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In this paper, we characterize a high repetition-rate regenerating plasma mirror produced by the thin film of liquid formed when two laminar streams collide. The use of a flowing liquid film is inexpensive and the interaction surface refreshes automatically, avoiding buildup of on-target debris. The composition of the liquid material and the relative angle of the film-generating nozzles was optimized for this application. Spectra measured in reflection from a water-based plasma mirror showed a blue shift but an optical reflectivity of up to 30%. The thickness of the film was found to be of the order of 2
m, and the stability of the reflected spot was
mrad. The reflected beam profile was highly distorted but stable. Further optimization of the nozzles to affect the fluid flow should enable significant improvements in control of the fluid films and increase in the reflectivity of these mirrors.
Magnesium alloys usually lack “operative deformation slip mechanisms” because of their hexagonal close-packed structure. Therefore, the mechanical behavior of magnesium alloys at different temperatures is dictated by other deformation mechanisms such as twinning, detwinning, secondary twinning, or dynamic recrystallization (DRX). Twinning and DRX can affect the development of grain size and orientation distribution, as well as the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys. The current understanding of the mechanisms and mechanics of these different deformation modes and their implementation in crystal plasticity-based modeling are highlighted in this article. Future directions in the development of constitutive models are also discussed.
Objectives: Noninvasive brain stimulation methods, including high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) and theta burst stimulation (TBS) have emerged as novel tools to modulate and explore brain function. However, the relative efficacy of these newer stimulation approaches for modulating cognitive functioning remains unclear. This study investigated the cognitive effects of HD-tDCS, intermittent TBS (iTBS) and prolonged continuous TBS (ProcTBS) and explored the potential of these approaches for modulating hypothesized functions of the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Methods: Twenty-two healthy volunteers attended four experimental sessions in a cross-over experimental design. In each session, participants either received HD-tDCS, iTBS, ProcTBS or sham, and completed cognitive tasks, including a divided attention task, a working memory maintenance task and an attention task (emotional Stroop test). Results: The results showed that compared to sham, HD-tDCS, iTBS and ProcTBS caused significantly faster response times on the emotional Stroop task. The effect size (Cohen’s d) was d = .32 for iTBS (p < .001), .21 for ProcTBS (p = .01) and .15 for HD-tDCS (p = .044). However, for the performance on the divided attention and working memory maintenance tasks, no significant effect of stimulation was found. Conclusions: The results suggest that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques, including TBS, may have greater efficacy for modulating cognition compared with HD-tDCS, and extend existing knowledge about specific functions of the left PPC.
Arthropod communities in the tropics are increasingly impacted by rapid changes in land use. Because species showing distinct seasonal patterns of activity are thought to be at higher risk of climate-related extirpation, global warming is generally considered a lower threat to arthropod biodiversity in the tropics than in temperate regions. To examine changes associated with land use and weather variables in tropical arthropod communities, we deployed Malaise traps at three major anthropogenic forests (secondary reserve forest, oil palm forest, and urban ornamental forest (UOF)) in Peninsular Malaysia and collected arthropods continuously for 12 months. We used metabarcoding protocols to characterize the diversity within weekly samples. We found that changes in the composition of arthropod communities were significantly associated with maximum temperature in all the three forests, but shifts were reversed in the UOF compared with the other forests. This suggests arthropods in forests in Peninsular Malaysia face a double threat: community shifts and biodiversity loss due to exploitation and disturbance of forests which consequently put species at further risk related to global warming. We highlight the positive feedback mechanism of land use and temperature, which pose threats to the arthropod communities and further implicates ecosystem functioning and human well-being. Consequently, conservation and mitigation plans are urgently needed.
Recent observations on strength and deformation of small metals containing microstructures, including dislocation patterns, grain boundaries, and second-phase precipitates are reviewed. These microstructures impose an internal length scale that may interplay with the extrinsic length scale due to the specimen size to affect strength and deformation in an intricate manner. For micro-crystals containing pre-existing dislocations, Taylor work-hardening may dictate the dependence of strength on specimen size. The presence of grain boundaries in a small specimen may lead to effects far from the conventional Hall–Petch behavior. Precipitate–dislocation interactions in a small specimen may lead to an interesting weakest-size behavior.
The objectives of this study were to examine which types of social supports – emotional/informational support, tangible support, affectionate support, and positive interactions – are the predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adult patients with CHD and to assess the influence of demographic variables and clinical factors on these variables.
In total, 205 adult patients with CHD from the National Heart Institute, Malaysia, were recruited. Patients were first screened by cardiology consultants to ensure they fit the inclusion criteria before filling in questionnaires, which were medical outcome studies – social support survey and AQoL-8D.
All social supports and their subscales were found to have mild-to-moderate significant relationships with physical dimension, psychological dimension, and overall HRQoL; however, only positive interaction, marital status, and types of diagnosis were reported as predictors of HRQoL. Surprisingly, with regard to the physical dimension of quality of life, social supports were not significant predictors, but educational level, marital status, and types of diagnosis were significant predictors. Positive interaction, affectionate support, marital status, and types of diagnosis were again found to be predictors in the aspects of the psychological dimension of quality of life. In conclusion, positive interaction and affectionate support, which include elements of fun, relaxation, love, and care, should be included in the care of adult patients with CHD.
Metabarcoding, the coupling of DNA-based species identification and high-throughput sequencing, offers enormous promise for arthropod biodiversity studies but factors such as cost, speed and ease-of-use of bioinformatic pipelines, crucial for making the leapt from demonstration studies to a real-world application, have not yet been adequately addressed. Here, four published and one newly designed primer sets were tested across a diverse set of 80 arthropod species, representing 11 orders, to establish optimal protocols for Illumina-based metabarcoding of tropical Malaise trap samples. Two primer sets which showed the highest amplification success with individual specimen polymerase chain reaction (PCR, 98%) were used for bulk PCR and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The sequencing outputs were subjected to both manual and simple metagenomics quality control and filtering pipelines. We obtained acceptable detection rates after bulk PCR and high-throughput sequencing (80–90% of input species) but analyses were complicated by putative heteroplasmic sequences and contamination. The manual pipeline produced similar or better outputs to the simple metagenomics pipeline (1.4 compared with 0.5 expected:unexpected Operational Taxonomic Units). Our study suggests that metabarcoding is slowly becoming as cheap, fast and easy as conventional DNA barcoding, and that Malaise trap metabarcoding may soon fulfill its potential, providing a thermometer for biodiversity.
The ternary system Fe - 25 at% Co - 9 at% Mo shows an age hardening behavior similar to aluminum alloys. After solution annealing followed by rapid quenching, the Fe-Co-matrix is hardened during subsequent aging through precipitation of the intermetallic µ-phase (Fe,Co)7Mo6. In aged condition the entire Mo content is present in coarse primary and fine µ-phase particles and, therefore, the matrix consists exclusively of 71 at% Fe and 29 at% Co. The binary system Fe-Co shows a transformation from the disordered bcc structure to the ordered B2 structure between 25 and 72 at% Co at a critical ordering temperature ranging from room temperature to 723°C. As a consequence, the remaining overaged matrix in the Fe - 25 at% Co - 9 at% Mo system should also show such a transition. However, an ordered phase is brittle and, thus, not wanted for many applications. Better mechanical properties in terms of ductility can be achieved with a partially or fully disordered phase. Such a state can be obtained by rapid quenching from temperatures above the critical ordering temperature. In this study such an approach was implemented on the ternary Fe - 25 at% Co - 9 at% Mo alloy. The effect of different cooling rates on the mechanical properties was investigated by means of hardness testing. The actual ordering transition of the Fe - 29 at% Co matrix was determined with differential scanning calorimetry and neutron diffraction.
CuxO thin films have been deposited on a quartz substrate by reactive radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering at different target powers Pt (140-190 W) while keeping other growth process parameters fixed. Room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicate considerable improvement of crystallinity for the films deposited at Pt>170 W, with most pronounced excitonic features being observed in the film grown using Pt=190 W. These results corroborate well with the surface morphology of the films, which was found more flat, smooth and homogeneous for Pt >170 W films in comparison with those deposited at lower powers.
Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) has been deposited on (100), (110) and (111) oriented n-type Si and on fused silica by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The films have been post deposition annealed in the temperature range 200-500 οC. The AZO films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall and transmittance measurements. Circular diodes have been fabricated from the AZO/Si structures and characterized by current-voltage (IV) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The AZO films form Schottky junctions with the Si substrates for all the crystallographic orientations. It is established that after post deposition annealing the structure AZO/n-Si (110) is distinguished as the system with largest rectification.
Abnormalities in cortical thickness and subcortical structures have been studied in schizophrenia but little is known about corresponding changes in mania and brain structural differences between these two psychiatric conditions, especially early in the stage of the illness. In this study we aimed to compare cortical thickness and shape of the amygdala–hippocampal complex in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and mania (FEM).
Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 28 FES patients, 28 FEM patients and 28 healthy control subjects who were matched for age, gender and handedness.
Overall, the shape of the amygdala was deformed in both patient groups, relative to controls. Compared to FEM patients, FES patients had significant inward shape deformation in the left hippocampal tail, right hippocampal body and a small region in the right amygdala. Cortical thinning was more widespread in FES patients, with significant differences found in the temporal brain regions when compared with FEM and controls.
Significant differences were observed between the two groups of patients with FES and FEM in terms of the hippocampal shape and cortical thickness in the temporal region, highlighting that distinguishable brain structural changes are present early in the course of schizophrenia and mania.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
In this work, Dopant Segregated Schottky Barrier (DSSB) and Schottky Barrier (SB) vertical silicon nanowire (VSiNW) diodes were fabricated on p-type Si substrate using CMOS-compatible processes to investigate the effects of segregated dopants at the silicide/silicon interface and different annealing processes on nickel silicide formation in DSSB VSiNW diodes. With segregated dopants at the silicide/silicon interface, VSiNW diodes showed higher on-current, due to an enhanced carrier tunneling, and much lower leakage current. This can be attributed to the altered energy bands caused by the accumulated Arsenic dopants at the interface. Moreover, DSSB VSiNW diodes also gave ideality factor much closer to unity and exhibited lower electron SBH (ΦBn) than SB VSiNW diodes. This proved that interfacial accumulated dopants could impede the inhomogeneous nature of the Schottky diodes and simultaneously, minimize the effect of Fermi level pinning and ionization of surface defect states. Comparing the impact of different silicide formation annealing using DSSB VSiNW diodes, the 2-step anneal process reduces the silicide intrusion length within the SiNW by ~ 5X and the silicide interface was smooth along the (100) direction. Furthermore, the 2-step DSSB VSiNW diode also exhibited much lower leakage current and an ideality factor much closer to unity, as compared to 1-step DSSB VSiNW diode.
Studies in Western countries have repeatedly shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in China?
Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression and regression coefficients by linear or Poisson regression.
Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD [OR 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95–5.45]. This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.17–5.23), genital (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.32–5.83) and intercourse (OR 13.35, 95% CI 1.83–97.42). The association between any form of CSA and MD remained significant after accounting for parental history of depression, childhood emotional neglect (CEN), childhood physical abuse (CPA) and parent–child relationship. Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and an increased risk for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.39–2.66) and dysthymia (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.52–3.09).
In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and increased co-morbidity with GAD and dysthymia. Although reporting biases cannot be ruled out, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that, as in Western countries, CSA substantially increases the risk for MD in China.
(1) To present a rare case of stridor secondary to prolonged laryngospasm in a patient with Parkinson's disease, and (2) to review the literature on stridor in Parkinson's disease.
We report a 73-year-old Parkinson's disease patient who developed acute stridor due to prolonged laryngospasm triggered by overspill of excessive secretions. The literature was reviewed, following a Medline search using the keywords ‘Parkinson's disease’ and ‘stridor’ or ‘airway obstruction’ or ‘laryngospasm’ or ‘laryngeal dystonia’ or ‘bilateral vocal cord palsy’.
Only 12 previously reported cases of stridor in Parkinson's disease patients were identified. Causes included bilateral vocal fold palsy (eight cases), laryngospasm (five), and dystonia of the jaw and neck muscles (two). The mechanism of laryngospasm in our patient was similar to ‘dry drowning’, and has not previously been described.
Laryngospasm can be triggered in Parkinson's disease by excessive secretions entering the larynx. The mechanism is similar to ‘dry drowning’. Treatment focuses on reducing secretions. The use of botulinum toxin to reduce spasm is inappropriate in this situation. This case emphasises the importance of recognising different causes of stridor in Parkinson's disease patients, as this affects management.
In this study, the mechanical properties and creep behavior of hybrid sol-gel silica-based coatings on copper substrates were investigated. Sol-gel processing was used to synthesize the organically modified silanes using mixtures of tetraethoxysilane and vinyltrimethoxysilane or glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane precursors. The mechanical and creep properties of the coatings were assessed using nanoindentation. The link between film structure and creep behavior from nanoindentation experiments was examined, and simple mechanical models were used to extract Young’s modulus and viscosity from fits to creep data. It is shown that the creep response of the coatings was influenced dramatically by the chain length and amount of organic substituent.
Electromigration is a phenomenon that has attracted much attention in the semiconductor industry because of its deleterious effects on electronic devices (such as interconnects) as they become smaller and current density passing through them increases. However, the effect of the electric current on the microstructure of interconnect lines during the very early stage of electromigration is not well documented. In the present report, we used synchrotron radiation based polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction for the in-situ study of the electromigration induced plasticity effects on individual grains of an Al (Cu) interconnect test structure. Dislocation slips which are activated by the electric current stressing are analyzed by the shape change of the diffraction peaks. The study shows polygonization of the grains due to the rearrangement of geometrically necessary dislocations (GND) in the direction of the current. Consequences of these findings are discussed.