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Organizations can expand their impact through strategic partnerships. We used social network analysis to compare two network theories in order to determine whether zoos’ conservation partnerships form networks that reflect collaborative social movements or business-style competition. Data from 234 zoos revealed a conservation network involving 1679 organizations with 3018 partnerships. The network had 40 subgroups: 1 large network, 6 small networks and 33 disconnected zoos. Social network analysis metrics revealed an incohesive and low-density network. Zoos are more likely to behave competitively like businesses with limited partnerships to protect resources, rather than behaving as collaborative social movement organizations partnering to further the cause of conservation across their communities. Content analyses of organizational activities revealed that 62% of zoos’ partners display different skills and roles in conservation projects, while 38% participated in the same activities as zoos. These novel findings about zoos behaving as competitive institutions inform opportunities for better collaboration in order to expand organizations’ conservation impact.
To evaluate and improve the involvement of stakeholders in community-based natural resource management, we developed a stakeholder collaboration index. We compared the stakeholders of five Kenyan conservancies by conducting 10 focus group meetings with conservancy management committees and wildlife game scouts. We used the nominal group technique to identify and rank perceptions of the conservancies’ strengths, weaknesses and opportunities, and any threats. The resulting 455 responses were categorized into ecological, institutional or socio-economic themes of ecosystem management. Collaboration index scores ranged from low (0.33) to high (0.95) collaboration, on a scale of 0–1, with a mean of 0.61. Managers and game scouts had varying perceptions of the conservancies but they agreed about major strengths and threats to conservation. The index highlighted shared perspectives between managers and scouts, which could be used as opportunities for increased stakeholder involvement in collaborative management. The stakeholder collaboration index is a potentially useful tool for improving management of environmental conservation programmes.
Promoting conservation practices in agriculture to protect biodiversity of rare Mediterranean ecosystems is nowhere more critical than in Chile, where less than 2% of the Mediterranean region is formally protected. We used the theory of planned behaviour to assess what influences Chilean winegrowers’ conservation behaviour and tested whether a sustainability programme was effective. We compared winegrowers involved in the programme with a comparison group, using semi-structured interviews at 23 wineries to determine predictors of conservation practice adoption at vineyards. The intervention group had higher levels of conservation behaviour than the comparison group and practised integrated pest management and exotic species control more frequently. Managers’ views on conservation practices as doing ‘what is right’ with regards to nature and the environment were evident in both groups. However, programme winegrowers recognized more cultural benefits of nature and reported a broader spectrum of organizational and community stakeholder influence. Economic resources were perceived as a major barrier, as well as the lack of data connecting biodiversity conservation with wine quality and production. This study demonstrates the multidimensional nature of winegrowers’ motivations and barriers for adopting conservation practices, which is critical to addressing the significant challenges facing biodiversity conservation and the promotion of sustainable agricultural systems.
An adverse early life environment can increase the risk of metabolic and other disorders later in life. Genetic variation can modify an individual’s susceptibility to these environmental challenges. These gene by environment interactions are important, but difficult, to dissect. The nucleus is the primary organelle where environmental responses impact directly on the genetic variants within the genome, resulting in changes to the biology of the genome and ultimately the phenotype. Understanding genome biology requires the integration of the linear DNA sequence, epigenetic modifications and nuclear proteins that are present within the nucleus. The interactions between these layers of information may be captured in the emergent spatial genome organization. As such genome organization represents a key research area for decoding the role of genetic variation in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease.
Objectives: Sleep quality affects memory and executive function in older adults, but little is known about its effects in midlife. If it affects cognition in midlife, it may be a modifiable factor for later-life functioning. Methods: We examined the association between sleep quality and cognition in 1220 middle-aged male twins (age 51–60 years) from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. We interviewed participants with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and tested them for episodic memory as well as executive functions of inhibitory and interference control, updating in working memory, and set shifting. Interference control was assessed during episodic memory, inhibitory control during working memory, and non-memory conditions and set shifting during working memory and non-memory conditions. Results: After adjusting for covariates and correcting for multiple comparisons, sleep quality was positively associated with updating in working memory, set shifting in the context of working memory, and better visual-spatial (but not verbal) episodic memory, and at trend level, with interference control in the context of episodic memory. Conclusions: Sleep quality was associated with visual-spatial recall and possible resistance to proactive/retroactive interference. It was also associated with updating in working memory and with set shifting, but only when working memory demands were relatively high. Thus, effects of sleep quality on midlife cognition appear to be at the intersection of executive function and memory processes. Subtle deficits in these age-susceptible cognitive functions may indicate increased risk for decline in cognitive abilities later in life that might be reduced by improved midlife sleep quality. (JINS, 2018, 24, 67–76)
Introduction: Our tertiary care institution embarked on the Choosing Wisely campaign to reduce unnecessary testing, and selected the reduction of ankle x-rays as part of its top five priority initiatives. The Low Risk Ankle Rule (LRAR), an evidence-based decision rule, has been derived and validated to clinically evaluate ankle injuries which do not require radiography. The LRAR, is cost-effective, has 100% sensitivity for clinically important ankle injuries and reduces ankle imaging rates by 30-60% in both academic and community setting. Our objective was to significantly reduce the proportion of ankle x-rays ordered for acute ankle injuries presenting to our pediatric Emergency Department (ED). Methods: Medical records were reviewed for all patients presenting to our tertiary care pediatric ED (ages 3- 18 years) with an isolated acute ankle injury from Jan 1, 2016-Sept 30, 2016. Children with outside imaging, an injury that occurred >72 hours prior, or those who had a repeat ED visit for same injury were excluded. Quality improvement (QI) initiatives included multidisciplinary staff education about the LRAR, posters placed within the ED highlighting the LRAR, development of a new diagnostic imaging requisition for ankle x-rays requiring use of the LRAR and collaboration with the Division of Radiology to ensure compliance with new requisition. The proportion of patients presenting to the ED with acute ankle injuries who received x-rays was measured. ED length of stay (LOS), return visits to the ED and orthopedic referrals were collected as balancing measures. Results: At baseline 88% of patients with acute ankle injuries received x-rays. Following our multiple interventions, the proportion of x-rays decreased significantly to 54%, (p<0.001). This decrease in x-ray rate was not associated with an increase in ED LOS, ED return visits or orthopedic referrals. There was an increase uptake of the dedicated x-ray requisition over time to 71%. Conclusion: This QI initiative to increase uptake of the LRAR, resulted in a significant reduction of ankle x-rays rates for children presenting with acute ankle injuries in our pediatric ED without increasing LOS, return visits or need for orthopedic referrals for missed injuries. Just as in the derivation and validation studies, the reductions have been sustained and reduced unnecessary testing and ionizing radiation.
Traditionally, conservation programmes assume that local peoples’ support for parks depends on receiving material benefits from foreign exchange, tourism, development and employment. However, in the case of forest parks in Africa, where annual visitation can be small, local support may instead result from ecosystem services. Kibale National Park, a forest park in Uganda, demonstrates that people appreciate parks in ways that are seldom cited nor explored. Public perceptions of benefits accrued from Kibale were explored using two different sampling techniques: a community census and a geographic sample. In both surveys, over 50% of respondents perceived benefits provided by Kibale National Park, and over 90% of those who perceived benefits identified ecosystem services, whereas material benefits were cited less frequently. Multimodel selection on a suite of general linear models for the two different sampling methods provided a comparison of factors influencing perceptions of ecosystem services. Perceptions of Park benefits were influenced by geography, household and respondent characteristics, and perception of negative impacts from the Park. Perceived ecosystem benefits played an important role in the way the Park was viewed and valued locally. Parks have considerable impacts on neighbouring communities, and their long-term political and economic sustainability depends on managing these relationships well. Since local people have the most to gain or lose by conserving neighbouring parks, analyses that incorporate the perceptions of local people are essential to management and sustainability of park landscapes.
Asiatic black bears Ursus thibetanus are threatened in Japan but are generally considered to be nuisance animals because of the damage they cause to agriculture and property, and because they cause human casualties. We analysed media coverage of black bears in Japan to understand social discourse and potential influences on public perceptions about conservation of bears. Content analysis of a total of 348 articles in a local and a national newspaper revealed that the number of articles regarding black bears and the proportion of negative articles that describe the risks posed by bears increased concomitant with a rise in sightings of bears. Local newspapers included more articles about the risks posed by bears than national newspapers. This potentially reflects and can amplify local residents' perceptions of risk. The proportion of thematic and episodic articles was unrelated to increases in bear appearances. More extensive communications with media representatives by biologists, government officials and police are needed to enhance public knowledge of bears and lead to broader perspectives on their management.
The Working Group on the Natural Planetary Satellites has been created to promote the development of high-quality ephemerides. The Working Group encourages theoretical studies, coordinated observations, and makes all data available to the users through the NSDC web site (http://www.imcce.fr/nsdc).
Associations between early life maltreatment, social information processing (SIP) and aggression in childhood and adolescence have been widely documented. Few studies have examined the importance of childhood maltreatment independent of SIP in the etiology of adult aggression. Furthermore, moderating effects of childhood maltreatment on the SIP–aggression links have not been explored.
Hierarchical, multi-level models were fitted to data from n=2752 twins aged 20–55 years from the PennTwins Cohort. Adult aggression was assessed with the Life History of Aggression questionnaire. Childhood maltreatment was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Two aspects of SIP were examined: hostile attribution biases (HAB); negative emotional responses (NER).
Childhood maltreatment was positively correlated with adult aggression, independently of HAB and NER. In addition, childhood maltreatment moderated the relationships between both aspects of SIP and adult aggression. Specifically, the relationship between NER and aggression was stronger among individuals with higher levels of childhood maltreatment and NER was not associated with aggression for adults who experienced low levels of childhood maltreatment. Moderating effects of childhood maltreatment on the NER–aggression link were supported for total childhood maltreatment, emotional neglect and emotional abuse. In contrast, HAB was more strongly associated with adult aggression at lower levels of emotional abuse and physical neglect.
The current study provides insight into the mechanisms by which early life experiences influence adult aggression. Our findings suggest that childhood maltreatment may not only lead to increased levels of aggression in adulthood but may also modify the associations between SIP and adult aggression.
Protected area management in developing countries faces the challenges of building support for conservation among neighbouring residents and monitoring the social and ecological impacts of conservation programming. This study examined a collaborative resource management (CRM) programme at Kibale National Park (Uganda) that permits residents to fish inside the Park. Like other integrated conservation and development programmes, the goals are to help alleviate poverty and encourage support for conservation and conservation-related behaviours. The programme's impact was empirically analysed using an 81 item personal survey, with 94 CRM fishers and 91 comparison group respondents, and additional data from semi-structured interviews and document review. Fishers’ annual income was significantly greater (median = US$ 376.02 yr−1) than that of the comparison group (median = US$ 196.19 yr−1; p < 0.001), and their tribal affiliation influenced earnings. Fishers indicated greater support for conservation (p < 0.01) than the comparison group. Although some CRM fishers deterred illegal activity, some may extract resources illegally. This study demonstrates that CRM is a viable tool for promoting support for conservation and increasing income, although monitoring of programme participants is needed to deter illegal behaviours and sustain the resource base.
Four new compounds containing vanadosilicate clusters have been synthesized by hydrothermal reactions. The clusters are derived from the [V18O42] Keggin cluster by substitution of V=O caps by Si2O(O,OH)2 species. In Cs9[(V15Si6O46(OH)2Cl)(V2O4)](H2O)6.2, 1, the [V15Si6O46(OH)2] cluster shells are covalently interconnected by VO4 tetrahedra to form an infinite layer. In ((CH3)4N)4[V15Si6O42(OH)6(H2O)](H2O)20, 2, and ((CH3)4N)4(V(H2O)6)2/3 [V15Si6O42(OH)6 (H2O)](H2O), 3, separated [V15Si6O42(OH)6] cluster shells are interlinked by hydrogen bonds to form frameworks with wide channel systems. The separated cluster shell in ((CH3)4N)4((CH3)2NH2)((CH3)2NH) [V14Si8O42(OH)8(HCO2)] (H2O)4.7, 4, has four Si2O(OH)2 species in a tetrahedral configuration. The 2D structure of 1 and 0D structures of 2-4 complement the known 1D and 3D structures formed from such vanadosilicate shells.
Cell surface hydrophobicity, haemagglutination pattern and adherence to HeLa cells were examined in 230 strains of Escherichia coli collected from women (n = 61 strains) and children (n = 65 strains) with non-obstructive acute pyelonephritis and in 104 faecal control strains of E. coli from healthy adults (n = 71 strains) and children (n = 33 strains). Pyelonephritogenic E. coli strains showed a significantly increased incidence of hydrophobic properties (90%) and mannose resistant haemagglutination (MRHA) of human erythrocytes (83%) than faecal control strains (64 and 23% respectively, P < 0·001 in both cases). Mannose sensitive haemagglutination (MSHA) was observed in 48% of the pyelonephritogenic E. coli strains and in 50% of the faecal control strains (NS). The incidence of adherence to HeLa cells was low both in pyelonephritogenic and faecal control strains, 6 and 7% respectively (NS). The bacterial phenotypes MRHA + MSHA + and MRHA + MSHA− appeared significantly more often in pyelonephritogenic E. coli strains (35 and 48% respectively) than in faecal control strains (5 and 17% respectively, P < 0·001 in both cases). The phenotype MRHA − MSHA + occurred significantly more often in control strains (45%) than in pyelonephritogenic strains (13%, P < 0·001). Eighty-three per cent of the pyelonephritogenic E. coli strains expressing hydrophobic properties showed MRHA and 50% of the hydrophobic strains showed MSHA. There were no significant correlations between cell surface hydrophobic properties and haemagglutination pattern or adherence to HeLa cells in pyelonephritogenic E. coli strains nor in faecal control strains.
The suppressor of sable [su(s)2] restores the function of vermilion (v), purple (pr) and speck (sp) as well as sable (s) in Drosophila melanogaster. In this report various alleles of su(s) are compared for their relative effectiveness on three target mutations, v, pr and sp. Three criteria for suppression of pr and v were employed: visible phenotype, eye pigment levels (drosopterins and xanthommatin) and enzyme levels (sepiapterin synthase and tryptophan oxygenase). For sp only the visible phenotype was examined. By all three criteria pr was found to be more easily suppressed than v; v and sp were comparable. By use of pr with various alleles of su(s) either homozygously or in heterozygous combination with su(s)+, the extent of suppression of pr can be best demonstrated by observing the levels of sepiapterin synthase; normal levels of drosopterins were found in females when sepiapterin synthase was only 20% of normal. On the other hand, the extent of suppression of v is best demonstrated by the amount of xanthommatin eye pigment, because even the suppressed vermilion fly has < 10% of wild-type activity of tryptophan oxygenase when 1-day-old flies are examined; in older flies this enzyme can be as high as 50% of wild type. From these results we also demonstrated that su(s)2, and other alleles, are not recessive but, in heterozygous combination with su(s)+, cause marked suppression of pr and slight, but reproducible, suppression of v. The purple mutation, therefore, is particularly useful for studying the mechanism of suppression as well as for obtaining new mutant alleles of su(s).
The personality disorders (PDs) in the ‘dramatic’ cluster B [antisocial (ASPD), histrionic (HPD), narcissistic (NPD) and borderline (BPD)] demonstrate co-morbidity. However, the degree to which genetic and/or environmental factors influence their co-occurrence is not known and, with the exception of ASPD, the relative impact of genetic and environmental risk factors on liability to the cluster B PDs has not been conclusively established.
PD traits were assessed in 1386 Norwegian twin pairs between the age of 19 and 35 years using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV). Using the statistical package Mx, multivariate twin models were fitted to dimensional representations of the PDs.
The best-fitting model, which did not include sex or shared family environment effects, included common genetic and environmental factors influencing all four dramatic PD traits, and factors influencing only ASPD and BPD. Heritability was estimated at 38% for ASPD traits, 31% for HPD traits, 24% for NPD traits and 35% for BPD traits. BPD traits had the lowest and ASPD traits the highest disorder-specific genetic variance.
The frequently observed co-morbidity between cluster B PDs results from both common genetic and environmental influences. Etiologically, cluster B has a ‘substructure’ in which ASPD and BPD are more closely related to each other than to the other cluster B disorders.
The segregated vacancies in the A site-ordered oxygen-deficient double perovskites REBaCo2O5+x (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu) (RBCO) are thought to greatly enhance the diffusivity of oxide ions in the bulk of these materials and possibly supply surface defect sites with enhanced reactivity towards molecular oxygen. Some materials in this family of REBaCo2O5+x compounds, such as PrBaCo2O5+x, (PBCO), have already demonstrated high electronic conductivity, rapid oxygen ion diffusion and surface exchange kinetics. Therefore, the family of REBaCo2O5+x compounds were synthesized and evaluated as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on gadolinium doped ceria (CGO) electrolytes. The electrochemical performance of symmetrical cells (REBaCo2O5+x + CGO composite cathodes on the CGO electrolytes) was evaluated by using AC impedance spectroscopy. The area specific resistance (ASR) performance was measured as a function of temperature as well as oxygen partial pressure.
Conduct disorder (CD) and peer deviance (PD) both powerfully predict future externalizing behaviors. Although levels of CD and PD are strongly correlated, the causal relationship between them has remained controversial and has not been examined by a genetically informative study.
Levels of CD and PD were assessed in 746 adult male–male twin pairs at personal interview for ages 8–11, 12–14 and 15–17 years using a life history calendar. Model fitting was performed using the Mx program.
The best-fit model indicated an active developmental relationship between CD and PD including forward transmission of both traits over time and strong causal relationships between CD and PD within time periods. The best-fit model indicated that the causal relationship for genetic risk factors was from CD to PD and was constant over time. For common environmental factors, the causal pathways ran from PD to CD and were stronger in earlier than later age periods.
A genetically informative model revealed causal pathways difficult to elucidate by other methods. Genes influence risk for CD, which, through social selection, impacts on the deviance of peers. Shared environment, through family and community processes, encourages or discourages adolescent deviant behavior, which, via social influence, alters risk for CD. Social influence is more important than social selection in childhood, but by late adolescence social selection becomes predominant. These findings have implications for prevention efforts for CD and associated externalizing disorders.
Loss of wildlife, encroachment on wild lands and conflicts between protected areas and neighbouring communities continue to threaten the integrity of protected areas (PAs) in Uganda. To increase support from local communities and ensure long-term sustainability for Uganda's PAs, a policy of community-based conservation was introduced in 1988 as a management approach in seven PAs. The effectiveness of the community-based approach for reducing threats was compared to conventional PA management by conducting a threat reduction assessment at 16 PAs, seven with community-based approaches and nine without. Additional data collected using document reviews, interviews with government officials, and surveys of PA wardens were compared with the threat reduction assessments. Twenty-three primary threats were identified at PAs. Local game poaching was the most common threat. The threat reduction assessment indices of community-based PAs (mean=49.0±12) were not significantly different from those of conventional PAs (mean=37.96±21.6). Some specific threats, such as bush burning, logging, encroachment and unclear boundaries, seemed to be better mitigated at community-based PAs. Management approaches at all PAs mitigated fewer than half of the identified threats. Management approaches are needed that directly target PA threats, go beyond PA boundaries by involving additional government departments, link people's livelihoods to conservation efforts and strengthen PA institutions.