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It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
We have investigated the nonthermal bioplasma sources and their characteristics as well as their interactions with biological cells. The electron temperature and plasma density are measured to be about 1.5 eV and 3×1012 cm-3 , respectively, for the direct palsma jet under Ar gas flow. The hydroxyl radical density has also been investigated and measured to be maximum value of about 3 ×1015 cm-3 and 8 ×1014 cm-3 in the direct plasma jet and dielectric barrier discharge bioplasma, respectively, by the ultraviolet optical absorption spectroscopy. Herein, we have investigated the basic interactions of these nonthermal bioplasma with the living organisms in morphological and biomolecular aspects. We found that the secondary electron emision coefficient of the biological surface has been drastically increased by atmospheric bioplasma, which indicates the biological surface to be oxidized especially by the hydroxyl (OH) radical species. In order to elucidate the basic mechanisms for the cell shrinking and apoptosis leading to a cell death by the nonthermal bioplasma, the cell membrane potential has been estimated based on the ROS density as well as cell capacitances. It is also found that the molecular electron energy band structure in the biological cells have been shifted closer toward the vacuum surface and accordingly their central energy of molecular band becomes small by the nonthermal bioplasma due to cell oxidation caused by OH radicals.
Emission spectroscopy analysis was used to study the microplasma phenomena. The microplasma discharge in Ar, N2/Ar and O2/Ar was analyzed in the discharge gap area and spatial distribution of active species was measured also outside the electrodes. Spatial and temporal distribution showed the propagation of light emission from anode towards cathode within a time period of 190 ns. The measurement of OH peak at 308.9 nm proved the existence of this excited species 1 mm outside the electrodes area.
A thin film laminated high density multilayer wiring board was developed using electroless copper plating technology. The basic steps in the fabrication process are: laminating the high heat resistant polymer film, forming via holes by plasma etching and filling them by electroless copper metallization. The 25 μm diameter via holes can be completely filled with copper using the selective electroless plating method. This paper describes the fabrication process, focusing particularly on electroless copper plating.
We report on calculations and experiments with strong shocks diffracting over rigid
ramps in argon. The numerical results were obtained by integrating the conservation
equations that included the Navier–Stokes equations. The results predict that if the
ramp angle θ is less than the angle θe that corresponds to the detachment of a
shock, θ < θe, then the onset of Mach reflection (MR) will be delayed by the initial
appearance of a precursor regular reflection (PRR). The PRR is subsequently swept
away by an overtaking corner signal (cs) that forces the eruption of the MR which
then rapidly evolves into a self-similar state. An objective was to make an experimental
test of the predictions. These were confirmed by twice photographing the diffracting
shock as it travelled along the ramp. We could get a PRR with the first exposure
and an MR with the second. According to the von Neumann perfect gas theory,
a PRR does not exist when θ < θe. A viscous length scale
xint is a measure of the
position on the ramp where the dynamic transition PRR → MR takes place. It is
significantly larger in the experiments than in the calculations. This is attributed to
the fact that fluctuations from turbulence and surface roughness were not modelled
in the calculations. It was found that xint
→ ∞ as θ → θe. Experiments were done to find out how
xint depended on the initial shock tube pressure p0. The dependence was
strong but could be greatly reduced by forming a Reynolds number based on xint.
Finally by definition, regular reflection (RR) never interacts with a boundary layer,
while PRR always interacts; so they are different phenomena.
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