To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Early laryngeal cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy or surgery has a high cure rate. This study evaluated the patterns of treatment failure and long-term results of early laryngeal cancers treated with definitive radiotherapy.
From January 2002 to December 2014, a total of 242 patients with early-stage laryngeal cancers were treated with radical radiotherapy.
All patients had squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx (92 per cent male and 8 per cent female). Median follow-up was 4.5 years. The majority of patients were smokers (57.4 per cent). Local failure was seen in 12.5 per cent of stage I patients and 22.8 per cent of stage II patients. The 5-year overall survival and disease specific survival were 84 per cent and 91 per cent, respectively.
In summary, radiotherapy is a suitable treatment modality for patients with early-stage laryngeal cancer, with an overall locoregional control rate of 84 per cent. Patients who fail radiotherapy may still undergo salvage laryngectomy.
Frascati international research criteria for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are controversial; some investigators have argued that Frascati criteria are too liberal, resulting in a high false positive rate. Meyer et al. recommended more conservative revisions to HAND criteria, including exploring other commonly used methodologies for neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in HIV including the global deficit score (GDS). This study compares NCI classifications by Frascati, Meyer, and GDS methods, in relation to neuroimaging markers of brain integrity in HIV.
Two hundred forty-one people living with HIV (PLWH) without current substance use disorder or severe (confounding) comorbid conditions underwent comprehensive neurocognitive testing and brain structural magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Participants were classified using Frascati criteria versus Meyer criteria: concordant unimpaired [Frascati(Un)/Meyer(Un)], concordant impaired [Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Imp)], or discordant [Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Un)] which were impaired via Frascati criteria but unimpaired via Meyer criteria. To investigate the GDS versus Meyer criteria, the same groupings were utilized using GDS criteria instead of Frascati criteria.
When examining Frascati versus Meyer criteria, discordant Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Un) individuals had less cortical gray matter, greater sulcal cerebrospinal fluid volume, and greater evidence of neuroinflammation (i.e., choline) than concordant Frascati(Un)/Meyer(Un) individuals. GDS versus Meyer comparisons indicated that discordant GDS(Imp)/Meyer(Un) individuals had less cortical gray matter and lower levels of energy metabolism (i.e., creatine) than concordant GDS(Un)/Meyer(Un) individuals. In both sets of analyses, the discordant group did not differ from the concordant impaired group on any neuroimaging measure.
The Meyer criteria failed to capture a substantial portion of PLWH with brain abnormalities. These findings support continued use of Frascati or GDS criteria to detect HIV-associated CNS dysfunction.
Biochar has received attention due to its potential for mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration in soil and improving soil quality and crop productivity. This study evaluated the effects of rice straw biochar (RSB) and rice husk ash (RHA) each applied at 5 Mg ha−1 and four N levels (0, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha−1) on soil fertility, growth, and yield of rice and wheat for three consecutive rice–wheat rotations. RSB significantly increased electrical conductivity, dehydrogenase activity, and P and K contents when compared to control (no amendment) up to 7.5 cm soil depth. Both RSB and RHA did not influence shoot N concentration in wheat plant but significantly increased P and K concentrations at 60 days after sowing. Grain yields of both rice and wheat were significantly higher in RSB as compared to control (no amendment) and RHA treatments. While the highest grain yields of rice and wheat were observed at 120 kg N ha−1 in RHA and no biochar-treated plots, a significant increase in grain yields was observed at 80 kg N ha−1 in RSB treatment, thereby saving 40 kg N ha−1 in each crop. Both agronomic and recovery N efficiencies in rice and wheat were significantly higher in RSB-amended soil compared to control. Significant positive correlations were observed between soil N, P, and K concentrations and total N, P, and K concentrations in aboveground biomass of wheat at 60 days after sowing. This study showed the potential benefits of applying RSB for improving soil fertility and yields of rice and wheat in a rice–wheat system.
Using high-precision photometry from the Kepler mission, we investigate patterns of spot activity on the K1-type subgiant component of KIC 11560447, a short-period late-type eclipsing binary. We tested the validity of maximum entropy reconstructions of starspots by numerical simulations. Our procedure successfully captures up to three large spot clusters migrating in longitude. We suggest a way to measure a lower limit for stellar differential rotation, using slopes of spot patterns in the reconstructed time-longitude diagram. We find solar-like differential rotation and recurrent spot activity with a long-term trend towards a dominant axisymmetric spot distribution during the period of observations.
In the last three decades the life insurance industry was rocked by a series of mis-selling scandals such as endowment mortgage, personal pension and payment protection insurance mis-selling. Regulators have stepped in to try to address the underlying causes and improve customer protection by introducing more stringent regulation targeted at sales practices and remuneration, product design, disclosure and ongoing monitoring together with significantly larger financial penalties for non-compliance. Against this background, the paper considers whether customers understanding of risks and outcomes associated with life insurance products can be further improved and how poor customer outcomes can be avoided in the future. We acknowledge the complexity of these issues, which involve many stakeholders, covering all stages of the product lifecycle and customer journey and being impacted by a constantly changing regulatory landscape. We first review the current regulatory landscape across both the United Kingdom and other jurisdictions, concluding that whilst regulators have acted to improve customer protection, gaps still remain, particularly around the areas of disclosure and consideration of changing customers’ needs throughout product lifetimes. The paper then considers how the current situation could be improved for customers in a cost effective manner. We focus on improvements in disclosure, needs-based selling, ongoing assessment and communication as a means of ensuring that products continue to meet the customers’ needs and risk profile, and on introducing a duty of care which would force financial services firms to act in the best interests of their customers. In this paper we present our preliminary thoughts and recommendations. Some of the recommendations will cost something to implement, and should therefore be supported by cost-benefit analyses that would weigh these costs against the potentially larger benefits to both customers and the insurance industry.
Unavailability of irrigation water for early sowing has remained a constant problem in cold arid deserts of Ladakh. In order to get a solution to this problem, a 2-yr farmers’ participatory research trial with best bet agronomic management on artificial glacier water harvesting technology was conducted. The technology involves collecting water from natural glaciers that melt during late December. The water is diverted toward a shed constructed with stone embankments set up at regular intervals. The area is chosen where there is minimum interference of solar radiation, generally between two mountain slopes or ridge that is on the leeward side. The melted water is that melts from the natural glacier impeded by the embankments and get frozen here. This frozen water starts melting in late March and is used for both pre sowing and initial crop water requirement. It also ensures early sowing of wheat by creating additional 45-day window which leads to introduction of long- and medium-duration wheat varieties to replace decades old locally grown short-duration varieties. The work was initiated with a benchmark survey of 100 farmers to get an understanding of present irrigation scenario, crop management practices and date of sowing. Data from 99 farmer participating trial of wheat conducted after or from bench mark survey clearly indicated that the effect of water shortage can be seen on yield and yield attributing characters due to unavailability of pre sowing irrigation and water requirement at imperative growth stages and may also lead to terminal heat stress in wheat crop. Out of total number of irrigations applied, initial two irrigations can be compensated by artificial glacier water harvesting technique, leading to a revolution in the agriculture scenario of the tribal population by introduction of long- and medium-duration wheat varieties in cold arid desert of Ladakh for the very first time. It was observed that wheat seeding done in first fortnight of April gave better yields in comparison to late seeded wheat. Moreover, the long-duration varieties (LDVs) or medium-duration varieties (MDVs) sown under late condition gave better yield in comparison to locally grown short-duration varieties sown at same time. Yield potential of LDVs and MDVs of wheat under late sowing was found quite low in comparison to early-sown wheat, still when compared with the performance of locally grown wheat the yields were more even if the local varieties were sown early. The outcome of this study will help the farmers of tribal, cold arid community in harvesting better wheat yields by timely sowing of the wheat crop accompanied with better bet agronomic management practices. Government initiative is further required to ensure better outreach of complete crop management strategies to the tribal farming community of the region in order to ensure food security and improve their socioeconomic status.
To: (i) determine the prevalence of self-reported eating less and eating down during early and late pregnancy and postpartum, and explore risk factors associated with eating less; (ii) examine the association between eating less and diet quality; and (iii) determine the association between eating less and weight gain during pregnancy.
Data were collected longitudinally from a cohort of women participating in a community health programme. Diet was assessed at three time points (≤20 weeks’ gestation, 36 weeks’ gestation, 6 months’ postpartum), body weight was measured during study enrolment (≤20 weeks’ gestation) and at 36 weeks’ gestation, and information about the woman and her household was collected at enrolment.
The Rang-Din Nutrition Study in the Rangpur and Dinajpur districts of Bangladesh.
Women (n 4011).
The prevalence of self-reported eating less differed by time point (75·9 % in early pregnancy, 38·8 % in late pregnancy, 7·4 % postpartum; P<0·001). The most common reason for eating less across all time periods was food aversion or loss of appetite. Women who reported eating less in late pregnancy had consumed animal-source foods less frequently in the preceding week than women who reported eating more (mean (sd): 11·7 (7·4) v. 14·8 (9·2) times/week; P<0·001) and had lower weekly weight gain than women who reported eating more (mean (se): 0·27 (0·004) v. 0·33 (0·004) kg/week; P<0·001).
Eating less has negative implications with respect to diet quality and pregnancy weight gain in this context.
Detrimental effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on living organisms are well understood, little is known about the effects of blue light irradiation. Although a recent study revealed that blue light caused more harmful effects on insects than UV light and blue light irradiation killed insect pests of various orders including Diptera, the effects of blue light on physiology of insects are still largely unknown. Here we studied the effects of blue light irradiation on cuticular melanin in larval and the immune response in adult stage of Bactrocera dorsalis. We also evaluated the effects of blue light exposure in larval stage on various age and mass at metamorphosis and the mediatory role of cuticular melanin in carryover effects of larval stressors across metamorphosis. We found that larvae exposed to blue light decreased melanin contents in their exoskeleton with smaller mass and delayed metamorphosis than insects reared without blue light exposure. Across metamorphosis, lower melanotic encapsulation response and higher susceptibility to Beauveria bassiana was detected in adults that had been exposed to blue light at their larval stage, thereby constituting the first evidence that blue light impaired adult immune function in B. dorsalis as a carryover effect of larval exposure.
Spatial confinement effects on plasma parameters and surface morphology of laser-ablated Mg are studied by introducing a metallic blocker as well as argon (Ar) gas at different pressures. Nd: YAG laser at various fluences ranging from 7 to 28 J/cm2 was employed to generate Mg plasma. Confinement effects offered by metallic blocker are investigated by placing the blocker at different distances of 6, 8, and 10 mm from the target surface; whereas spatial confinement offered by environmental gas is explored under four different pressures of 5, 10, 20, and 50 Torr. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis revealed that both plasma parameters, that is, excitation temperature and electron number density initially are strongly dependent upon both pressures of environmental gases and distances of blockers. The maximum electron temperature of Mg plasma is achieved at Ar gas pressure of 20 Torr, whereas maximum electron number density is achieved at 50 Torr. It is also observed that spatial confinement offered by metallic blocker is responsible for the significant enhancement of both electron temperature and electron number density of Mg plasma. Maximum values of electron temperature and electron number density without blocker are 8335 K and 2.4 × 1016 cm−3, respectively, whereas these values are enhanced to 12,200 K and 4 × 1016 cm−3 in the presence of blocker. Physical mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of Mg plasma parameters are plasma compression, confinement and pronounced collisional excitations due to reflection of shock waves. Scanning electron microscope analysis was performed to explore the surface morphology of laser-ablated Mg. It reveals the formation of ripples and channels that become more distinct in the presence of blocker due to plasma confinement. The optimum combination of blocker distance, fluence and Ar pressure can identify the suitable conditions for defining the role of plasma parameters for surface structuring.
This study was conducted to improve wheat production under vegetative (early season) drought stress. Hydroprimed and osmoprimed (with CaCl2) seeds of wheat cultivars Lasani-2008 (LS-2008) and Triple Dwarf-1 (TD-1), were sown in 20 (narrow), 25 (medium), and 30 cm (wider) spaced rows. Crop was grown under well-watered conditions till physiological maturity or was subjected to drought stress (50% field capacity) during vegetative phase and then grown under well-watered conditions. Drought stress caused substantial reduction in grain and biological yields, related traits, harvest index (HI) and water use efficiency (WUE). Nonetheless, planting osmoprimed seeds in narrowly spaced rows significantly improved the grain yield, HI and WUE. However, wheat planted in wider rows had bold grains. Furthermore, wheat cultivar LS-2008 produced better yield, even under drought stress, than cultivar TD-1. Economic analysis indicated that planting osmoprimed seeds of wheat cultivar LS-2008 in narrowly spaced rows under early season drought yielded maximum economic benefits. In conclusion, planting osmoprimed seeds of cultivar LS-2008 in narrowly spaced rows is a good agronomic option to improve the wheat performance under early season drought stress.
This paper, a report by the Clinical Governance and Audit Committee of the Scottish Otolaryngological Society, presents a consensus view of the minimal requirements for ENT clinics in National Health Service hospitals.
Results and conclusion:
The provision of adequate equipment and staff has gained increasing importance as the vast majority of ENT procedures can be safely performed in the out-patient or office setting.
In this study, we compared the weed emergence, water input, water saving, water productivity, panicle sterility, yield outputs and economic returns of transplanting with alternate wetting and drying (TRAWD) and dry direct seeding (DSR) with transplanting under continuous flooding (TRCF) using three fine-grain rice cultivars: Super Basmati; Basmati 2000; and Shaheen Basmati. Higher weed infestation was recorded in DSR than in TRCF and TRAWD. Raising rice as TRAWD and DSR had considerable water savings but a lower grain yield than TRCF. High panicle sterility was primarily responsible for low grain yield in TRAWD and DSR systems. Nonetheless, water productivity was better in DSR and TRAWD than TRCF. Shaheen Basmati in the DSR system and Basmati 2000 in TRCF fetched the highest economic returns during 2008 and 2009, respectively. In conclusion, fine-grain rice cultivars can be grown in water-saving production systems (e.g. TRAWD and DSR); however, these water-saving production systems might incur a yield penalty.
GaN and its alloys are promising candidates for high temperature thermoelectric (TE) materials due to their high Seebeck coefficient and high thermal and mechanical stability. Moreover, these materials can overcome the toxicity concern of current Te-based TE materials, such as Bi2Te3 and PbTe. These materials have recently shown a higher Seebeck coefficient than that of SiGe in high temperature region because their large bandgap characteristic eliminates the bipolar conduction. In this study, we report the room temperature thermoelectric properties of p-type Mg doped GaN, grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrate with various carrier concentrations. Undoped and n-type GaN are also incorporated with p-type GaN films to make comparison. The structural, optical, electrical, and thermal properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, van der Pauw hall-effect, and thermal gradient methods, respectively. The Seebeck coefficient ranging from 710-900µV/K at room temperature of Mg: GaN were observed, which further indicated their potential TE applications.
We present the results of a numerical simulation of the corona and wind structure of the Sun-like exoplanet-host GJ 3021 using a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The simulation is driven by the radial component of the surface magnetic field recovered with the Zeeman Doppler Imaging (ZDI) technique. We consider two different ZDI input maps, which have similar large-scale structures but different spatial resolutions and field strengths. These maps arise from different but comparable models used to fit the observed circularly polarised spectra of the star. Our simulations show that the structure of the inner corona is consistent among the considered cases. Larger discrepancies are found in the wind structure, in particular in the radial wind speed and the Alfvén surface topology. These elements can have a significant impact on the mass loss and angular momentum loss predicted for this system and in other studies based on this numerical data-driven approach.
Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium spp. is an economically significant bacterial disease of poultry worldwide. Traditionally the disease has been prevented through feed supplementation with antibiotics sub-therapeutically as antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs). However this practice has led to the emergence of resistant pathogenic microbes and drug residues, potentially threatening animal and public health. Therefore the marketing and incorporation of AGPs into poultry feed has been banned in Europe which has exacerbated the incidence of NE, bringing about huge economic losses to poultry farmers. Poultry researchers, exporters and consumers have emphasised AGP-free poultry rearing and have been searching for non-antibiotic and cost effective alternatives to control NE. Strategies suggested include vaccination, coccidiosis control, probiotics, competitive exclusion products, prebiotics, egg yolk immunoglobulins, bacteriophages (or phage gene products), organic acids, feed enzymes, plants and plants extracts/essential oils and nutritional changes.
There are many predisposing as well as virulence factors for NE induction and pathogenesis and more are expected to be discovered in the future. The ambiguous pathogenesis trend of the disease is still hindering the development of a potent active vaccine against NE. The choice of a single and fully effective approach is difficult. However, probiotics and specific egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgYs) alone or in combination could serve as promising strategies for controlling NE in broilers in the absence of AGPs.
This study describes the first large-scale serosurvey on West Nile virus (WNV) conducted in the equine population in Pakistan. Sera were collected from 449 equids from two provinces of Pakistan during 2012–2013. Equine serum samples were screened using a commercial ELISA kit detecting antibodies against WNV and related flaviviruses. ELISA-positive samples were further investigated using virus-specific microneutralization tests (MNTs) to identify infections with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), WNV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Anti-WNV antibodies were detected in 292 samples by ELISA (seroprevalence 65·0%) and WNV infections were confirmed in 249 animals by MNT. However, there was no animal found infected by JEV or TBEV. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in Pakistan strongly suggests a widespread circulation of WNV in Pakistan.
Imprinting is a well-established technique to induce recognition features in both organic and inorganic materials for a variety of target analytes. In this study, ion imprinted polysiloxanes with varying percentage of coupling agent i.e. 3-chloro propyl trimethoxy silane (CPTM) were synthesized by sol-gel method for imprinting of Cr3+. The imprinting of Cr3+ in cross-linked siloxane network was investigated by FT-IR which indicates the metal ion is coordinated with oxygen atoms of polysiloxanes. SEM images revealed that imprinted polysiloxanes possess uniform particles of submicron size. It was experienced that by increasing the concentration of CPTM up to 10% (v/v) substantially improves the binding capacity of polysiloxanes which allows us to recognized Cr3+ down to 50µg/L. Furthermore, the selectivity of Cr3+-imprinted polysiloxanes was evaluated by treating them with other competing metal ions of same concentration i.e. Cr6+, Pb2+ and Ni2+. In this regard, polysiloxanes showed much higher binding for imprint ion i.e. Cr3+ in comparison to above mentioned metal ions. Finally, the regenerated polysiloxanes were studied in order to reuse them thus, developing cost effective biomimetic sensor coatings.
The prevalence of the digenean Plagiorchis sp. was investigated in a natural wood mouse population (Apodemus sylvaticus) in a periaquatic environment. Classical identification was complemented with the use of molecular differentiation to determine prevalence and verify species identity. Use of the complete ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA gene sequences have confirmed that the species reported at this location was Plagiorchis elegans and not Plagiorchis muris as reported previously. This underlines the difficulties in identification of these morphologically similar parasites. Plagiorchis elegans is typically a gastrointestinal parasite of avian species but has also been reported from small mammal populations. Although the occurrence of this digenean in A. sylvaticus in the UK is rare, in the area immediately surrounding Malham Tarn, Yorkshire, it had a high prevalence (23%) and a mean worm burden of 26.6 ± 61.5. The distribution of P. elegans followed a typically overdispersed pattern and both mouse age-group and sex were determined to be two main factors associated with prevalence. Male mice harboured the majority of worms, carrying 688 of 717 recovered during the study, and had a higher prevalence of 32.4% in comparison to only 8.7% in the small intestine of female mice. A higher prevalence of 43% was also observed in adult mice compared to 14% for young adults. No infection was observed in juvenile mice. These significant differences are likely to be due to differences in the foraging behaviour between the sexes and age cohorts of wood mice.