To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The diurnal feeding patterns of dairy cows affects the 24 h robot utilisation of pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS). A decline in robot utilisation between 2400 and 0600 h currently occurs in pasture-based AMS, as cow feeding activity is greatly reduced during this time. Here, we investigate the effect of a temporal variation in feed quality and quantity on cow feeding behaviour between 2400 and 0600 h as a potential tool to increase voluntary cow trafficking in an AMS at night. The day was allocated into four equal feeding periods (0600 to 1200, 1200 to 1800, 1800 to 2400 and 2400 to 0600 h). Lucerne hay cubes (CP = 19.1%, water soluble carbohydrate = 3.8%) and oat, ryegrass and clover hay cubes with 20% molasses (CP = 11.8%, water soluble carbohydrate = 10.7%) were offered as the ‘standard’ and ‘preferred’ (preference determined previously) feed types, respectively. The four treatments were (1) standard feed offered ad libitum (AL) throughout 24 h; (2) as per AL, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (AL + P); (3) standard feed offered at a restricted rate, with quantity varying between each feeding period (20:10:30:60%, respectively) as a proportion of the (previously) measured daily ad libitum intake (VA); (4) as per VA, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (VA + P). Eight non-lactating dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. During each experimental period, treatment cows were fed for 7 days, including 3 days habituation and 4 days data collection. Total daily intake was approximately 8% greater (P < 0.001) for the AL and AL + P treatments (23.1 and 22.9 kg DM/cow) as compared with the VA and VA + P treatments (21.6 and 20.9 kg DM/cow). The AL + P and VA treatments had 21% and 90% greater (P < 0.001) dry matter intake (DMI) between 2400 and 0600 h, respectively, compared with the AL treatment. In contrast, the VA + P treatment had similar DMI to the VA treatment. Our experiment shows ability to increase cow feeding activity at night by varying feed type and quantity, though it is possible that a penalty to total DMI may occur using VA. Further research is required to determine if the implementation of variable feed allocation on pasture-based AMS farms is likely to improve milking robot utilisation by increasing cow feeding activity at night.
Despite the magnitude and protracted nature of the Rohingya refugee situation, there is limited information on the culture, mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of this group. This paper, drawing on a report commissioned by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), aims to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature on mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of Rohingya refugees, including an examination of associated cultural factors. The ultimate objective is to assist humanitarian actors and agencies in providing culturally relevant Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) for Rohingya refugees displaced to Bangladesh and other neighbouring countries.
We conducted a systematic search across multiple sources of information with reference to the contextual, social, economic, cultural, mental health and health-related factors amongst Rohingya refugees living in the Asia-Pacific and other regions. The search covered online databases of diverse disciplines (e.g. medicine, psychology, anthropology), grey literature, as well as unpublished reports from non-profit organisations and United Nations agencies published until 2018.
The legacy of prolonged exposure to conflict and persecution compounded by protracted conditions of deprivations and displacement is likely to increase the refugees' vulnerability to wide array of mental health problems including posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation. High rates of sexual and gender-based violence, lack of privacy and safe spaces and limited access to integrated psychosocial and mental health support remain issues of concern within the emergency operation in Bangladesh. Another challenge is the limited understanding amongst the MHPSS personnel in Bangladesh and elsewhere of the language, culture and help-seeking behaviour of Rohingya refugees. While the Rohingya language has a considerable vocabulary for emotional and behavioural problems, there is limited correspondence between these Rohingya terms and western concepts of mental disorders. This hampers the provision of culturally sensitive and contextually relevant MHPSS services to these refugees.
The knowledge about the culture, context, migration history, idioms of distress, help-seeking behaviour and traditional healing methods, obtained from diverse sources can be applied in the design and delivery of culturally appropriate interventions. Attention to past exposure to traumatic events and losses need to be paired with attention for ongoing stressors and issues related to worries about the future. It is important to design MHPSS interventions in ways that mobilise the individual and collective strengths of Rohingya refugees and build on their resilience.
A compact planar ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna with WiMAX and WLAN notched band is presented in this paper. The presented antenna consists of a rectangular patch and slotted partial ground plane and fed by a microstrip feed line. The volumetric size of the antenna is 30 mm × 22 mm × 1.6 mm. Method of moment-based simulation technology is used to simulate and analyze the characteristics of the antenna. To generate two notch bands at WiMAX and WLAN, a pair of parasitic resonator is placed beneath the radiating patch. The presented antenna achieves an operating band (VSWR ≤2) ranging from 2.98 to 12 GHz with an average gain of 3.95 dBi along with considerable efficiency and symmetric radiation patterns. Moreover, the antenna exhibits two notch bands at 3.5 and 5.45 GHz and is able to avoid possible interference with pre-existing narrow band services. The proposed antenna is low cost and low profile and is modeled to be used as a transceiver in UWB communication applications.
This sensitivity study applies the offline Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) version 3.6 to simulate snowpack evolution in idealized topography using observations at Likely, British Columbia, Canada over 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2009. A strategy for a subgrid-scale snow (SSS) parameterization is developed to incorporate two key features: ten elevation bands at 100 m intervals to capture air temperature lapse rates, and five slope angles on four aspects to resolve solar radiation impacts on the evolution of snow depth and SWE. Simulations reveal strong elevational dependencies of snow depth and SWE when adjusting temperatures using a moist adiabatic lapse rate with elevation, with 26% peak SWE differences between that at the average elevation versus the mean of the remainder of the elevation bands. Differences in peak SWE on north- and south-facing slopes increase from 3.0 mm at 10° slope to 17.9 mm at 50° slope. When applied to elevation, slope and aspect combinations derived from a high-resolution digital elevation model, elevation dominates the control of peak SWE values. Inclusion of the range of SSS effects into a regional climate model will improve snowpack and hydrological simulations of western North America's snow-dominated, mountainous watersheds.
Hydrogenated diamond like Carbon (H-DLC) is a promising lubricious coating that attracted a great deal of interest in recent years mainly because of its outstanding tribological properties. In this study, the nano-mechanical and -tribological properties of a range of H-DLC films were investigated. Specifically, four kinds of H-DLC coatings were produced on Si substrates in pure acetylene, pure methane, 25% methane + 75% hydrogen, 50% methane + 50% hydrogen discharge plasmas using a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) system. Nano indentation was performed to measure the mechanical properties such as hardness and young's modulus and nanoscartching was performed to investigate the frictional behavior and wear mechanism of the H-DLC samples in open air. Moreover, Vickers indentation method was utilized to assess the fracture toughness of the samples. The results revealed that there is a strong correlation between the mechanical properties (hardness, young's modulus, fracture toughness) and the friction coefficient of DLC coatings and the source gas chemistry. Lower hydrogen to carbon ratio in source gas leads to higher hardness, young's modulus, fracture toughness and lower friction coefficient. Furthermore, lower wear volume of the coated materials was observed when the friction coefficient was lower. It was also confirmed that lower hydrogen content of the DLC coating leads to higher wear resistance under nanoscratch conditions.
We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 466 underweight and 446 normal-weight children aged 6–24 months living in the urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh to determine the association between vitamin D and other micronutrient status with upper respiratory tract infection (URI) and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Incidence rate ratios of URI and ALRI were estimated using multivariable generalized estimating equations. Our results indicate that underweight children with insufficient and deficient vitamin D status were associated with 20% and 23–25% reduced risk of URI, respectively, compared to children with sufficient status. Underweight children, those with serum retinol deficiency were at 1·8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·4–2·4] times higher risk of ALRI than those with retinol sufficiency. In normal-weight children there were no significant differences between different vitamin D status and the incidence of URI and ALRI. However, normal-weight children with zinc insufficiency and those that were serum retinol deficient had 1·2 (95% CI 1·0–1·5) times higher risk of URI and 1·9 (95% CI 1·4–2·6) times higher risk of ALRI, respectively. Thus, our results should encourage efforts to increase the intake of retinol-enriched food or supplementation in this population. However, the mechanisms through which vitamin D exerts beneficial effects on the incidence of childhood respiratory tract infection still needs further research.
A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Bangladesh with the sampling of 514 Black Bengal goats on smallholdings to determine the presence of sorbitol non-fermenting (SNF) Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Swab samples collected from the recto-anal junction were plated onto cefixime and potassium tellurite added sorbitol MacConkey (CT-SMAC) agar, a selective medium for STEC O157 serogroup, where this serogroup and other SNF STEC produce colourless colonies. The SNF E. coli (SNF EC) isolates obtained from the survey were investigated by PCR for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing genes, stx1 and stx2, and two other virulence genes, eae and hlyA that code for adherence factor (intimin protein) and pore-forming cytolysin, respectively. The SNF EC isolates were also assessed for the presence of the rfbO157 gene to verify their identity to O157 serogroup. The results revealed that the proportions of goats carrying SNF EC isolates and stx1 and stx2 genes were 6·2% (32/514) [95% confidence interval (CI) 4·4–8·7)], 1·2% (95% CI 0·5–2·6) and 1·2% (95% CI 0·5–2·6), respectively. All the SNF STEC tested negative for rfbO157, hlyA and eae genes. The risk for transmission of STEC from Black Bengal goats to humans is low.
Overweight and obese individuals have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome because of subsequent chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, which the antioxidant nutrient lycopene can reduce. However, studies indicate that different BMI statuses can alter the positive effects of lycopene. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how BMI influences the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome. The tertile rank method was used to divide 13 196 participants, aged 20 years and older, into three groups according to serum concentrations of lycopene. The associations between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome were analysed separately for normal-weight, overweight and obese participants. Overall, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the first tertile group (OR 38·6 %; 95 % CI 36·9, 40·3) compared with the second tertile group (OR 29·3 %; 95 % CI 27·5, 31·1) and the third tertile group (OR 26·6 %; 95 % CI 24·9, 28·3). However, the associations between lycopene and the metabolic syndrome were only significant for normal-weight and overweight participants (P<0·05), but not for obese participants (P>0·05), even after adjusting for possible confounding variables. In conclusion, BMI appears to strongly influence the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome.
Cholera is an important public health problem in Bangladesh. Interventions to prevent cholera depend on their cost-effectiveness which in turn depends on cholera incidence. Hospital-based diarrhoeal disease surveillance has been ongoing in six Bangladeshi hospitals where a systematic proportion of patients admitted with diarrhoea were enrolled and tested for Vibrio cholerae. However, incidence calculation using only hospital data underestimates the real disease burden because many ill persons seek treatment elsewhere. We conducted a healthcare utilization survey in the catchment areas of surveillance hospitals to estimate the proportion of severe diarrhoeal cases that were admitted to surveillance hospitals and estimated the population-based incidence of severe diarrhoea due to V. cholerae by combining both hospital surveillance and catchment area survey data. The estimated incidence of severe diarrhoea due to cholera ranged from 0·3 to 4·9/1000 population in the catchment area of surveillance hospitals. In children aged <5 years, incidence ranged from 1·0 to 11·0/1000 children. Diarrhoeal deaths were most common in the Chhatak Hospital's catchment area (18·5/100 000 population). This study provides a credible estimate of the incidence of severe diarrhoea due to cholera in Bangladesh, which can be used to assess the cost-effectiveness of cholera prevention activities.
We sought to examine the factors associated with bacteraemia and their outcome in children with pneumonia and severe acute malnutrition (SAM). All SAM children of either sex, aged 0–59 months, admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh with radiologically confirmed pneumonia from April 2011 to July 2012 were enrolled (n = 405). Comparison was made between pneumonic SAM children with (cases = 18), and without (controls = 387) bacteraemia. The death rate was significantly higher in cases than controls (28% vs. 8%, P < 0·01). In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, the SAM children with pneumonia and bacteraemia more often had a history of lack of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination (odds ratio 7·39, 95% confidence interval 1·67–32·73, P < 0·01). The results indicate the importance of continuation of BCG vaccination which may provide benefit beyond its primary purpose.
The optical properties and electronic structure of AlPO4, SiO2, Type I collagen, and DNA were examined to gain insight into the van der Waals-London dispersion behavior of these materials. Interband optical properties of AlPO4 and SiO2 were derived from vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry, and showed a strong dependence on the crystals’ constituent tetrahedral units, with strong implications for the role of phosphate groups in biological materials. The UV-Vis decadic molar absorption of four DNA oligonucleotides was measured, and showed a strong dependence on composition and stacking sequence. A film of Type I collagen was studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry, and showed a characteristic shoulder in the fundamental absorption edge at 6.05 eV. Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory corroborated the experimental results and provided further insights into the electronic structures, interband transitions and vdW-Ld interaction potentials for these materials.
We investigated faecal samples collected from the rectum of 518 cattle on 371 randomly selected smallholdings in Bangladesh for the presence of sorbitol non-fermenting (SN-F) shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The SN-F isolates were tested for the presence of rfb O157, stx1, stx2, eae and hlyA genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seven SN-F isolates lacking these genes were profiled by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to verify their clonality. SN-F E. coli was identified in 44 [8·5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6·4–11·2] samples; of these, 28 (5·4%, 95% CI 3·8–7·7) had shiga toxin-producing strains, although only two carried the rfb O157 gene. Thirteen isolates carried the hlyA gene while 18 harboured the eae gene. Based on PFGE, six pulsotypes were observed among the seven isolates that had no virulence genes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on shiga toxin-producing E. coli from direct rectal faecal samples of cattle on smallholdings.
Flexible devices utilizing crystalline semiconductor nano or microstructures materials are attractive for many applications. However, these materials are fabricated or grown in unusable forms for flexible systems due to their rigid crystalline mother substrates. We demonstrate a transfer printing technique for transferring vertical arrays of one-dimensional (1D) materials from mother substrates to flexible substrates with subsequent device fabrication steps to create flexible devices from these arrays. The transfer printing technique is based on vertical embossing of arrays of 1D materials into thermoplastic (Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)) transfer layers, while the device fabrication steps rely on encapsulation with insulating polymers and contact deposition. We investigated the use of flexible insulating layers like polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyurethane (PU) which are shown to be effective for encapsulation and contact isolation. Representative flexible resistive devices were created from these transferred arrays and insulating layers which showed a reversible tactile characteristic. Electronic characterization and flexibility testing was carried out to show the potential of these methods for enabling large-scale integrations of nano and microstructures into vertical and flexible packages.
Escherichia coli, a prominent waterborne pathogen, causes a variety of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal infections that depend on virulence determinants. To monitor natural aquatic systems for virulence-associated genes of E. coli, multiplex PCR was used in a survey covering 46 major natural water bodies in Bangladesh. DNA was extracted directly from water samples as well as from pre-enriched and enriched cultures during three successive seasons and assessed for E. coli virulotype distribution. From the five virulotypes, genes from the enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) virulotypes were detected consistently, but genes from the enteroinvasive (EIEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) virulotypes were traced only occasionally. ETEC was the most prevalent virulotype, followed by EPEC. However, EIEC and EAEC virulotypes could not be detected in winter or the rainy season, respectively. Specific regional distribution patterns of different E. coli virulotypes and their temporal fluctuations were identified. These observations may assist with assessing seasonal risk and identifying vulnerable areas of the country prone to E. coli-associated outbreaks.
Level set methods have been used for Solid phase epitaxial regrowth, etching and deposition.This study is to model the growth of nickel silicide accurately using the level set method. NiSi growth has been observed to follow a linear-parabolic law which takes into account both diffusion and interfacial reaction. This linear-parabolic system is very similar to the Deal and Grove model of SiO2 growth. This model uses similar diffusion transport and reaction rate equations. This simulation models the growth of silicide coupling diffusion solutions to level-set techniques. Dual level sets have been used for top and bottom interface propagation of silicide; velocities were estimated based on nickel concentrations at both interfaces as well as diffusivity and reaction rate of nickel. This is important to predict precise shape of silicide that will allow current crowding and field focusing effects to be modeled in transport out of the intrinsic device into the contacting layers. These simulation models can be used for latest technology nodes at 45, 32, 22nm and special devices such as FinFET’s etc. The level set method is successfully implemented and verified in Florida Object Oriented Process Simulator and growth shapes matches well with the literature Transmission Electron Microscopy data.
We describe an experiment to interface and characterize silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) aggregates that are self-assembled and plastically deformable on a thin gold (Au) film deposited on glass substrate. The electrical characterization is done using an electrical nanoprobe attached to a nano-manipulator inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Electrical current-voltage (I-V) measurements are made between the electrical nanoprobe in contact with the nanoparticle and the Au film. The Ag nanoparticles have diameters ranging between ~200-800nm and are self-assembled on a thiolated 100nm Au film. Application of a contact force via the nanoprobe even after substantial particle deformation reveals initially a small non-linear current. Upon current annealing through Joule heating, significant improvement in the electrical contact at the AgNP/substrate interface was observed. This is most likely based on bonding of the AgNPs to the Au film after passage of a high current. The need for such an annealing/sintering step will be critical in forming good ohmic contacts at ambient conditions during transfer printing of semiconductor micro/nanopillars.
We report an experimental investigation on employing Ag nanoparticles to provide electrical and mechanical contacts between transfer-printed semiconductor devices in the shape of micro/nano- wires and pillars. The Ag nanoparticles have diameters ranging between 200-800nm and are assembled on a 200nm Au film deposited on glass substrates. With a customized tool, an ensemble of silicon pillars were brought into contact with the silver (Ag) nanoparticles (AgNPs) by precisely controlling the displacement and applied force (pressure). Current-voltage measurements were done at force resolution of ~0.2N. The test method aims to illuminate the pillar-particle contact mechanism using the nanoparticles as conductive fillers for the next generation of high performance heteroepitaxial device transfer-printing applications.
In this work we have studied the importance of thermal effects on the structural and transport properties of Ag atomic-size nanowires (NWs) generated by mechanical stretching. Our study involve time-resolved atomic high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging and quantum conductance measurement using an ultra-high-vacuum mechanically controllable break junction combined with quantum transport calculations. We have observed drastic changes in conductance and structural properties of Ag NWs generated at different temperatures (150 and 300 K). By combining electron microscopy images, electronic transport measurements and theoretical modeling, we have been able to establish a consistent correlation between the conductance and structural properties of Ag NWs. In particular, our study has revealed the formation of metastable rectangular rod-like Ag wires along the  crystallographic direction.
Si nanowires (NWs) have been fabricated by Ag-assisted electroless etching technique using an HF/AgNO3 aqueous solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements have revealed that a highly dense array of Si NWs with length of ∼1.4 μm is formed over the surface of both n-type and p-type Si (100) substrates. Following the fabrication of Si NWs, electron-beam evaporated p-type AgGa0.5In0.5Se2 thin film was deposited on the n-type Si NWs to form p-n heterojunction solar cells. The fabricated solar cells yield a 5.50% power conversion efficiency under AM (1.5) illumination.
Unprecedented high rates of anthrax outbreaks have been observed recently in cattle and humans in Bangladesh, with 607 human cases in 2010. By enrolling 15 case and 15 control cattle smallholdings in the spatial zone in July–September 2010, we conducted a case-control study, data of which were analysed by matched-pair analysis and multivariable conditional logistic regression. Feeding animals with uprooted and unwashed grass [odds ratio (OR) 41·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·7–458·8, P=0·003], and feeding water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) (OR 22·2, 95% CI 1·2–418·7, P=0·039) were independent risk factors for anthrax in cattle.