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High-intensity laser–plasma interactions produce a wide array of energetic particles and beams with promising applications. Unfortunately, the high repetition rate and high average power requirements for many applications are not satisfied by the lasers, optics, targets, and diagnostics currently employed. Here, we aim to address the need for high-repetition-rate targets and optics through the use of liquids. A novel nozzle assembly is used to generate high-velocity, laminar-flowing liquid microjets which are compatible with a low-vacuum environment, generate little to no debris, and exhibit precise positional and dimensional tolerances. Jets, droplets, submicron-thick sheets, and other exotic configurations are characterized with pump–probe shadowgraphy to evaluate their use as targets. To demonstrate a high-repetition-rate, consumable, liquid optical element, we present a plasma mirror created by a submicron-thick liquid sheet. This plasma mirror provides etalon-like anti-reflection properties in the low field of 0.1% and high reflectivity as a plasma, 69%, at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. Practical considerations of fluid compatibility, in-vacuum operation, and estimates of maximum repetition rate are addressed. The targets and optics presented here demonstrate a potential technique for enabling the operation of laser–plasma interactions at high repetition rates.
An outbreak of mumps within a student population in Scotland was investigated to assess the effect of previous vaccination on infection and clinical presentation, and any genotypic variation. Of the 341 cases, 79% were aged 18–24. Vaccination status was available for 278 cases of whom 84% had received at least one dose of mumps containing vaccine and 62% had received two. The complication rate was 5·3% (mainly orchitis), and 1·2% were admitted to hospital. Genetic sequencing of mumps virus isolated from cases across Scotland classified 97% of the samples as genotype G. Two distinct clusters of genotype G were identified, one circulating before the outbreak and the other thereafter, suggesting the virus that caused this outbreak was genetically different from the previously circulating virus. Whilst the poor vaccine effectiveness we found may be due to waning immunity over time, a contributing factor may be that the current mumps vaccine is less effective against some genotypes. Although the general benefits of the measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine should continue to be promoted, there may be value in reassessing the UK vaccination schedule and the current mumps component of the MMR vaccine.
Accupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) therapy has been shown in prospective studies to be effective in the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia. Those studies treated patients within 27 months from end of radiation with ALTENS delivered in the clinic using a Codetron unit. However, that unit is no longer produced and there is limited data on success of ALTENS when delivered at home.
A 50-year old man with xerostomia, 8 years post-radiation for T4N1 squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar fossa, was given ALTENS with a currently commercially available unit from Girish Surgical. He used the unit at home, 20 minutes daily for 8 weeks.
After 8 weeks of ALTENS therapy the patient saw a reduction in the Self-Reported University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale from 20 to 1.
This case report demonstrates (1) the Girish Surgical unit is effective, (2) self-administration of ALTENS in patients who cannot come to clinic regularly may be practical and (3) ALTENS can still offer durable benefit to patients even 8 years after chemoradiation therapy.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe cognitive, academic, and psychosocial outcomes after an incident demyelinating event (acquired demyelinating syndromes, ADS) in childhood and to investigate the contribution of brain lesions and confirmed MS diagnosis on outcome. Methods: Thirty-six patients with ADS (mean age=12.2 years, SD=2.7, range: 7–16 years) underwent brain MRI scans at presentation and at 6-months follow-up. T2-weighted lesions on MRI were assessed using a binary classification. At 6-months follow-up, patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation and were compared with 42 healthy controls. Results: Cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes did not differ between the patients with ADS and controls. Three of 36 patients (8.3%) were identified with cognitive impairment, as determined by performance falling ≤1.5 SD below normative values on more than four independent tests in the battery. Poor performance on a visuomotor integration task was most common, observed among 6/32 patients, but this did not differ significantly from controls. Twelve of 36 patients received a diagnosis of MS within 3 years post-ADS. Patients with MS did not differ from children with monophasic ADS in terms of cognitive performance at the 6-months follow-up. Fatigue symptoms were reported in 50% of patients, irrespective of MS diagnosis. Presence of brain lesions at onset and 6 months post-incident demyelinating event did not associate with cognitive outcome. Conclusions: Children with ADS experience a favorable short-term neurocognitive outcome, even those confirmed to have MS. Longitudinal evaluations of children with monophasic ADS and MS are required to determine the possibility of late-emerging sequelae and their time course. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1050–1060)
Fossilized Siberian mammoth remains are important indicators of environmental change in the Late Pleistocene. The NSF-Arizona AMS Laboratory radiocarbon results on amino acid separations compare well with mammoth bone collagen from the same specimens treated by HCl and dated by beta counting (the Russian Academy Geological Institute Radiocarbon Laboratory). Neither laboratory was aware of the other's dates for these comparisons. The results coincide very closely (a difference of 50–800 yr), and demonstrate that AMS dating provides a very good perspective for applications of past mammoth population studies.
Background: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke are associated with a substantial risk of subsequent stroke; however, there is uncertainty about whether such patients require admission to hospital for their initial management. We used data from a clinical stroke registry to determine the frequency and predictors of hospitalization for TIA or minor stroke across the province of Ontario, Canada. Methods: The Ontario Stroke Registry collects information on a population-based sample of all patients seen in the emergency department with acute stroke or TIA in Ontario. We identified patients with minor ischemic stroke or TIA included in the registry between April 1, 2008, and March 31, 2011, and used multivariable analyses to evaluate predictors of hospitalization. Results: Our study sample included 8540 patients with minor ischemic stroke or TIA, 47.2% of whom were admitted to hospital, with a range of 37.6% to 70.3% across Ontario’s 14 local health integration network regions. Key predictors of admission were preadmission disability, vascular risk factors, presentation with weakness, speech disturbance or prolonged/persistent symptoms, arrival by ambulance, and presentation on a weekend or during periods of emergency department overcrowding. Conclusions: More than one-half of patients with minor stroke or TIA were not admitted to the hospital, and there were wide regional variations in admission patterns. Additional work is needed to provide guidance to health care workers around when to admit such patients and to determine whether discharged patients are receiving appropriate follow-up care.
Periods of rapid growth seen during the early stages of fetal development, including cell proliferation and differentiation, are greatly influenced by the maternal environment. We demonstrate here that over-nutrition, specifically exposure to a high-fat diet in utero, programed the extent of atherosclerosis in the offspring of ApoE*3 Leiden transgenic mice. Pregnant ApoE*3 Leiden mice were fed either a control chow diet (2.8% fat, n=12) or a high-fat, moderate-cholesterol diet (MHF, 19.4% fat, n=12). Dams were fed the chow diet during the suckling period. At 28 days postnatal age wild type and ApoE*3 Leiden offspring from chow or MHF-fed mothers were fed either a control chow diet (n=37) or a diet rich in cocoa butter (15%) and cholesterol (0.25%), for 14 weeks to induce atherosclerosis (n=36). Offspring from MHF-fed mothers had 1.9-fold larger atherosclerotic lesions (P<0.001). There was no direct effect of prenatal diet on plasma triglycerides or cholesterol; however, transgenic ApoE*3 Leiden offspring displayed raised cholesterol when on an atherogenic diet compared with wild-type controls (P=0.031). Lesion size was correlated with plasma lipid parameters after adjustment for genotype, maternal diet and postnatal diet (R2=0.563, P<0.001). ApoE*3 Leiden mothers fed a MHF diet developed hypercholesterolemia (plasma cholesterol two-fold higher than in chow-fed mothers, P=0.011). The data strongly suggest that maternal hypercholesterolemia programs later susceptibility to atherosclerosis. This is consistent with previous observations in humans and animal models.
As a result of research carried out with rocket-borne grating spectrographs, the nature of the extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the Sun is now known to a short wavelength limit of 33.7 Å, the Lyman-alpha line of C VI. Most of the emission lines of wavelengths greater than 400 Å have been identified, as have those from 80 Å to 33.7 Å. Between 149 Å and 400 Å, however there are many intense emission lines whose identity has not as yet been established. Twenty or more have been proved to be from iron, since they appear in spectra obtained from high temperature plasmas into which iron has been introduced, but the stages of ionization have not yet been established. Lines from the elements most abundant in the Sun, H, He, O, N, O, Ne, Mg, Al, Si, S and Fe, in most of the stages of ionization requiring 500 eV or less for production have been found. The outstanding exceptions are the lines in the fluorine and neon sequences.
Spectroheliograms, photographed with normal incidence spectrographs, show that the emission lines Fe XV 284 Å, Fe XVI 335, 361 Å, originate principally from active regions, in contrast to He II 304 Å, which is emitted with great intensity from the disc also. Continuum emission, in the wavelength range 170–300 Å, has been recorded from intense centers of activity.
A randomized controlled trial of three school-based programs and a no-intervention control group was conducted to evaluate their efficacy in reducing eating disorder and obesity risk factors.
A total of 1316 grade 7 and 8 girls and boys (mean age = 13.21 years) across three Australian states were randomly allocated to: Media Smart; Life Smart; the Helping, Encouraging, Listening and Protecting Peers (HELPP) initiative; or control (usual school class). Risk factors were measured at baseline, post-program (5 weeks later), and at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups.
Media Smart girls had half the rate of onset of clinically significant concerns about shape and weight than control girls at the 12-month follow-up. Media Smart and HELPP girls reported significantly lower weight and shape concern than Life Smart girls at the 12-month follow-up. Media Smart and control girls scored significantly lower than HELPP girls on eating concerns and perceived pressure at the 6-month follow-up. Media Smart and HELPP boys experienced significant benefit on media internalization compared with control boys and these were sustained at the 12-month follow-up in Media Smart boys. A group × time effect found that Media Smart participants reported more physical activity than control and HELPP participants at the 6-month follow-up, while a main effect for group found Media Smart participants reported less screen time than controls.
Media Smart was the only program to show benefit on both disordered eating and obesity risk factors. Whilst further investigations are indicated, this study suggests that this program is a promising approach to reducing risk factors for both problems.
Praseodymium doped CaFe2As2 (122 structure) and CaFeAs2 (112 structure) are characterized by modulated Low Magnetic Field Microwave Absorption (LFMA) spectroscopy. In both (Pr,Ca)122 and (Pr,Ca)112 structures, a strong hysteretic LFMA is found, with a TcH of ∼30 K and ∼26 K, respectively. However, in (Pr,Ca)122, measurements also show an unusual Narrow Peak (NP) LFMA signal appearing at higher temperatures, above the lower TcH superconducting state until a TcNP of 49 K. We associate this NP LFMA with interfacial superconductivity, which has been found previously by highly anisotropic magnetization measurements. Furthermore, the absence of NP in (Pr,Ca)112 correlates with the absence of an interfacial phase. These results give useful information about the microwave signature of interfacial superconductivity present in the (Pr,Ca)122 system, and may form a roadmap towards a stabilized high temperature superconducting phase in pnictides.
We investigated an outbreak of 396 Salmonella enterica serotype I 4,5,12:i:- infections to determine the source. After 7 weeks of extensive hypothesis-generation interviews, no refined hypothesis was formed. Nevertheless, a case-control study was initiated. Subsequently, an iterative hypothesis-generation approach used by a single interviewing team identified brand A not-ready-to-eat frozen pot pies as a likely vehicle. The case-control study, modified to assess this new hypothesis, along with product testing indicated that the turkey variety of pot pies was responsible. Review of product labels identified inconsistent language regarding preparation, and the cooking instructions included undefined microwave wattage categories. Surveys found that most patients did not follow the product's cooking instructions and did not know their oven's wattage. The manufacturer voluntarily recalled pot pies and improved the product's cooking instructions. This investigation highlights the value of careful hypothesis-generation and the risks posed by frozen not-ready-to-eat microwavable foods.
The length-scales at which thermal transport crosses from the diffusive to ballistic regime are of much interest particularly in the design and improvement of nano-structured materials. In this work, we demonstrate that the departure from diffusive transport has been observed in Si and GaAs using an optical transient thermal grating technique where an arbitrary, experimentally set length scale can be imposed on a material. In a transient thermal grating experiment, crossed laser pulses interfere creating a well-defined periodic absorption and temperature profile. A probe beam is diffracted from this transient grating and length-scale dependent thermal transport properties can be determined from the signal decay. As the length scale is decreased to lengths shorter than the mean free paths of heat carrying phonons, quasi-ballistic heat transport effects become apparent allowing us to map out length scales and mean free paths relevant to nondiffusive thermal transport in Si and GaAs.
Under- and over-nutrition during gestation may influence fetal hypothalamic development resulting in individuals predisposed to adverse health effects. This study examined fetuses from obese and control ewes to determine whether dam obesity alters hypothalamic expression of fetal appetite regulatory genes. A second objective was to contrast the expression of appetite regulatory genes in ewes that become the most obese to those that remained in moderate body condition on the same energy-rich diet. Multiparous, western white-faced ewes were weighed and individually fed 100% (control) or 150% (obese) of National Research Council requirements from day 60 before mating until day 75 of gestation. At day 75 of gestation, fetuses were collected and weighed. Hypothalamic tissue from fetal lambs and dams was collected and frozen for mRNA extraction. Dam obesity (P ⩾ 0.16), fetal sex (P ⩾ 0.44) or their interaction (P ⩾ 0.42) did not affect the relative expression of fetal hypothalamic regulators of appetite, including neuropeptide Y, agouti-related protein, pro-opiomelanocortin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and receptors for leptin. Maternal obesity at day 75 of gestation in ewes did not affect developmental mechanisms responsible for the expression of fetal appetite regulatory genes and would not be expected to predispose offspring to adult-onset obesity through disrupted appetite regulation at this developmental time point. In the ewe, appetite regulatory genes did not differ (P > 0.20) with ewe adiposity; however, expression of estrogen receptor α, but not β (P = 0.37), in the medial basal hypothalamus was greater (P = 0.04) in obese than in control ewes.
This paper describes a compact production line microwave (approx. 10 GHZ) active layer sheet resistivity carrier mobility measurement instrument based on the invention from IBM Watson Labs by Dr. Norman Bras lau. 
The Measurement techniques and compound semiconductor wafer measurements will be described.
This paper describes a useful measuring technique enabling Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy [DLTS] on compound semi-conductors. We will report on the methodology of DLTS measurements using newly available software for Miller Feedback Profilers. This method has the advantages of using the constant depth capabilities of the profiler. The combination instrument offers flexibility in limited clean room space.