occurrence in country rocks which have experienced greenschist - amphibolite facies metamorphism. The Sushina complex is very similar in this respect to the Norra Kärr complex (Sweden).
Comets are known to have a high (2-10 percent) polarization, caused mainly due to dust scattering and resonance fluorescence emission. Since near earth comets are generally bright (integrated visual magnitudes of 10 or even brighter) and as they show high polarization near earth-sun location, one can try to perform imaging polarimetry of such objects with small (40 cm or even smaller) telescopes. By using a dichroic polaroid sheet either in front of the telescope tube or before the imaging detector at the Cassegrain plane, one can record cometary images with a good signal to noise ratio. By rotating the dichroic sheet in three discrete steps and then reducing the corresponding three comet images to a single image, one can determine the linear polarization value at each pixel location on the image. The error in polarization will typically be the inverse of the ‘signal to noise ratio’. Such polarization images of a comet help us to determine its dust properties and also to look for possible dust jet activities. This type of work is possible with small telescopes and minor instruments.
Outcrop-scale structures and magnetic fabric anisotropy of the Bomdila Gneiss (BG) that intruded the Lesser Himalayan Crystallines (LHC) of the Arunachal Lesser Himalaya are studied to understand the BG deformation history and tectonic evolution. Detailed analysis of structures reveals that the LHC have undergone three phases of deformation, D1, D2 and D3. The S2 foliation developed during the second phase of deformation (D2) is the most penetrative planar fabric in the studied rock, which shows a general ENE–WSW strike with moderate NW dip. Mesoscopic evidence of a later phase of deformation (D3) in the BG is lacking. Evidence of D3 deformation in the form of F3 folds is only observed in the adjacent metasedimentary rocks of the LHC. The magnetic foliations recorded from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analysis of the BG are mostly striking NW–SE with a moderate dip towards the NE or SW, and magnetic lineation is mostly sub-horizontal and dominantly plunging towards the SE. Our study shows that the magnetic fabric of the BG does not correspond to any visible outcrop-scale mesoscale foliation. However, the magnetic foliation of the BG is parallel to the axial plane of the F3 folds of the adjacent metasedimentary rocks of the LHC. Integration of AMS and outcrop-scale structural analysis helps us envisage the superposed deformation history of the BG. Our study emphasizes the importance of AMS to detect late-stage or feeble deformation events that leave no visible outcrop-scale imprint and are difficult to discern through conventional geological means.
To report the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium surveillance data from 40 hospitals (20 cities) in India 2004–2013.
Surveillance using US National Healthcare Safety Network’s criteria and definitions, and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium methodology.
We collected data from 236,700 ICU patients for 970,713 bed-days
Pooled device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates for adult and pediatric ICUs were 5.1 central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)/1,000 central line–days, 9.4 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAPs)/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days, and 2.1 catheter-associated urinary tract infections/1,000 urinary catheter–days
In neonatal ICUs (NICUs) pooled rates were 36.2 CLABSIs/1,000 central line–days and 1.9 VAPs/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days
Extra length of stay in adult and pediatric ICUs was 9.5 for CLABSI, 9.1 for VAP, and 10.0 for catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Extra length of stay in NICUs was 14.7 for CLABSI and 38.7 for VAP
Crude extra mortality was 16.3% for CLABSI, 22.7% for VAP, and 6.6% for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult and pediatric ICUs, and 1.2% for CLABSI and 8.3% for VAP in NICUs
Pooled device use ratios were 0.21 for mechanical ventilator, 0.39 for central line, and 0.53 for urinary catheter in adult and pediatric ICUs; and 0.07 for mechanical ventilator and 0.06 for central line in NICUs.
Despite a lower device use ratio in our ICUs, our device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates are higher than National Healthcare Safety Network, but lower than International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Report.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):172–181
Management of the pharyngeal pouch has evolved enormously since the first description by Ludlow in 1764 and the first case series by Zenker and Von Ziemssen in 1877. With the introduction of antibiotics, and the advancement of surgical technique with the advent of endoscopic surgery and lasers, current management is vastly different to that in the nineteenth century.
This paper traces the history of pharyngeal pouch management, and discusses the various treatment options and opinions recorded during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, comparing these with techniques popular today.
Results and conclusion:
Pharyngeal pouch surgery has been associated with significant morbidity, both because of the elderly age of patients typically affected by the condition and because of the surgery itself and potential post-operative complications encountered. The historical development of pharyngeal pouch management and the understanding of pharyngeal pouch pathophysiology are discussed.