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Whole eggs are rich sources of several micronutrients. However, it is not well known how egg consumption contributes to overall nutrient adequacy and how it may relate to CVD risk factors. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine how whole egg consumption contributes to nutrient intakes and to assess its association with CVD risk factors in US adults.
The study was conducted using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2012, a nationally representative survey of the US civilian population.
Adults who completed two dietary recalls and provided information on relevant sociodemographic factors were included in the study (n 21 845).
Approximately 73 % of adults were classified as whole egg consumers. Egg consumption was associated with greater intakes of protein, saturated fat, mono- and polyunsaturated fats, Fe, Zn, Ca, Se, choline, and several other vitamins and minerals. Egg consumption was associated with a higher likelihood of meeting or exceeding recommendations for several micronutrients. Egg intake was positively associated with dietary cholesterol consumption, but not with serum total cholesterol (TC) when adjusted for multiple potential confounders. In multiple linear regression analyses, TAG, TAG:HDL-cholesterol and TC:HDL-cholesterol were significantly lower with greater egg consumption. Egg consumption had no significant relationship with LDL-cholesterol or C-reactive protein, but was associated with higher BMI and waist circumference.
Whole eggs are important dietary contributors of many nutrients and had either beneficial or non-significant associations with most CVD risk biomarkers examined.
It has not been well established whether dietary folate intake reduces the risk of diabetes development. We aimed to clarify the prospective association between dietary folate intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among 7333 Korean adults aged 40 years or older who were included in the Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. Dietary folate intake was estimated from all 106 food items listed on a FFQ, not including folate intake from supplements. Two different measurements of dietary folate intake were used: the baseline consumption and the average consumption from baseline until just before the end of follow-up. The association between folate intake and T2D risk was determined through a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator controlling for potential confounders. For 29 745 person years, 319 cases of diabetes were ascertained. In multivariable analyses, dietary folate intake was inversely associated with risk of T2D for women, not for men. For women, the incidence rate ratio of diabetes in the third tertile compared with the first tertile was 0·57 (95 % CI 0·38–0·87, Pfor trend=0·0085) in the baseline consumption model and 0·64 (95 % CI 0·43–0·95, Pfor trend=0·0244) in the average consumption model. These inverse associations was found in both normal fasting blood glucose group and impaired fasting glucose group among women. Among non-users of multinutrients and vitamin supplements, the significant inverse association remained. Thus, higher dietary intake of folate is prospectively associated with lower risk of diabetes for women.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether significant difference exists on radiation dose delivered to organs at risks in megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) verification using three predefined scanning modes, namely fine (2 mm), normal (4 mm) and coarse (6 mm). This will provide information for the imaging protocol of tomotherapy for the left breast.
Materials and methods
Organ doses were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) placed within a female Rando phantom for MVCT imaging. Kruskal–Wallis test was conducted with p<0·05 to evaluate the significant difference between the three MVCT scanning modes.
Statistically significant difference existed in organ absorbed dose between different scan mode selections (p<0·001). Relative to the normal scan selection (4 mm), the absorbed dose to the organs of interests can be scaled down by 0·7 and scaled up by 2·1 for coarse (6 mm) and fine scans (2 mm) respectively.
Optimisation of imaging protocols is of paramount importance to keep the radiation exposure ‘as low as reasonably achievable’. The recommendation of undergoing daily coarse mode for MVCT verification in breast tomotherapy not only mitigates the radiation exposure to normal tissues, but also trims the scan-acquisition time.
Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men in the USA. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer. In this study, the association between antioxidants from diet and supplements and biomarkers of oxidative stress in blood (n 278), urine (n 298) and prostate tissue (n 55) were determined among men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. The association between antioxidant intake and oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and urine was determined using linear regression, adjusting for age, race, prostate cancer aggressiveness and smoking status. Greater antioxidant intake was found to be associated with lower urinary 8-isoprostane concentrations, with a 10 % increase in antioxidant intake corresponding to an unadjusted 1·1 % decrease in urinary 8-isoprostane levels (95 % CI −1·7, −0·3 %; P value<0·01) and an adjusted 0·6 % decrease (95 % CI −1·4, 0·2 %; P value=0·16). In benign prostate tissue, thioredoxin 1 was inversely associated with antioxidant intake (P=0·02). No significant associations were found for other blood or urinary biomarkers or for malignant prostate tissue. These results indicate that antioxidant intake may be associated with less oxidative stress among men diagnosed with prostate cancer.
Re-examination of the holotype male of Zehntneriana villosa (Zehntner, 1894) (from Ambon, Indonesia) shows that Japanese specimens previously referred to this species should be designated as a new species, Zehntneriana tadafumii sp. nov. The new species differs from Z. villosa in several characters, including the carapace, epistome, third maxilliped and thoracic sternum. Here, we redescribe and illustrate Z. villosa s. str. and the new species. In addition, the taxonomy of Zehntneriana Ng & Takeda, 2010, is also discussed.
A PbSe film was grown by chemical bath deposition on a thermally oxidized Si (111) substrate. Morphological change of the PbSe film during sensitization under the oxygen and iodine atmospheres was studied by SEM. The as-grown polycrystalline PbSe film consists of clusters of about 200nm in diameter. By the oxidation treatment for 30 min at 380°C, the clusters became joined together. On the other hand, recrystallization of new PbSe crystals with faceted surfaces occurred during the iodination treatment under an iodine plus nitrogen atmosphere at 380°C for different durations. This morphological change during the sensitization treatment might affect the electro-optical properties of the PbSe film.
The need for higher energy density batteries has spawned recent renewed interest in alternatives to lithium ion batteries, including multivalent chemistries that theoretically can provide twice the volumetric capacity if two electrons can be transferred per intercalating ion. Initial investigations of these chemistries have been limited to date by the lack of understanding of the compatibility between intercalation electrode materials, electrolytes, and current collectors. This work describes the utilization of hybrid cells to evaluate multivalent cathodes, consisting of high surface area carbon anodes and multivalent nonaqueous electrolytes that are compatible with oxide intercalation electrodes. In particular, electrolyte and current collector compatibility was investigated, and it was found that the carbon and active material play an important role in determining the compatibility of PF6-based multivalent electrolytes with carbon-based current collectors. Through the exploration of electrolytes that are compatible with the cathode, new cell chemistries and configurations can be developed, including a magnesium-ion battery with two intercalation host electrodes, which may expand the known Mg-based systems beyond the present state of the art sulfide-based cathodes with organohalide-magnesium based electrolytes.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
We have electrically characterized a 300 nm-thick unintentionally-doped In0.09Ga0.91N film grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on a GaN template, employing capacitance-voltage (C-V), thermal admittance spectroscopy (TAS), and steady-state photocapacitance spectroscopy (SSPC) techniques on Schottky barrier diodes. TAS measurements revealed a degenerating-like shallow-donor defect with a thermal activation energy of ∼7 meV, which most likely acts as a source of residual carriers with their concentration of ∼1017 cm-3 determined from C-V measurements. Additionally, SSPC measurements revealed two characteristic deep-level defects located at ∼2.07 and ∼3.05 eV below the conduction band, which were densely enhanced near the underlayer. These electronic defects are probably introduced by alloying InN with GaN.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
To validate an FFQ to assess antioxidant intake in overweight postmenopausal women.
A seventy-four-item antioxidant 1-month FFQ was developed based on major antioxidant sources in the American diet. Forty overweight postmenopausal women participated in a 9-month observational study and completed four sets of FFQ and 7 d food record (7dFR) every 3 months. Twelve-hour fasting blood was collected for plasma antioxidant measurement at the first visit.
Forty overweight postmenopausal women.
Spearman correlation coefficients of 1-month antioxidant intake estimated from the first set of FFQ and 7dFR ranged from 0·34 to 0·87, except for γ-tocopherol. The proportion of participants categorized into the extremely opposite tertiles averaged 7 %. Significant correlations were observed for diet–plasma vitamin C, α-tocopherol and carotenoids (P < 0·05). No time effect was observed on the dietary antioxidant intakes estimated from four 7dFR and four FFQ. Dietary antioxidants estimated from averaged four 7dFR showed moderate to high correlation with those estimated from averaged four FFQ and from each FFQ collected every 3 months. Bland–Altman plots did not show any systematic bias. Averaged misclassifications were below 10 % between these two instruments.
These findings attested a reasonable validity and a good acceptance of this 1-month FFQ in assessing both short-term and long-term diverse antioxidant intakes in these overweight postmenopausal women. The use of this FFQ in associating antioxidant intake with disease risk needs further investigation.
To validate a brief FFQ developed for capturing short-term antioxidant intake in a sample of US college students.
A seventy-four-item antioxidant FFQ was developed based on major antioxidant sources in the American diet. The FFQ was validated against 30 d food records (FR) and plasma antioxidant concentrations. The reliability of the FFQ was evaluated by two FFQ administered at a 1-month interval.
University of Connecticut, CT, USA.
Sixty healthy college students.
Estimates of dietary antioxidants from the FFQ were moderately to highly correlated with those estimated from the 30 d FR (r = 0·29–0·80; P < 0·05) except for γ-tocopherol and β-cryptoxanthin. Total antioxidant capacity from diet only or from diet and supplements estimated by the 30 d FR and FFQ were highly correlated (r = 0·67 and 0·71, respectively; P < 0·0001). The FFQ categorized 91 % of participants into the same or adjacent tertiles of antioxidant intake as the 30 d FR. Most dietary carotenoids estimated from the FFQ were correlated with plasma levels (P < 0·05). Correlation coefficients for test–retest reliability ranged from 0·39 to 0·86. More than 94 % of the participants were classified in the same or adjacent tertiles between the two administrations of the FFQ.
The brief FFQ demonstrated reasonable validity for capturing a comprehensive antioxidant intake profile. This FFQ is applicable in epidemiological or clinical studies to capture short-term antioxidant intake or to simply document the variations of antioxidant intake in intervention trials. Cross-validation studies are warranted in other target populations.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
The present study evaluated the contribution of 100 % orange juice (OJ) consumption to the intakes of macronutrients and energy and its impact on body composition.
A cross-sectional study was conducted. The main exposure was OJ consumption based on two non-consecutive 24 h diet recalls. Macronutrient and energy intakes and body composition parameters were outcome measures. All statistical analyses were carried out using SAS and SUDAAN statistical software packages to allow for multistage sample designs.
The US population and its subgroups.
The US population aged ≥4 years (n 13 971) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics.
In this US population, OJ consumers had lower BMI and healthier lifestyle behaviours (including lower alcohol consumption and smoking as well as higher exercise level) than non-consumers (P < 0·05). After adjusting for covariates, OJ consumers had higher daily intakes of carbohydrate, total sugar, total fat and energy than non-consumers (P < 0·01). However, these linear trends still remained even after OJ was removed from the food list of items consumed. Adult OJ consumers had lower BMI, waist circumference and percentage body fat than non-consumers (P < 0·01), as well as lower odds ratio for overweight and obesity (P < 0·01). These effects were not seen in children and adolescents, where there was no significant difference in BMI, waist circumference and percentage body fat in OJ consumers compared with non-consumers.
OJ consumption was associated with healthier body composition in adults; while there were no significant associations between OJ consumption and body composition in children and adolescents.
We report the microstructural features of GdBa2Cu3O7-δ (GdBCO) coated conductors (CCs) on LaMnO3 (LMO)-buffered IBAD MgO template, produced by the Reactive Co-Evaporation Deposition & Reaction (RCE-DR) process. Analysis results by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that a lot of elongated round second phase particles of 70-150nm size within the GdBCO matrix were the Gd2O3 phase, a small amount of Cu-O phase were also trapped in the GdBCO matrix, and a thick layer of Cu-excessive Ba-Cu-O phase was found on the top surface of the GdBCO film, suggesting that the GdBCO film might be grown from Gd2O3 and liquid phase by a peritectic recombination. While both the GdBCO film and some Gd2O3 particles grown on the LMO-buffer layer were biaxially textured, the Gd2O3 particles fully trapped in the GdBCO matrix were randomly oriented. The Gd2O3 particles located at the interface between the GdBCO and LMO buffer layer exhibited the following crystallographic orientation relationship: LMO  // GdBCO  // Gd2O3 ; LMO  // GdBCO  // Gd2O3 .
The insertion of nanostructured materials (such as quantum wells, wires, and dots) into the intrinsic region of p-i-n solar cells introduces an intermediate band within the bandgap of the host material. It has been shown that the sub-bandgap conversion provided by the nanostructured materials, enhances the short circuit current as well as the overall efficiency of InAs quantum dots (QD) imbedded in GaAs superlattice (SL) solar cells . As a contender for space applications, it is necessary to subject these solar cell structures to temperatures encountered in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), probing for any material degradation. Herein, we focus on temperature dependent characterization using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) of InAs QD enhanced GaAs solar cell structures with varying growth parameters. The structures characterized can be classified into three groups: (1) GaP strain compensation coverage, (2) GaAs barrier coverage, and (3) InAs coverage for QD formation. HRXRD rocking curves of each structure focusing around the GaAs peak are analyzed at a range of temperatures up to 200˚C. Although no noticeable shifts in the SL peaks are detected, interfacial diffusion decreased the resolution of fringes produced by reflections at the SL interfaces in test structures with varying InAs QD coverage. Unbalanced strain in the same structures shows a distortion in the GaAs peaks.