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In this paper, we report the analysis, design, and implementation of stacked transistors for power amplifiers realized on InP Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (DHBTs) technology. A theoretical analysis based on the interstage matching between all the single transistors has been developed starting from the small-signal equivalent circuit. The analysis has been extended by including large-signal effects and layout-related limitations. An evaluation of the maximum number of transistors for positive incremental power and gain is also carried out. To validate the analysis, E-band three- and four-stacked InP DHBT matched power cells have been realized for the first time as monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). For the three-stacked transistor, a small-signal gain of 8.3 dB, a saturated output power of 15 dBm, and a peak power added efficiency (PAE) of 5.2% have been obtained at 81 GHz. At the same frequency, the four-stacked transistor achieves a small-signal gain of 11.5 dB, a saturated output power of 14.9 dBm and a peak PAE of 3.8%. A four-way combined three-stacked MMIC power amplifier has been implemented as well. It exhibits a linear gain of 8.1 dB, a saturated output power higher than 18 dBm, and a PAE higher than 3% at 84 GHz.
This paper presents an ultra-wideband coplanar waveguide (CPW)-to-asymmetric coplanar stripline (ACPS) transition based on aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate. The concepts of designing CPW, ACPS, and CPW-to-ACPS transition are explained. In order to suppress parasitic modes, vias going through AlN substrate are added along the ground traces. The signal trace is tapered out and chamfered to reduce the reflection caused by the termination of ground trace. The CPW-to-ACPS transition is designed, fabricated, and measured in a back-to-back configuration. The fabricated CPW-to-ACPS transition can provide a bandwidth of 165 GHz with an associated insertion loss of 3 dB.
In this paper, an electromagnetic (EM) simulation assisted parameter extraction procedure is demonstrated for accurate modeling of down-scaled transferred-substrate InP HBTs. The external parasitic network associated with via transitions and device electrodes is carefully extracted from calibrated three-dimensional EM simulations up to 325 GHz. Following an on-wafer multi-line Through-Reflect-Line calibration procedure, the external parasitic network is de-embedded from the transistor measurements and the active device parameters are extracted in a reliable way. The small-signal model structure augmented with the distributed parasitic network provides accurate small-signal prediction up to 220 GHz.
The benefit of cryogenic cooling on the performance of millimeter-wave GaAs Schottky-barrier varactor-based frequency multipliers has been studied. For this purpose, a dedicated compact model of a GaAs Schottky-barrier varactor using a triple-anode diode stack has been developed for use with a commercial RF and microwave CAD tool. The model implements critical physical phenomena such as thermionic-field emission current transport at cryogenic temperatures, temperature dependent mobility, reverse breakdown, self-heating, and high-field velocity saturation effects. A parallel conduction model is employed in order to include the effect of barrier inhomogeneities which is known to cause deviation from the expected I--V characteristics at cryogenic temperatures. The developed model is shown to accurately fit the I--V --T dataset from 25 to 295 K measured on the varactor diode stack. Harmonic balance simulations using the model are used to predict the efficiency of a millimeter-wave balanced doubler from room to cryogenic temperatures. The estimation is verified experimentally using a 188 GHz balanced doubler cooled down to 77 K. The model has been further verified down to 14 K using a 78 GHz balanced doubler.
In this paper, we propose a double balanced mixer with a tunable Marchand balun. The circuit is designed in a SiGe BiCMOS process using Schottky diodes. The tunability of the Marchand balun is used to enhance critical parameters for double balanced mixers. The local oscillator-IF isolation can be changed from –51 to –60.5 dB by tuning. Similarly, the IIP2 can be improved from 41.3 to 48.7 dBm at 11 GHz, while the input referred 1-dB compression point is kept constant at 8 dBm. The tuning have no influence on conversion loss, which remains at 8.8 dB at a LO power level of 11 dBm at the center frequency of 11 GHz. The mixer has a 3 dB bandwidth from 8 to 13 GHz, covering the entire X-band. The full mixer has a size of 2050 μm × 1000 μm.
The development in high-end microwave transceiver systems toward the software defined radio has brought about the need for tunable frontend filters. Although the problem is being tackled by the microwave community, there still appears to be an unmet demand for practical tunable filter technologies. With this motivation, this work presents a tuning method that delivers a resonator Q0 of 2000–3621 within a minimum tuning ratio of 1:1.42. A continuously tunable notch filter based on this tuning method is presented. The design is manufactured, measured, and verified. It is shown that the tuning technology compares favorably to other selected technologies.
The aim of the European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2 (ESEN2) project was to estimate age-specific seroprevalence for a number of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe. To achieve this serosurveys were collected by 22 national laboratories. To adjust for a variety of laboratory methods and assays, all quantitative results were transformed to a reference laboratory's units and were then classified as positive or negative to obtain age-specific seroprevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the value of standardization by comparing the crude and standardized seroprevalence estimates. Seroprevalence was estimated for measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, varicella zoster and hepatitis A virus (HAV) and compared before and after serological results had been standardized. The results showed that if no such adjustment had taken place, seroprevalence would have differed by an average of 3·2% (95% bootstrap interval 2·9–3·6) although this percentage varied substantially by antigen. These differences were as high as 16% for some serosurveys (HAV) which means that standardization could have a considerable impact on seroprevalence estimates and should be considered when comparing serosurveys performed in different laboratories using different assay methods.
Two related outbreaks (in 2009 and 2012) of cryptosporidiosis in Norwegian schoolchildren during a stay at a remote holiday farm provided us with a natural experiment to investigate possible secondary transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum IIa A19G1R1. After the children had returned home, clinical data and stool samples were obtained from their household contacts. Samples were investigated for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunofluorescence antibody test. We found both asymptomatic and symptomatic infections, which are likely to have been secondary transmission. Laboratory-confirmed transmission rate was 17% [4/23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7·0–37·1] in the 2009 outbreak, and 0% (95% CI 0–16·8) in the 2012 outbreak. Using a clinical definition, the probable secondary transmission rate in the 2012 outbreak was 8% (7/83, 95% CI 4·1–16·4). These findings highlight the importance of hygienic and public health measures during outbreaks or individual cases of cryptosporidiosis. We discuss our findings in light of previous studies reporting varying secondary transmission rates of Cryptosporidium spp.
In this paper, a passive double-balanced mixer in SiGe HBT technology is presented. Owing to lack of suitable passive mixing elements in the technology, the mixing elements are formed by diode-connected HBTs. The mixer uses lumped element Marchand baluns on both the local oscillator (LO) and the radio frequency (RF) port. A break out of the Marchand balun is measured. This demonstrates good phase and magnitude match of 0.7° and 0.11 dB, respectively. The Marchand baluns are broadband with a measured 3 dB bandwidth of 6.4 GHz, while still having a magnitude imbalance better than 0.4 dB and a phase imbalance better than 5°. Unfortunately with a rather high loss of 2.5 dB, mainly due to the low Q-factor of the inductors used. The mixer is optimized for use in doppler radars and is highly linear with a 1 dB compression point above 12 dBm IIP2 of 66 dBm. The conversion gain at the center frequency of 8.5 GHz is −9.8 dB at an LO drive level of 15 dBm. The whole mixer is very broadband with 3 dB bandwidth from 7 to 12 GHz covering the entire X-band. The LO–IF, RF–IF, and RF–LO isolation is better than 46, 36, and 36 dB, respectively, in the entire band of operation.
In this paper, the small- and large-signal modeling of InP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) in transferred substrate (TS) technology is investigated. The small-signal equivalent circuit parameters for TS-HBTs in two-terminal and three-terminal configurations are determined by employing a direct parameter extraction methodology dedicated to III–V based HBTs. It is shown that the modeling of measured S-parameters can be improved in the millimeter-wave frequency range by augmenting the small-signal model with a description of AC current crowding. The extracted elements of the small-signal model structure are employed as a starting point for the extraction of a large-signal model. The developed large-signal model for the TS-HBTs accurately predicts the DC over temperature and small-signal performance over bias as well as the large-signal performance at millimeter-wave frequencies.
In March 2012, a second outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum affected children following a stay at a holiday farm in Norway; the first outbreak occurred in 2009. We studied a cohort of 145 schoolchildren who had visited the farm, of which 40 (28%) were cases. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in faecal samples from humans, goat kids and lambs. Molecular studies revealed C. parvum subtype IIa A19G1R1 in all samples including human samples from the 2009 outbreak. A dose–response relationship was found between the number of optional sessions with animals and illness, increasing from two sessions [risk ratio (RR) 2·7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·6–11·5] to six sessions (RR 8·0, 95% CI 1·7–37·7). The occurrence of two outbreaks 3 years apart, with the same subtype of C. parvum, suggests that the parasite is established in the farm's environment. We recommend greater emphasis on hand hygiene and routines related to animal contact.
Mumps outbreaks have recently been recorded in a number of highly vaccinated populations. We related seroprevalence, epidemiological and vaccination data from 18 European countries participating in The European Sero-Epidemiology Network (ESEN) to their risk of mumps outbreaks in order to inform vaccination strategies. Samples from national population serum banks were collected, tested for mumps IgG antibodies and standardized for international comparisons. A comparative analysis between countries was undertaken using age-specific mumps seroprevalence data and information on reported mumps incidence, vaccine strains, vaccination programmes and vaccine coverage 5–12 years after sera collection. Mean geometric mumps antibody titres were lower in mumps outbreak countries [odds ratio (OR) 0·09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·01–0·71)]. MMR1 vaccine coverage ⩾95% remained protective in a multivariable model (P < 0·001), as did an interval of 4–8 years between doses (OR 0·08, 95% CI 0·01–0·85). Preventing outbreaks and controlling mumps probably requires several elements, including high-coverage vaccination programmes with MMR vaccine with 4–8 years between doses.
High-quality crystalline Si1-xGex (x=0.10 and 0.25)
alloys were implanted with 70 keV Er+ ions at temperatures of
350°C and 550°C to a fluence of 1015 cm−2. In-situ
Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS) analysis supplemented with
transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that as-implanted alloys were
in form of ternary solid solutions with a peak Er concentration of 1 at.%
without any trace of Er-Si or Er-Ge precipitation.
In the samples implanted at 350°C Er atoms were found to be distributed
randomly in the amorphous host matrix. Post-implantation annealing at
different temperatures up to 600° showed that the solid phase epitaxial
regrowth of the damaged layers strongly depends on both the Ge concentration
in the alloys and the temperature of annealing. Along with the
recrystallization of the damaged matrix, annealing was observed to induce
simultaneous removal of nearly all the implanted Er as the recrystallization
front progresses towards the surface.
In contrast, high temperature implantation at 550°C led to spontaneous
recovery of the alloy crystallinity and incorporation of considerable
fraction of implanted Er atoms on regular tetrahedral interstitial sites in
the host lattice.
Ion implantation of lead or indium into aluminium results in spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead or indium precipitates. The precipitates grow in topotactical alignment with the matrix, giving TEM images characterized by moiré fringes. The size and density of the precipitates increase with increasing fluence until coalescence begins to occur. Implantations at elevated temperatures lead to formation of larger precipitates with well developed facets. This is particularly significant for implantations above the bulk melting point of the implanted species. Melting and solidification have been followed by in-situ TEM heating and cooling experiments. Superheating up to ∼ 50 K above the bulk melting point has been observed, and the largest inclusions melt first. Melting is associated with only partial loss of facetting of the largest inclusions. Initial growth of the inclusions occurs by trapping of atoms retained in supersaturated solution. Further growth occurs by coalescence of neighbouring inclusions in the liquid phase. Solidification is accompanied by a strong undercooling ∼ 30 K below the bulk melting point, where the smallest inclusions solidify first. Solidification is characterized by spontaneous restoration of the facets and the topotactical alignment.
Chemical vapor deposition experiments using (Me3Si)3As with either GaCl3 or Me3Ga at ambient pressure have produced films of GaAs on Si and semi-conducting GaAs substrates. The films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy, and each have small amounts of C and O impurities. No desired films were deposited from (C6F5)3GaAs(SiMe3)3 at 500°C and low pressures.
X-ray powder diffraction has been used to determine the crystalline phase mineralogy in samples of fly ash from each of the lignite mining areas of North America. The characteristic phases of North Dakota lignite fly ashes were periclase, lime, merwinite and the sulfate phases anhydrite, thenardite and a sodalite-structure phase. Mullite was absent in these low-Al2O3 ashes. Montana lignite ash mineralogy had characteristics of ND lignite and MT subbituminous coal fly ashes; mullite and C3A were present and the alkali sulfates were absent. Texas and Louisiana lignite fly ashes had the characteristic mineralogy of bituminous coal fly ash: quartz, mullite, ferrite-spinel (magnetite) and minor hematite. Even though their analytical CaO contents were 7–14%, all but one lacked crystalline CaO-containing phases. Lignite fly ashes from Saskatchewan were generally the least crystalline of those studied and had a mineralogy consisting of quartz, mullite, ferrite spinel and periclase. Quantitative XRD data were obtained. The position of the diffuse scattering maximum in the x-ray diffractograms was indicative of the glass composition of the lignite fly ash.
EuroRotaNet, a laboratory network, was established in order to determine the diversity of co-circulating rotavirus strains in Europe over three or more rotavirus seasons from 2006/2007 and currently includes 16 countries. This report highlights the tremendous diversity of rotavirus strains co-circulating in the European population during three years of surveillance since 2006/2007 and points to the possible origins of these strains including genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Furthermore, the ability of the network to identify strains circulating with an incidence of ⩾1% allowed the identification of possible emerging strains such as G8 and G12 since the beginning of the study; analysis of recent data indicates their increased incidence. The introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination in at least two of the participating countries, and partial vaccine coverage in some others may provide data on diversity driven by vaccine introduction and possible strain replacement in Europe.
To assess whether apoptosis occurs in pig brain granulomas due to Taenia solium cysticerci, brain tissues from 30 pigs naturally infected with T. solium cysticercosis were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-end labelling (TUNEL) staining. In addition, tissues were stained with CD3 marker to identify T lymphocytes. Examination of TUNEL-stained tissues showed apoptotic cells in early lesions that contained viable cysticerci. Apoptotic cells were primarily found interspersed with normal cell types, and were mostly located in the inflammatory infiltrate. Late or advanced granulomas with disintegrated scolices did not show TUNEL-positive cells. CD3+ cells were found in both early and advanced lesions and apoptosis mainly co-localized with CD3+ T lymphocytes. This suggests that these cells are constantly undergoing apoptosis and thus die as soon as they arrive at the site of infection. Apoptosis indeed may be one way by which T. solium cysticerci down-regulate the host's cellular immune response in early cysticercosis. Therefore, further research is needed to establish if other cells besides T-lymphocytes are also a target for destruction by cysticerci in early cysticercosis as well as studies to assess if cysteine protease is expressed by viable cysticerci in situ.
The aim of the European Sero-Epidemiology Network is to establish comparability of the serological surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe. The designated reference laboratory (RL) for measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) prepared and tested a panel of 151 sera by the reference enzyme immunoassay (rEIA). Laboratories in 21 countries tested the panel for antibodies against MMR using their usual assay (a total of 16 different EIAs) and the results were plotted against the reference results in order to obtain equations for the standardization of national serum surveys. The RL also tested the panel by the plaque neutralization test (PNT). Large differences in qualitative results were found compared to the RL. Well-fitting standardization equations with R2⩾0·8 were obtained for almost all laboratories through regression of the quantitative results against those of the RL. When compared to PNT, the rEIA had a sensitivity of 95·3%, 92·8% and 100% and a specificity of 100%, 87·1% and 92·8% for measles, mumps and rubella, respectively. The need for standardization was highlighted by substantial inter-country differences. Standardization was successful and the selected standardization equations allowed the conversion of local serological results into common units and enabled direct comparison of seroprevalence data of the participating countries.